• Title, Summary, Keyword: Postpartum-depression

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The Effects of Postpartum Depression on the Development of Children (산후 우울증이 소아 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Esook
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.469-475
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    • 2005
  • Mother-infant interaction is a crucial component of an infant's cognitive, emotional and behavioral development. Most people are preoccupied with fetal education, the physical conditions of the postpartum mother and baby, and emphasizing an early start in the child's education. However, the effects of a mother's postnatal emotional state on the development of the infant are often overlooked. Postpartum depression is a significant health problem affecting 10-20 percent of new mothers. Recent research findings indicate that the suffering caused by postpartum depression is not limited to these mothers alone; their babies and close family members are vulnerable to short-term and long-term effects as well. This review summarizes the findings of recent research works, in the light of publications within the last seven years.

The Relationship between Early Neo-maternal Exposure, and Maternal Attachment, Maternal Self-esteem and Postpartum Depression in the Mothers of NICU Infants (신생아 중환자실에서의 초기 모아상호노출과 모아애착, 모성자존감 및 산후우울간의 관계분석)

  • Ahn Young-Mee;Kim Mi-Ran
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.798-809
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the quantities of three neo-maternal exposures; visiting frequency, auditory contact and physical contact, and to examine the relationship between the quantities of each exposure and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression in 40 mothers of NICU babies during the first week in the NICU. Method: Each neo-maternal exposure was counted at every mother's visit to the newborn and maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression were measured using the maternal attachment inventory, the maternal self-report inventory and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) on the first and seventh day in the NICU. Result: The Mean of each neo-maternal exposure was 8.77(2.81) for the visiting frequency, 5.82(3.66) for the auditory contact and 5.60(2.89) for the physical contact during 7 days in the NICU. No significant changes were found in the scores of maternal attachment, maternal self-esteem and postpartum depression between the first and the seventh day in the NICU. The quantities of neo-maternal exposures were positively related to the scores of maternal attachment and maternal self-esteem but not related to postpartum depression. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest the lack of early neo-maternal exposure in cases of NICU hospitalization negate its beneficial effects on maternal psychological well-being in increasing maternal attachment and self-esteem. More efforts are neededfor the neo-maternal interaction and the reevaluation of NICU visitation hours in order to promote maternal-infant interaction.

A Study on the Factors related to postpartum Depression in Postpartum Women (산욕기 산모의 산후 우울증에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Choi, Euy-Soon;Oh, Jeong-Ah
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.358-371
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to provide the basic, data for developing a program for effective prevention for Postpartum Depression (PPD) by investigating the level of PPD in postpartum 2 weeks women. The subjects were 384 women who visited obstetrical clinics for postnatal care. The data were collected from June 29. 1999 to April. 2000, using a 46-item questionnaire related to PPD, and analyzed by SAS program for t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, stepwise multiple regressions. The results were as follows : 1. The level of PPD according to general characteristics Women had mild PPD (Min score; 46.0, Max score; 124.0). The PPD levels were significantly differences according to religion and marital satisfaction (p<0.05). 2. The level of PPD according to obstetrical characteristics 1) Characteristics related to pregnancy The PPD levels were significantly differences according to mood change, confidence of body weight recovery, depression related to appearance change, husband's help to housework, and husband's emotional support (p<0.05). 2) Stressful events during pregnancy The PPD levels were significantly differences according to financial problem, conflict between partners, conflict between family, and husband's job change (p<0.05). 3) Characteristics related to delivery and post natal period The PPD levels were significantly differences according to baby's health state, parenting confidence, and difficulties related to postpartum care (p<0.05). 3. The variables to predict postpartum depression in postpartum women are depression related to appearance change (10.4%), parenting confidence (8.8%), husband's help to housework (2.7%), confidence of body weight recovery (2.4%), husband's job change (1.9%), baby's health state (1.9%), difficulties related to postpartum care (1.6%), mood change (1.2%), conflict between partners (0.6%), marital satisfaction (0.5%), financial problem (0.4%). The sum total of all the above variables can account for 32.4% of postpartum depression. 4. The level of PPD according to PPD factors. Women had the highest degree of PPD in biophysiological phenomena-disturbance of physical functioning factor. The factors of relationship to baby-negative feeling and cognitive phenomena-self concept disturbance were showed the lowest degree of PPD. As a result of the above findings, a systemic and individualized program is strongly recommended for PPD prevention, diagnosis, and care for PPD in postpartum women. In near future, this study should be expanded to investigate the coping skills according to the PPD levels in postpartum women.

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Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum (임신 및 산후 우울증)

  • Kim, Youl-Ri
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2007
  • The pregnancy and postpartum period appear to be a time of heightened vulnerability for the development of major depression in some women. Postpartum depression affects 10% of women within a few weeks immediately postpartum. Postpartum depression is associated with disturbances in the mother-infant relationship, which in turn have an adverse impact on the course of child cognitive and emotional development. Depression during pregnancy is also common, although it has been relatively neglected. Psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy have physiological consequences for the fetus. Understanding the aetiology of perinatal depression requires integrating of multiple psychosocial and biological risk factors. The treatment of depressed pregnant women requires skilled decision making by psychiatrists. Risk-benefit analysis is appropriate method for intervention fur depression in pregnancy. Effective treatments for depression in pregnancy include psychotherapy, antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy. In treatment of postpartum depression, the biological, psychological, and social interventions are included. Prescribing antidepressants(such as fluoxetine), estrogen in severe and chronic cases, and counselling can be effective for improving maternal mood and aspects of infant outcome. Ongoing research is directed to further elucidating neurohormonal and psychosocial contributions to depression during pregnancy or postpartum. Screening for risk factors and symptoms for depression need to be incorporated into antenatal and pediatric clinics.

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Analyzing the Relationships between Changes in Postpartum Depression and Child-rearing System Variables in Korean Mothers (한국 영아어머니의 산후우울 변화와 양육 관련 체계변인간의 관계 분석)

  • Chun, Hui-Young;Ok, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.153-167
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    • 2011
  • This study analyzed changes in postpartum depression in mothers from one month after childbirth to the first year using panel data collected overtime, in an effort to determine the relationship between the amount of change and child-rearing system variables. The subjects were 1097 mothers who belonged to both the lower and upper $30^{th}$ percentile groups in the depression change distribution of the 2008 Korean Children Panel Study (PSKC), a large, population-based study conducted by the Korea Institute of Childcare and Education. The data were analyzed by t-tests, $x^2$ tests, partial correlation coefficient analyses and regression analyses. The results are summarized as follows: First, the mothers' postpartum depression showed a significant increase during the first year as opposed to the first month after birth. Second, after controlling for socio-demographical variables of the mothers, the changes related to depression showed a positive relationship with child-rearing stress, and the child's emotional temperament, but showed a negative relationship with the mother's self-esteem, the child's birth order, and the father's participation in child-rearing activities. Third, variables having a significant effect on changes in postpartum depression were the mother's self-esteem and child-rearing stress, the child's age in months, and social support. Variables pertaining to the mother's characteristics variables had a more powerful effect than other child-rearing system variable categories. The results suggest the necessity to develop a parental education program or a mother-child health service in consideration of the variables that affect mothers, as determined in this study, in an effort to prevent postpartum depression.

An Analysis of Interactions Between Mothers with Postpartum Depression Tendencies and Their Infants (산후 우울 성향 어머니와 6-8개월 영아의 상호작용 분석)

  • Lee, Je-Young;Lee, Kyung-Sook;Chung, Yoo-Kyung;Shin, Yee-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.203-220
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    • 2011
  • The study is aimed at examining the interaction between mothers with high postpartum depression tendencies and their 6 to 8 month old infants. Thirty pairs of infants and mothers with high depression tendencies and another 30 pairs of infants and mothers with low depression scores on the EPDS and K-PSI were selected as the final research subjects from a total of 185 mother-child pairs. They visited a laboratory and agreed to a video-recording which focussed on their infant-mother interaction for approximately 30 minutes. In conclusion, the group of mothers with high depression tendencies showed less positive, and more intrusive interactions and their infants displayed less responsive, less positive expressions than the group of mothers with low depression tendencies. This study is meaningful in that it represents a rare attempt at a qualitative analysis research into the interactions between mothers with postpartum depression and their infants.

Relation Study of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Heart Rate Variability in the Early Postpartum (EPDS와 HRV 측정을 통한 산후초기우울과 심박변이도의 상관성 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Hee;Kim, Tae-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.186-198
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : Postnatal depression is a major public health problem. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and Heart rate variability in the Early Postpartum. Methods : The subjects were 33 women who admitted for postpartum treatment in Hospital of Woosuk University from 13th October to 8th December 2006. 33 women filled out an EPDS, general questionnaire and then they took the test of Heart rate variability at 3th day after normal spontaneous vaginal delivery. We studied the results to investigate the relation between EPDS and HRV. Results: 1. Mean age of risk group of depression is larger than non-risk group. 2. SDNN, RMSSD and SDSS of non-risk group of depression significantly increased compared with that of risk group. 3. Ln(TP), Ln(HF) of non-risk group of depression significantly increased compared with that of risk group. Conclusion : The results suggest that there were significant differences on HRV between risk group and non-risk group of early postpartum depression examined by EPDS.

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Effects of Music Therapy and Phone Counseling on Postpartum Depression and Maternal Identity in High Risk Women (음악요법과 전화상담이 고위험 산모의 산후우울과 모성정체성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Hae Won;Kim, Sun Ok;Kim, Hye Gyung;Jeon, Hyang Ran
    • Perspectives in Nursing Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study examine the effects of music therapy and phone counseling on postpartum depression and maternal identity in high risk women. Methods: A nonequivalent control group time series research design was employed. Eighteen women comprised the experimental group and seventeen women, the control group. Experimental group received 4 weeks of music therapy and phone counseling. Postpartum depression and maternal identity were measured prior to intervention and on the 1st, 2nd, and 4th weeks after its introduction. Results: The first hypothesis (i.e., "the degree of postpartum depression would be lower in the experimental group than in the control group in a month's time") was not supported (z=-0.47, p=.641). The second hypothesis (i.e., "the degree of maternal identity would be lower in the experimental group than in the control group in a month") was not supported as well (z=1.08, p=.285). Conclusion: There is the need to monitor long-term effects of music therapy and phone counseling on high risk postpartum women, beyond 4 weeks observed in this study. Additionally, the development of music therapy tailored to high risk individuals and systematic phone counseling protocols for postpartum depression is required.

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Effects of husband's help on the mother's postpartum depression and self-efficacy : A pilot study (남편의 도움이 산모의 산후우울과 자기효능감에 미치는 영향에 관한 예비연구)

  • Jung, In-Sook
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of husbands' help on postpartum depression and self-efficacy of mothers, to investigate what to fix of research design and to examine the feasibility of following experimental study. There was no significant difference in the general characteristics of two groups, which consisted 10 pairs of postpartum mothers and husbands, respectively, confirming the homogeneity of between groups. The prevalence of postpartum depression was 45% in the subjects who were measured at 1 week postpartum, and the average performance of the husbands' help in the experimental group was 3.2 out of 4 points. In the Mann-Whitney U Test, the husbands' help lowered the mean rank of postpartum depression in the experimental group(p<.001), and the mean rank of self-efficacy was higher than the control group, but there was no significant difference. In the process of this study, it was confirmed that, on the side of postpartum mothers of control group had burdens of responding to the questionnaire without the benefit of treatment so it is necessary to revise the design of following experimental study.

The Effects of a Home-Visiting Discharge Education on Maternal Self-esteem, Maternal Attachment, Postpartum Depression and Family Function in the Mothers of NICU Infants

  • Ahn Young-Mee;Kim Mi-Ran
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.1468-1476
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: A quasi-experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of a home visiting discharge education program on the maternal self-esteem, attachment, postpartum depression and family function in 35 mothers of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infants. Methods: Twenty-three mothers in the intervention group received the home visiting discharge education while 12 mothers in the control group received the routine, hospital discharge education. Baseline data was collected in both groups one day after delivery. The intervention group received the home visiting discharge education while the control group did the routine hospital-based discharge education. The questionnaire including the data on maternal self-esteem, attachment, postpartum depression and family function were collected within 1 week after the discharge by mail. Results: The scores of maternal self-esteem, and attachment were significantly increased, and the postpartum depression and the family function score were decreased after the home visiting discharge education in intervention group. There were no changes in these variables before and after the routine hospital-based discharge education in control group. Conclusion: These results support the beneficial effects of home visiting discharge education on the maternal role adaptation and family function of the mothers of NICU infants.