• Title, Summary, Keyword: Porous ratio

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Effects of Soil-Amended Bottom Ash on Decomposition Rates of Organic Matter as Investigated by an Enforced-Aeration Respirometer (호기순환 호흡계를 이용한 토양처리 석탄바닥재의 유기물 분해에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Seok-Ho;Chung, Doug-Young;Han, Gwang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 2012
  • Disposal of high amount of coal combustion by-products, such as fly ash and bottom ash, is of a great concern to the country, due to the huge treatment cost and land requirement. On the other hand, those coal-ash wastes are considered to have desirable characteristics that may improve physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils. Especially, compared with fly ash, bottom ash has a larger particle size, porous surface area, and usable amount of micronutrients. In the present study, we examined bottom as a soil amendment for mitigating $CO_2$ emission and enhancing carbon sequestration in soils fertilized with organic matter (hairy vetch, green barely, and oil cake fertilizer). Through laboratory incubation, $CO_2$ released from the soil was quantitatively and periodically monitored with an enforced-aeration and high-temperature respirometer. We observed that amendment of bottom ash led to a marked reduction in $CO_2$ emission rate and cumulative amount of $CO_2$ released, which was generally proportional to the amount of bottom ash applied. We also found that the temporal patterns of $CO_2$ emission and C sequestration effects were partially dependent on the relative of proportion labile carbon and C/N ratio of the organic matter. Our results strongly suggest that amendment of bottom ash has potential benefits for fixing labile carbon as more stable soil organic matter, unless the bottom ash contains toxic levels of heavy metals or other contaminants.

The physicochemical properties of kenaf(Hibiscus cannabinus L.) as mushroom culture media source (버섯배지 재료로서 케나프의 이화학성 분석)

  • Kang, Chan-Ho;Yoo, Young-Jin;Seo, Sang-Young;Choi, Kyu-Hwan;Lee, Ki-Kwon;Song, Young-Ju;Kim, Chung-Kon
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 2015
  • To investigate the usefulness of Kenaf(Hibiscus cannabinus L.) as mushroom culture media source, we analyze physical condition and contents of nutritional components. The water absorption rate of Kenaf bast was 578% and it was 95% higher than that of poplar sawdust's. This was caused by Kenaf's porous cellular structure. so it could give more moisture and oxygen to cultured mushroom. Total carbon contents of Kenaf was 91.4%, it was quite higher than that of poplar sawdust, wheat bran and rice bran. Total nitrogen content was 1.76% and C/N ratio was 51.9. The content of NFE(Nitrogen free extract) was 46.6% and it was similar with rice bran. Cellulose content was higher than poplar but lignin content was lower. specially hemicellulose and pectin complex which more digestible carbon source to mushroom was 3.7% higher than poplar. Mineral component and amino acid contents were also maintained high compared with poplar. Fe was 4.2 times, P 3.2 times, K 2.2 times more and Ca was higher 16 mg/kg than poplar. The content of amino acid was quite more higher than poplar sawdust but lower than chaff. Consequently Kenaf had a good trait for basic support material in mushroom culture media and also had a good character as nutritional source.

A Study on the Recovery of Lantanum and Neodymium from Waste Battery Through the Recycling Process (폐 전지로부터 재활용 과정을 통한 란타넘, 네오디뮴 회수에 관한 연구)

  • Chae, Byungman;Lee, Seokhwan;Kim, Deuk-Hyeon;Seo, Eun-Ju;Kim, Hyunil;Lee, Seunghwan;Lee, Sangwoo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2020
  • In this paper, the recycling of waste Ni-MH battery by-products for electric vehicle is studied. Although rare earths elements still exist in waste Ni-MH battery by-products, they are not valuable as materials in the form of by-products (such as an insoluble substance). This study investigates the recovering of rare earth oxide for solvent extraction A/O ratio, substitution reaction, and reaction temperature, and scrubbing of the rare earth elements for high purity separation. The by-product (in the form of rare earth elements insoluble powder) is converted into hydroxide form using 30% sodium hydroxide solution. The remaining impurities are purified using the difference in solubility of oxalic acid. Subsequently, Yttrium is isolated by means of D2EHPA (Di-[2-ethylhexyl] phosphoric acid). After cerium is separated using potassium permanganate, lanthanum and neodymium are separated using PC88A (2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester) and it is calcinated at a temperature of 800 ℃. As a result of the physical and chemical measurement of the calcined lanthanum and neodymium powder, it is confirmed that the powder is a microsized porous powder in an oxide form of 99.9% or more. Rare earth oxides are recovered from Ni-MH battery by-products through two solvent extraction processes and one oxidation process. This study has regenerated lanthanum and neodymium oxide as a useful material.

Preparation and Characterization of Gluten-free Muffins Using Fractured Tofu and Normal Corn Starch (파지두부와 옥수수전분을 이용한 글루텐 프리 머핀의 제조와 특성)

  • Lee, Yonghun;Jung, Gil-Young;Ko, Eun-Sol;Kim, Hyun-Seok
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the effects of the mixing ratio of tofu paste and normal corn starch on the characteristics of gluten-free (GF) muffins. Soft wheat flour for wheat flour-based muffins (control) was replaced with the mixture of tofu paste and normal corn starch (NCS). The mixing ratios of tofu paste and NCS were 1:6.4 (S100), 1:5.1 (S80), 1:3.8 (S60), 1:2.6 (S40), 1:1.3 (S20), and 1:0 (S00), based on their total solid contents. GF muffins of S40-S100 developed the porous, sponge-like structure without crumb collapse. The weight and baking loss did not significantly differ in the control and GF muffins. By decreasing NCS in GF muffin batters, the moisture content, firmness, and crumb redness/yellowness of GF muffins increased, while their volume, specific volume, and crumb lightness decreased. Nevertheless, these characteristics (except for firmness) of S100 were much closer to those of the control. In the preference test, however, S60 (possessing lower attributes than S100 and S80) was most favored among GF muffins, and was very similar in all evaluations (except for appearance) to the control. Overall, the mixture of tofu paste and NCS would be a potential material to replace soft wheat flour in muffins.

Temperature Dependence of Oxygen Diffusivity in the PVC Film on Gold Electrode Using Steady-State Rotating Disk Electrode Technique and Modulated Electrohydrodynamic Impedance Technique (정상상태 회전원판전극(RDE) 방법과 유체역학적 요동에 의한 전기화학적(EHD) 임피던스방법을 이용한 금전극표면에 형성된 PVC 피막내 산소확산계수의 온도의존성에 대한 연구)

  • Yeon Jei-Won;Pyun Su-Il;Lee Woo-Jin;Choi In-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2000
  • In the present we.k, temperature dependence of oxygen diffusivity in the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film $D_f$ formed on gold electrode was investigated using steady-state rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique and modulated electrohydrodynamic (EHD) impedance technique. Both the diffusion rate defined as the ratio of oxygen diffusivity in the PVC film to the film thickness $D_f/\delta_f$ and the time constant $\delta_f^2/D_f$ for oxygen diffusion through the PVC film were obtained from plot of the limiting current versus disk rotation speed and from filing the EHD impedance spectra experimentally measured to those theoretically calculated on the basis of the diffusion equation for mass transport through the non-conductive and porous film, respectively. By combining measured $D_f/\delta_f$ with $\delta_f^2/D_f$, we determined $\delta_f\;and\;D_f$ at room temperature separately. As temperature increased, it appeared that the $D_f$ value measured for the PVC film-covered gold RDE was enhanced more rapidly than that $D_s$ value in the solution measured for the PVC film-free gold RDE. This means that the pores glowing with increasing temperature act as effective diffusion paths within the film. The present in-situ steady-state and modulated EHD measurements prove to be effective for determining $\delta_f\;and\;D_f$, separately and at the same time the porosity of the PVC film at temperatures below glass temperature $T_g$ of the film.

Analytical Method of Partial Standing Wave-Induced Seabed Response in Finite Soil Thickness under Arbitrary Reflection (임의반사율의 부분중복파동장에서 유한두께를 갖는 해저지반 내 지반응답의 해석법)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Do-Sam;Kim, Kyu-Han;Kim, Dong-Wook;Shin, Bum-Shick
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.300-313
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    • 2014
  • Most analytical solutions for wave-induced soil response have been mainly developed to investigate the influence of the progressive and standing waves on the seabed response in an infinite seabed. This paper presents a new analytical solution to the governing equations considering the wave-induced soil response for the partial standing wave fields with arbitrary reflectivity in a porous seabed of finite thickness, using the effective stress based on Biot's theory (Biot, 1941) and elastic foundation coupled with linear wave theory. The newly developed solution for wave-seabed interaction in seabed of finite depth has wide applicability as an analytical solutions because it can be easily extended to the previous analytical solutions by varying water depth and reflection ratio. For more realistic wave field, the partial standing waves caused by the breakwaters with arbitrary reflectivity are considered. The analytical solutions was verified by comparing with the previous results for a seabed of infinite thickness under the two-dimensional progressive and standing wave fields derived by Yamamoto et al.(1978) and Tsai & Lee(1994). Based on the analytical solutions derived in this study, the influence of water depth and wave period on the characteristics of the seabed response for the progressive, standing and partial standing wave fields in a seabed of finite thickness were carefully examined. The analytical solution shows that the soil response (including pore pressure, shear stress, horizontal and vertical effective stresses) for a seabed of finite thickness is quite different in an infinite seabed. In particular, this study also found that the wave-induced seabed response under the partial wave conditions was reduced compared with the standing wave fields, and depends on the reflection coefficient.

Flow Resistance and Modeling Rule of Fishing Nets -1. Analysis of Flow Resistance and Its Examination by Data on Plane Nettings- (그물어구의 유수저항과 근형수칙 -1. 유수저항의 해석 및 평면 그물감의 자료에 의한 검토-)

  • KIM Dae-An
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.183-193
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    • 1995
  • Assuming that fishing nets are porous structures to suck water into their mouth and then filtrate water out of them, the flow resistance N of nets with wall area S under the velicity v was taken by $R=kSv^2$, and the coefficient k was derived as $$k=c\;Re^{-m}(\frac{S_n}{S_m})n(\frac{S_n}{S})$$ where $R_e$ is the Reynolds' number, $S_m$ the area of net mouth, $S_n$ the total area of net projected to the plane perpendicular to the water flow. Then, the propriety of the above equation and the values of c, m and n were investigated by the experimental results on plane nettings carried out hitherto. The value of c and m were fixed respectively by $240(kg\cdot sec^2/m^4)$ and 0.1 when the representative size on $R_e$ was taken by the ratio k of the volume of bars to the area of meshes, i. e., $$\lambda={\frac{\pi\;d^2}{21\;sin\;2\varphi}$$ where d is the diameter of bars, 21 the mesh size, and 2n the angle between two adjacent bars. The value of n was larger than 1.0 as 1.2 because the wakes occurring at the knots and bars increased the resistance by obstructing the filtration of water through the meshes. In case in which the influence of $R_e$ was negligible, the value of $cR_e\;^{-m}$ became a constant distinguished by the regions of the attack angle $ \theta$ of nettings to the water flow, i. e., 100$(kg\cdot sec^2/m^4)\;in\;45^{\circ}<\theta \leq90^{\circ}\;and\;100(S_m/S)^{0.6}\;(kg\cdot sec^2/m^4)\;in\;0^{\circ}<\theta \leq45^{\circ}$. Thus, the coefficient $k(kg\cdot sec^2/m^4)$ of plane nettings could be obtained by utilizing the above values with $S_m\;and\;S_n$ given respectively by $$S_m=S\;sin\theta$$ and $$S_n=\frac{d}{I}\;\cdot\;\frac{\sqrt{1-cos^2\varphi cos^2\theta}} {sin\varphi\;cos\varphi} \cdot S$$ But, on the occasion of $\theta=0^{\circ}$ k was decided by the roughness of netting surface and so expressed as $$k=9(\frac{d}{I\;cos\varphi})^{0.8}$$ In these results, however, the values of c and m were regarded to be not sufficiently exact because they were obtained from insufficient data and the actual nets had no use for k at $\theta=0^{\circ}$. Therefore, the exact expression of $k(kg\cdotsec^2/m^4)$, for actual nets could De made in the case of no influence of $R_e$ as follows; $$k=100(\frac{S_n}{S_m})^{1.2}\;(\frac{S_m}{S})\;.\;for\;45^{\circ}<\theta \leq90^{\circ}$$, $$k=100(\frac{S_n}{S_m})^{1.2}\;(\frac{S_m}{S})^{1.6}\;.\;for\;0^{\circ}<\theta \leq45^{\circ}$$

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