• Title, Summary, Keyword: Potassium

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Effect of Exogenous Potassium on the Reduction in Tar, Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Deliveries in the Mainstream smoke of Cigarettes (가리염 첨가가 궐련 주류연중 타르, 니코틴, 일산화탄소 이행량에 미치는 영향)

  • 안기영;김천석
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.62-67
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    • 1995
  • Deliveries of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide in mainstream smoke decreased with increment of exogenous potassium content of tobacco. Potassium malate was more effective than potassium nitrate, potassium carbonate, potassium citrate and potassium oxalate for the reduction of carbon monoxide, but potassium nitrate was more effective than potassium palate, potassium carbonat, potassium citrate and potassium oxalate for the reduction of carbon in the case of nicotine. Puff count and burning rate were slightly changed with added potassium salts.

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Strategies for Improving Potassium Use Efficiency in Plants

  • Shin, Ryoung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.575-584
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    • 2014
  • Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation in planta, 3) increasing mobility of potassium in soil, and 4) molecular breeding new varieties with greater potassium efficiency through marker assisted selection which will require identification and utilization of potassium associated quantitative trait loci.

Systemic effects of multidose hypothermic potassium cardioplegia: an experimental study in six dogs (냉혈 K 심정지액의 반복사용시 전신적인 영향동물실험 6)

  • 기노석
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.587-592
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    • 1984
  • Potassium cardioplegia for myocardial preservation is being used extensively in open heart surgery. This study was designed to investigate the change in serum and urine potassium before, during, after the administration of cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution containing 28-30 mEq/L [28.6\ulcorner.56 mEq/L] of potassium chloride in 6 dogs. Total potassium dose used in the study was 14.9\ulcorner.89 mEq/L [1.2 mEq/Kg]. Mean potassium level in serum was within normal limits. Urinary excretion of potassium decreased during bypass but increased after bypass and eventually exceeded the amount of potassium infused as cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution. While cold blood potassium cardioplegia is a safe and efficient method of myocardial protection, postoperative potassium level must be observed carefully in order to detect obligatory potassium excretion following open heart surgery.

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A Study on the determination of the potassium supplying power of paddy soils by $^{40}K$ application ($^{40}K$을 이용(利用)한 답토양(畓土壤)의 가리(加里) 공급력(供給力) 측정법 연구(測定法 硏究))

  • Kim, Tai-Soon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.143-162
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    • 1972
  • Based on the concentration of $^{40}K$ naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium, a method for the determination of total potassium in soils and plants was developed. The method was extended to evaluate the potassium supplying power of soils by taking the ratio of exchangeable potassium to total potassium $(K_{ex}/K_t)$, termed the potassium buffering capacity. Using this as index, it was observed that the release of potassium from soil fellows the from order reaction. A linear relationship was found between the potassium buffering capacity and the release constant of potassium or mica content of the clay. Similarly the potassium buffering capacity was also closely correlated with total uptake of potassium by rice plant. Hence it is concluded that the method for determining of the potassium buffering capacity could be veil applied to characterize the potassium availability of soils. The method for the determination of potassium is characterized by (1) The efficient measurement of the weak beta activity emissions from the samples, (2) identification of $^{40}K$, (3) calculation of total potassium content using the proportional constant of $^{40}K$ of samples to that of the standard. Difference in the potassium supplying power of soils due to soil types was also evaluated with the use of this technique. The degree of the potassium supplying power was in the order of soil types as red-yellow podzolic and lateric soils, basaltic materials(Rvd)> low-humic gley and alluvial soils, alluvial plains and food plains(Apa)> low-humic gley soils, nearly level to sloping local alluvial plains and slopes(Afb)> low-humic gley and alluvial soils, fluvio-marine plains (Fma).

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Characteristics of Potassium Channel in the Isolated Rat Detrusor Muscle (흰쥐 배뇨근에 존재하는 potassium 통로의 특성)

  • Jang, Myeong-Soo;Choi, Eun-Me;Ha, Jeoung-Hee;Lee, Kwang-Youn;Kim, Won-Joon
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.363-374
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics or the potassium channels existing in the rat urinary bladders. Smooth muscle strips of rat detrusor urinae were examined by isometric myography. Relaxation responses of detrusor muscle strips to the three potassium channel openers pinacidil, a cyanoguanidine derivative, BRL 38227, a benzopyran derivative and RP 52891, a tertrahydrothiopyran derivative were examined. The potassium channel openers reduced the basal tone, and the rank order of potency was RP 52891>pincidil>BRL 38227. Procaine, an inhibitor of the voltage-sensitive potassium channel tended to increase the basal tone, but it did not affect the relaxant effects of the calcium-activated potassium channel opener did not antagonize the relaxant effects, but it reduced the Emax of RP 52891 and BRL 38227. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, antagonized the relaxant effects of pinacidil, RP 52891 and BRL 38227 reducing the Emax of RP 52891 and BRl 38227. Galanin which inhibits secretion of insulin through opening the ATP-sensitive potassium channels in pancreatic ${\beta}$-cells rather increased the basal tone of the isolated detrusor strips. These results suggest that the urinary bladder of the rat has mainly the ATP-sensitive, glibenclamide sensitive potassium channel, which is a different type from that in the pancreatic ${\beta}$-islet cells..

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Studies on the Nutritional Physiology of Soybean 6. Variatio of Potassium at the Various Position of Leaf on the Main Stem (대두의 영양생리학적 연구 6. 엽위별 가리의 변이)

  • 이순희
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 1974
  • The effect of potassium metabolism on the soybean leaves was studied with comparison of other elements during the successive growing period. The results were as follows; 1. The percentage of potassium content showed remarkable increase not only in the first compound leaf at a stage which was growing vigorously and producing new leaves, but also in the fifth compound leaf at a stage which was taking a active metabolism of nitrogen and carbohydrate but not producing new leaves. However, the percentage of potassium content was decreased in the second compound leaf than in the first one. Such a result could be regarded as a potassium removal from mature leaves into immature and flowing out from stoma through respiration. During the pod-development the percentage of potassium content in the soybean leaf was decreased. 2. If nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were added excessively in the nutrient solution, the percentage of potassium content in the soybean leaf had increased. The effects of these elements showed a remakable increase in the excessive plot of nitrogen than in that of phosphorus. At early stage the redtarded effect of phosphorus on the growth of soybean could be covered by potassium, however, at late stage it could not. The growth of soybean plant was much more inhibited by potassium, compared with nitrogen and phosphorus. New leaves could not be produced in the potassium deficient soybean plant after the third compound leaf. The normal growth of soybean plant could not be observed if only one element was excessively added to the culture solution, compared with the deficiency of other two elements.

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STUDIES ON POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS IN BROILER CHICKS 2. EFFECT OF POTASSIUM-LYSINE INTERRELATIONSHIPS ON BLOOD PARAMETER, SERUM AND BONE COMPOSITION

  • Shin, H.Y.;Han, I.K.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.145-150
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    • 1992
  • To determine the effect of dietary potassium and lysine levels on blood parameters, serum and bone composition, 360 male broiler chicks of 3 days of age were used in a completely randomized $3{\times}3$ factorial experiment for 6 weeks. Experimental diets contained three supplemented levels of dietary potassium (0.3, 0.6 and 1.2%) and three supplemented levels of dietary lysine (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4%). Dietary levels of potassium and lysine did not influence blood pH, $pCO_2$, $pO_2$, $HCO_3$ and total $CO_2$ and interaction between potassium and lysine was not shown (p > 0.05). Serum lysine and arginine contents were significantly different by the levels of dietary lysine (p < 0.05). Lysine-arginine antagonism was observed in high lysine diet. But increasing dietary potassium did not alleviated the lysine-arginine antagonism. Serum sodium, potassium and chloride were not affected by dietary potassium and lysine levels (p > 0.05). Femur weight, length and P contents were affected by the levels of dietary lysine (p < 0.01). But no difference was observed in femur ash and Ca contents (p > 0.05). Interaction between potassium and lysine was shown in ash and P contents (p < 0.01).

Studies of Serum and Urine Potassium Changes During, and after Extracorporeal Circulation in open heart Surgery (체외순환 전후 혈중및 소변에서의 potassium 변화에 관한 관찰)

  • Kim, Yun;Cho, Bum-Koo;Hong, Seung-Nok
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.296-302
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    • 1978
  • This experiment was carried out to study the change of potassium before, during, and after extracorporeal circulation. Serum potassium and urinary potassium excretion were examined in 7 cases of patient who were taken open heart surgery using extracorporeal circulation. All of 7 cases were administered 10-25mEq of KC1 during extracorporeal circulation. Serum potassium was not changed significantly during, and after operation, but urinary potassium excretion was declined during extracorporeal circulation and tend to rise after extracorporeal circulation. This result showed no remarkable relation of serum potassium and urinary potassium excretion.

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Clinical use of cold blood potassium cardioplegia (냉혈 K 심정지액의 임상적 이용)

  • Oh, Bong-Suc;Kim, Sang-Hyung;Lee, Dong-Joon
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 1982
  • Cold blood potassium cardioplegia, by two types of the infusion systems, was used in 45 patients who were undergone the open cardiac operation. Method A [in 25 patients] was the syringe infusion system and method B [in 20 patients] was the pump infusion system. Cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution was used less amount on method B than method A. Serum potassium was often increased significantly on method A as a result of excessive infusion of cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution. But method B, excessive infusion of cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution was prevented by reperfusion of the previous infused cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution through the recirculation system. Alteration of infused rate and concentration of potassium in cold blood potassium cardioplegic solution during infusion [which might be suggested on the method A] could be controlled on method B.

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Effect of Ginseng Components on the Potassium Depleted Cardiomyopathic Rats and it's Mechanism of Action

  • Lee, Jong-Wook;Kim, Nak-Doo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 1985
  • The effect of ginseng components on the potassium depleted cardiomyopathic rat heart was investigated. In the perfused heart experiment using Langendorff apparatus, the deterioration rate of contriactile force of potassium depleted rat heart (low potassium diet group) was faster than that of normal rat heart and ginseng components showed the ability to slow the deterioration rate of potassium depleted hearts. Both sialic acid contents in carcolemmal ghost and sialyltransferase activity of 40,000 * g subcellular fraction prepared from cardiac ventricular tissue of low potassium diet group were significantly decreased compared to those of normal group. The decrease of the sialic acid content and sialyltransferase activity in sarcolemma of low potassium diet group was inhibited when ginseng was concomitantly administered. Calcium uptake of sarcoplasmic reticulum prepared from low potassium diet group was significantly greaterthan that of normal group. Ginseng extract or total saponin showed the tendency to inhibit the increase of cacium uptake.

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