• Title, Summary, Keyword: Postmortem Metabolism

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Metabolomic approach to key metabolites characterizing postmortem aged loin muscle of Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle

  • Muroya, Susumu;Oe, Mika;Ojima, Koichi;Watanabe, Akira
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1172-1185
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    • 2019
  • Objective: Meat quality attributes in postmortem muscle tissues depend on skeletal muscle metabolites. The objective of this study was to determine the key metabolic compounds and pathways that are associated with postmortem aging and beef quality in Japanese Black cattle (JB; a Japanese Wagyu breed with highly marbled beef). Methods: Lean portions of Longissimus thoracis (LT: loin) muscle in 3 JB steers were collected at 0, 1, and 14 days after slaughter. The metabolomic profiles of the samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry, followed by statistical and multivariate analyses with bioinformatics resources. Results: Among the total 171 annotated compounds, the contents of gluconic acid, gluconolactone, spermidine, and the nutritionally vital substances (choline, thiamine, and nicotinamide) were elevated through the course of postmortem aging. The contents of glycolytic compounds increased along with the generation of lactic acid as the beef aging progressed. Moreover, the contents of several dipeptides and 16 amino acids, including glutamate and aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, were elevated over time, suggesting postmortem protein degradation in the muscle. Adenosine triphosphate degradation also progressed, resulting in the generation of inosine, xanthine, and hypoxanthine via the temporal increase in inosine 5'-monophosphate. Cysteine-glutathione disulfide, thiamine, and choline increased over time during the postmortem muscle aging. In the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database, a bioinformatics resource, the postmortem metabolomic changes in LT muscle were characterized as pathways mainly related to protein digestion, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pyruvate metabolism, pentose phosphate metabolism, nicotinamide metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, purine metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: The compounds accumulating in aged beef were shown to be nutritionally vital substances and flavor components, as well as potential useful biomarkers of aging. The present metabolomic data during postmortem aging contribute to further understanding of the beef quality of JB and other breeds.

Histone acetyltransferase inhibitors antagonize AMP-activated protein kinase in postmortem glycolysis

  • Li, Qiong;Li, Zhongwen;Lou, Aihua;Wang, Zhenyu;Zhang, Dequan;Shen, Qingwu W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.857-864
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle to better understand the mechanism by which AMPK regulates postmortem glycolysis and meat quality. Methods: A total of 32 mice were randomly assigned to four groups and intraperitoneally injected with 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-${\beta}$-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a specific activator of AMPK), AICAR and histone acetyltransferase inhibitor II, or AICAR, Trichostatin A (TSA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase I and II) and Nicotinamide (NAM, an inhibitor of the Sirt family deacetylases). After mice were euthanized, the Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected at 0 h, 45 min, and 24 h postmortem. AMPK activity, protein acetylation and glycolysis in postmortem muscle were measured. Results: Activation of AMPK by AICAR significantly increased glycolysis in postmortem muscle. At the same time, it increased the total acetylated proteins in muscle 45 min postmortem. Inhibition of protein acetylation by histone acetyltransferase inhibitors reduced AMPK activation induced increase in the total acetylated proteins and glycolytic rate in muscle early postmortem, while histone deacetylase inhibitors further promoted protein acetylation and glycolysis. Several bands of proteins were detected to be differentially acetylated in muscle with different glycolytic rates. Conclusion: Protein acetylation plays an important regulatory role in postmortem glycolysis. As AMPK mediates the effects of pre-slaughter stress on postmortem glycolysis, protein acetylation is likely a mechanism by which antemortem stress influenced postmortem metabolism and meat quality though the exact mechanism is to be elucidated.

Changes in pH, Temperature, R-values and Calpain Activity of M. longissimus from Hanwoo Steer during Rigor Development (사후시간 경과가 한우 거세우 배최장근의 pH, 온도, R-value 및 단백질 분해효소 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Kim, Hak-Kyun;Park, Beom-Young;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Hwang, In-Ho;Kim, Dong-Hun;Lee, Jong-Moon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.310-315
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    • 2005
  • The changes in pH, temperature, R-values and ${\mu}-calpain$ and its inhibitor activity of M. longissimus from Hanwoo steer were investigated at 1, 3, 9 and 24h postmortem. The pH and temperature of M. longissimus were significantly (p<0.05) decreased during 24h postmortem time, and were 6.50 and $31.99^{\circ}C$, respectively, at 3h postmortem. $R_{248}\;and\;R_{250}$ were increased, but $R_{258}$ was decreased after 9h postmortem time (p<0.05). Calpain I and calpastatin activity were decreased after 3h and 9h postmortem time, respectively (p<0.05). pH and temperature showed high positive correlations with $R_{258}$ (r=0.967 and r=0.970, respectively), calpain I (r =0.956 and r=0.954, respectively) and calpastatin (r=0.978 and r=0.986, respectively) but had high negative correlations with $R_{248}$ (r=-0.982 and r=-0.973, respectively) and $R_{248}$ (r=-0.983 and r=-0.976, respectively). from these results, the change of postmortem metabolism of M. longissimus from Hanwoo steer likely occurred after 9h postmortem time. However, the further study on the establishment of metabolism from Hanwoo between postmortem 3h and 9h are necessary to produce Hanwoo beef with high acceptance in meat quality.

Effects of dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs

  • Li, Yanjiao;Yu, Changning;Li, Jiaolong;Zhang, Lin;Gao, Feng;Zhou, Guanghong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1764-1772
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study investigated the effects of different dietary energy sources on early postmortem muscle metabolism of finishing pigs. Methods: Seventy-two barrow ($Duroc{\times}Landrace{\times}Yorkshire$, DLY) pigs ($65.0{\pm}2.0kg$) were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets: A (44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat, and 12.6% neutral detergent fibre [NDF]), B (37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat, and 15.4% NDF) or C (30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat, and 17.8% NDF). After the duration of 28-day feeding experiment, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered and the M. longissimus lumborum (LL) samples at 45 min postmortem were collected. Results: Compared with diet A, diet C resulted in greater adenosine triphosphate and decreased phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations, greater activity of creatine kinase and reduced percentage bound activities of hexokinase (HK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in LL muscles (p<0.05). Moreover, diet C decreased the phosphor-AKT level and increased the hydroxy-hypoxia-inducible $factor-1{\alpha}$ ($HIF-1{\alpha}$) level, as well as decreased the bound protein expressions of HK II, PKM2, and lactate dehydrogenase A (p<0.05). Conclusion: Diet C with the lowest level of starch and the highest levels of fat and NDF could enhance the PCr utilization and attenuate glycolysis early postmortem in LL muscle of finishing pigs.

Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitory Activity of 6-O-Palmitoyl L-Ascorbic Acid

  • Park, Yoon-Seok;Paik, Young-Sook
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.110-113
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    • 2006
  • Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, also referred to as prolyl oligopeptidase) degrades proline containing, biologically active neuropeptides such as vasopressin, substance P and thyrotropin-releasing hormone by cleaving peptide bonds on carboxyl side of prolyl residue within neuropeptides of less than 30 amino acids. Evaluation of PEP levels in postmortem brains of Alzheimer's disease patients revealed significant increases in PEP activity. Therefore, a specific PEP inhibitor can be a good candidate of drug against memory loss. Upon our examination for PEP inhibitory activity from micronutrients, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) showed small but significant PEP inhibition (13% PEP inhibition at $8{\mu}g{\cdot}ml^{-1}$). Palmitic acid showed almost no PEP inhibition. However, 6-O-palmitoyl ascorbic acid ($\underline{1}$) showed 70% PEP inhibition at $8{\mu}g{\cdot}ml^{-1}$ indicating that hydrophobic portion of the compound $\underline{1}$ may facilitate the inhibitory effect. $IC_{50}$ value of compound $\underline{1}$ was $12.6{\pm}0.2{\mu}M$. The primary and secondary Lineweaver Burk and Dixon plots for compound $\underline{1}$ indicated that it is a non-competitive inhibitor with inhibition constant (Ki) value of $23.7{\mu}M$.

Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in a Cat with Hepatic Lipidosis

  • Nam, Aryung;Park, Hyung-Jin;Kim, Jun-Seok;Song, Kun-Ho;Youn, Hwa-Young;Seo, Kyoung-Won
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2016
  • A Turkish angora cat with a one-week history of anorexia and vomiting was diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis. During hospitalization and treatment, the cat suddenly showed respiratory-related clinical signs, including coughing and dyspnea, 13 days after initial diagnosis. Due to the poor response to treatment, the patient was euthanized at the owner's request. A postmortem histopathologic examination of the cat's heart showed dilation and wall thinning of the right atrium and ventricle, with fibrofatty infiltration corresponding to an arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). This is a case report of ARVC concurrent with hepatic lipidosis in a cat; both diseases are related to disturbances in lipid metabolism.

Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

  • Chen, Jing;Liu, XianJun;Bian, LianQuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.879-885
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    • 2013
  • Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace) pigs with an average initial BW of $108.2{\pm}0.8$ kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i) a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM) were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p<0.05) serum CK and lactate concentration, but had no effect (p>0.05) on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01), while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05) as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05) muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05) muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes.

Effect of Antemortem and Postmortem Environmental Temperatures on Biochemical Metabolism and Tenderness in Chicken Muscels (도계처리 전후의 환경온도가 계육의 생화학적 대사 및 연도에 미치는 영향)

  • 이유방
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 1979
  • 1. The effects of heat stress (38$^{\circ}C$), cold stress (4$^{\circ}C$) and extreme cold stress (-20$^{\circ}C$) before slaughter on the tenderness and postmortem glycolysis if the excised chicken breast muscle were studied Heat stress significantly (p 0.05) increased the toughness of breast muscle. Though statistically not significant, cold stress also adversely affected the tenderness. The heat-stressed birds showed higher zero hr glycogen higher zero hr pH and significantly (p 0.05) love. ultimate pH then the controls. The cold-stressed birds showed intermediate values in these parameters. Highly significant correlations. were observed between shear value and each of these three parameters. Glycolysis rate ana final moisture content were minor factors which affected the muscle tenderness to a limited extent. The slightly elevated lactate-dehydrogenase and creatine phosphokinase activities in serum and breast muscle of stressed birds failed to account for any variations in tenderness. 2. Chicken breast and thigh muscles were subjected to different environmental temperatures to determine if the phenomenon of cold shortening exists in chicken muscle. For both breast and thigh muscles, minimum shortening was observed in the 4-10$^{\circ}C$t range. Muscles held at 0$^{\circ}C$ showed a slightly higher extent of shortening than at 4$^{\circ}C$; where as muscles held at above 20$^{\circ}C$ showed a severe shortening effect. It was concluded that no apparent cold shortening was detected in chicken muscle except at 0$^{\circ}C$ and even at 0$^{\circ}C$ and even at 0$^{\circ}C$ the extent of shortening was of a small magnitude compared to bovine muscles. Since high temperature induces a much greater shortening, muscle temperature must be lowered to below 20$^{\circ}C$ as early as possible to prevent excessive muse]e shortening.

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Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in Hair for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse of Korean (한국인의 만성 알코올 중독 진단을 위한 모발에서 Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) 분석법 연구)

  • Gong, Bokyoung;Jo, Young-Hoon;Ju, Soyeong;Min, Ji-Sook;Kwon, Mia
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2020
  • Alcohol, which can easily be obtained in the same way as ordinary beverages, is harmful enough to cause death due to excessive drinking and chronic alcohol intake, so it is important to maintain a proper amount of drinking and healthy drinking habits. In addition, the incidence of behavioral disturbances and impaired judgments that can be caused by chronic alcohol drinking of more than adequate amounts of alcohol is also significant. Accordingly it is very useful for forensic science to check whether the person involved is drunken or is alcoholism state in various accidents. Currently, in Korea, alcohol consumption is determined by detecting the level of alcohol or alcohol metabolism 'ethyl glucuronide (EtG)' in blood or urine samples. However, analysis of alcohol or EtG in blood or urine can only provide information about the current state of alcohol consumption because of a narrow window of detection time. Therefore, it is important to analyze the EtG as a long-term direct alcohol metabolite bio-marker in human hair and to investigate relationship between alcohol consumption and EtG concentration for the evaluation of chronic ethanol consumption. In this study, we established an analytical method for the detection of EtG in Korean hair efficiently and validated selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy and precision using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, the assay performance was evaluated in Korean social drinker's hair and the postmortem hair of a chronic alcoholism. The results of this study can be useful in monitoring the alcohol abuse of Korean in clinical cases and legal procedures related to custody and provide a useful tool to evaluate postmortem diagnosis of alcoholic ketoacidosis in forensics.