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Teaching Architectural Design in Post-War America - Gyorgy Kepes' Basic Course at MIT's Department of Architecture - (20세기 후반 MIT의 건축설계 교육과 기요르기 케피쉬의 기초디자인 프로그램의 특성과 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Pai, Hyung-Min
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.39-54
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    • 2006
  • Focusing on the emergence of the basic course in American schools of architecture, in particular Gyorgy Kepes' courses at MIT, this paper studies the transformation of architectural pedagogy during the years after World War II. Kepes centered his architectural pedagogy on the picture plane, which was to function as the primary media for applying the principles of Gestalt psychology, that is the identification of the whole and its parts and the reciprocity between the internal human organism and the outside world. Kepes hence introduced a set of unconventional visual practices that were not readily assimilated to architectural conventions. Paralleling the establishment of the basic course, MIT also formulated a functionalist and spatial pedagogy with its two initial design studios, courses 4.721 and 4.722. These studios shared the notion that architectural design evolved from the inside toward the outside, an idea that took hold not just in the pragmatic environment of MIT's studios but also in conservative academic programs as well as in popular magazines, picture books, and exhibitions for the consumer public. The architectural surface became inseparable from the objects of art, furniture, and design, all of which were to be the generators of space. Hence, during the 1950s, the architectural surface provided a specific locus of intersection between the visual fundamentals of the basic course and the working principles of architectural design. Kepes, however, had by this time become disillusioned with architecture's potential as the medium of unity. Though he maintained the Gestalt logic of identity, he expanded it toward the goal of grander synthesis of society and consciousness freeing himself from the constraints of disciplinary instruction. In the case of Kepes, the mediating role of the picture plane was foregone in a regressive turn toward a primal, innocent, and direct experience.

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A Study of Ethnic Images Found in Modern Sports Fashion (현대 스포츠패션에 나타난 에스닉 이미지 연구)

  • Kim Eun-Kyoung;Chae Keum-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1054-1065
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    • 2006
  • This study aims to provide basic data conducive to developing popular and international products by analyzing the mechanism, factors and design of ethnic sports fashion incorporating ethnicity and sports sense that may satisfy the physical and psychological needs of modern humans who tend to seek 'well- being'. The methodology includes literature reviews and positivist study, and visual materials include domestic and foreign fashion magazines, newspapers, fashion journals, ad photos, collection photos, and internet that cover colors, materials, detailed sports fashion design that are considered to have an ethnic image. Its scope is limited to the period from 2000 through 2005 S/S. The results of study are as follows: First, sports fashions through incorporation of sports emotion and fashion, mixes and matches existing formal wear, casual wear, or leisure wear with sportswear, or introduces and utilizes materials, details, accessories, or image from sportswear. Second, 1) from the changes by year in sports fashion, ethnic images were strongly expressed by the influence of naturalism in the early 1990s, and functional sports fashion has been fused with ethnic image with functionalism becoming stronger and wellbeing trend expanding from the mid 1990s through 2000s. 2) The cause of ethnic image in sports fashion included hybrid, multi-culturalism, and naturalism. Third, the ethnic images revealed in the sports fashion designs of Prada, Louis Vuitton, Gucci, and Y3 are simple and unique based on functionality and activism.

The Change of Korean Men's Fashion from the 1960s to the 1990s - A Study Based on the Content Analysis of Magazine Advertisements and Pictorials -

  • Kwon, Hae-Sook;Kwon, Hae-Wook
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of modern Korean men's fashion from the 1960s to the 1990s by reviewing fashion magazine advertisements and pictorials. For theoretical study, the characteristics and the importance of apparel advertisements and the changes of modern Korean men's fashion trend were reviewed. On the basis of the theoretical investigation, this study analyzed 932 pictorials from Joongang Magazine, Shin Dong-A, Bokjangwolbo, Meot, Men's Life, WWD, and S.F.F.A's photograph album, published from 1962 to 1998. Content analysis method was used to analyze the content of magazines and pictorials. The 932 samples are classified into apparel types, silhouette, pattern, color, type of breasts, shape of collar, number of button, type of inner wear. Frequency and $x^2$-test were conducted using a SAS statistics package to analyse the data. The results were as follows. The two-piece style prevailed in men's wear during the 60s, 70s, and 90s, while separate style prevailed during the 80s. H silhouette was the most popular during the 60s, 70s and 90s, however, X silhouette dominated the 70s. For patterns, solids were most frequently used throughout the whole 4 decades. In colors, gray was most frequently used during the 60s, and multi color was most frequently used during the 70s, 80s, and 90s. Throughout the whole decades, single breast, tailored collar, two buttons, and dress shirts were the most prevalent styles.

A Study on the Nudism Style Expressed in Modern Fashion (현대패션에 나타난 누디즘 스타일에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Tae-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.56 no.9
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    • pp.157-175
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    • 2006
  • The purposes of this study are to establish a theoretical concept of nudism from sociocultural context, to examine its formative characteristics, to analyze the cultural meaning of nudism style showing in the 2000's fashion world, and to analyze and examine its aesthetic qualities. The way of a study was based on analysis and review on philosophy, aesthetics, sociology, popular culture and various documents at home and abroad and previous study and research materials about art and clothes for theoretical study. Also, we carried out a case study by analyzing photo data from fashion books, magazines and internet websites, considering the body and dress as visual objects. The summary and conclusions of this study are as follows: 1. Nudism of the sociocultural context was divided into change of understanding of the body and liberation of the body; naturalism; resistant culture; psychoanalysis context. 2. The formative characteristics of nudism style in fashion are classified in Exposure, Transparency and Body Conscious. 3. The cultural meaning of nudism style expressed in the 2000's fashion are sexual opening, surfeit of mass media, pursuit of naturalism, lookism, and individualism. 4. Nudism style expressed in 2000's fashion is drawn as three aesthetic qualities: Eroticism, Primitivism and Futurism. First, Eroticism of nudism style fashion which seeks for sexual stimulus is classified in Sensualism, Provocation and Innocence. Second, Primitivism of nudism style fashion which tends towards naturalism objecting to mechanic and digital civilization and hoping for return to the origin is classified in Primitivism, Naturalism and Sensualism as per aesthetics qualities. Futurism which is the nudism style presenting futuristic expression through using a new material is analyzed as High Technology, Cyber Sexism and functional Future.

Comparing Women's Street Fashion in Korea and Japan (한국과 일본의 여성 스트리트패션 비교)

  • Yu, Hae-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.1941-1955
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    • 2009
  • This study compares street fashions in Korea and Japan to investigate possible interactive influences. Women's street fashion data were obtained from two magazines in each country from the 2003 spring/summer season to the 2007/08 fall/winter season. A total of 2211 pictures were used in the final analysis. The longitudinal changes in street fashion showed a similar trend toward full coordination, the increased use of colors and prints, and the influences of global fashion trends in both countries. The results showed a time lag between the two countries in the adoption of some clothing items that suggest the influence of Japanese street fashion in Korea. The time lag has diminished and since 2006, street fashion has simultaneously progressed under the mutual and common influences of global trends. There are more fashion similarities in the spring/summer than in fall/winter. The adoption of fashion accessories did not show any sign of a time lag and many accessories became popular during the same season.

A Case Study on the Modernization of Traditional Brands, 'Burberry Prosum' - Focused on the Design Comparison between Original Burberry and Burberry Prosum - ('버버리 프로섬'의 사례를 통해 본 전통 브랜드의 현대화 연구 - 오리지널 버버리와 버버리 프로섬의 디자인 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Jung, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Eun-Sil;Bae, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the successful modernization strategy, and the difference between original Burberry and Burberry Prosum design. This will help in providing the fundamental information to Korean luxury fashion brands. Burberry, in particular, is rated as the most popular luxury brand in Korean fashion market. This brand has also rated 5th in sale worldwide and 1st in Korea in 2002, and was continuously been rated in 10th for the last 5 years. Related articles, fashion magazines, fashion web-site were used in this analysis, and the method was theoretical and case study. The results are divided into two categories of internal and external factors and two design patterns of check pattern and trench coat were observed. First of all, internal factor in Burberry is that they have scouted a new CEO and quickly changed their image with famous British models for the purpose of marketing strategies. They have also moved their main shop in London to Bond street, and opened shops in every country's capital cities. They were successful in achieving this by using celebrity marketing strategies with many famous celebrities. Secondly, external factor was that they have hired a designer named Christoper Bailey and this highlighted and enhanced the check pattern and trench coat. As a results, more generalized and diverse design items were presented and accessory line was enhanced, creating a much more younger image. This in turn attracted more younger customers. To sum up, original Burberry focused on classic designs, however Burberry Prosum focused on transforming traditional Burberry design into avant-garde and young. In other words, the reason for the success of this brand is highly dependent on its marketing strategies in which its uniqueness of schizophrenic cloche has appropriately represented and used in design.

The Influence of Christian Dior on Fashion, Clothing, and Cosmetic Trends (디올 패션이 향장미용에 미친 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Seok, Eun-Kyung;Chae, Keum-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1374-1385
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    • 2009
  • This study focuses on three points. First, how designers develop clothing and cosmetic culture (which reflect time and culture) into other fashion products in order to verify that attire and makeup can be the objects of aesthetics in addition to functionality. Second, why the fashion design of Christian Dior has been continuously popular for women of all ages and countries in the development of fashion, attire, and makeup. Third, this study analyzes how the aesthetical characteristics of the fashion of Christian Dior are reflected in clothing and cosmetic culture in order to clarify the brand outlook on attire and makeup as a source of France's luxury fashion industry. The philosophical characteristics of Dior's fashion were studied based on existing literature. First, her childhood background (that became the motif of Dior's design) and the philosophical ideology of fashion design, perfume, and beauty were the focus of this study. Second, this study examined how consciousness on beauty expressed in hairstyle, perfume, and cosmetics is expressed in connection with clothing. Third, the background with which Dior's fashion and perfume business became successful is examined in addition the necessity of the image strategy for success in the cosmetics market was studied. Domestic and international books on clothing and cosmetics, preceding studies, the internet, and related magazines are utilized to consider the cosmetics and beauty fashion of Dior. The results of this study show how Korean fashion and cosmetic culture can further globalize. This study encompasses the period of 1905 when Christian Dior was born until 1957 when he died of a heart attack; it also deals with well-known designers of the Christian Dior House from Yves Saint Laurent of 1957 to John Galliano of the present.

A Historical Research on Improved Changes of Korean Traditional Costume (한복개량에 대한 사적 고찰)

  • Koo, Mi-Ji
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 1998
  • This research was investigated the improved changes of Korean traditional costume after introducing the western costumes in this society. For this study microfilms of Chosun llbo, the popular newspaper since 1920s, and costume magazines for 1950s and 1960s were examined. The periods of the improved changing of Korean traditional costume were divided by the characteristics of qualitative and quantitative changes. Those were two, such as passive period and active period of change. At passive period, the change was not far from the original from of traditional costume and it was limited to the waist of skirt, length and width. But at active period, there was distinctive change from the previous period. Active period is divided by 2 sub-period again. In 1950s, the concept of darts of western costume was accepted to Korean costume and there was the western clothing for everyday costume, the characteristics of Korean costume were added to the base of the western clothing. It was named 'Arirang dress'. Original Korean costume had worn for special occasions since late 1950s.

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Socio-semiotic Analysis of Plural Sexuality represented in Modern Fashion (II) (현대패션에 표현된 다원적 성에 관한 사회기호학적 분석 (II))

  • Choi, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Min-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.126-142
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    • 2007
  • The second part of this study is to typify plural sexuality articulated with fashion images in men's and women's popular fashion magazines in Korea since 2000 and ultimately to infer sexual ideology codified in modern fashion by a framework of this study, the socio-semiotic model. From this, sexuality represented in modern fashion was typified as follows: in women's fashion Traditional Femininity, Glamor Femininity, Androgynous Femininity, Babydoll Femininity and Genderless sexuality, while in men's fashion Traditional Masculinity, Macho Masculinity, Androgynous Masculinity, Adolescent Masculinity and Genderless sexuality. The conclusion of this study is as follows: First, modern fashion has been changed from a means expressing gender and class into a sign vehicle representing the new ruling system of age and sexual desire. The binary oppositional sexuality on center of man in the 19 C capitalist period has been gradually pluralized towards the post-capitalist period. Next, mainstream society in Korea is still positioned in the traditional heterosexuality, keeping the vertical power relationship between man and woman even in the post-modern period. However, the fact that both Traditional Femininity and Androgynous Femininity acquire the position of dominant femininity connotes the change of modern femininity. Finally, plural sexuality represented in modern fashion has family resemblance and it shows contextual flexibility within contemporary period as well as a historical context. As a result, sexuality floats with a specific historical and socio-cultural context, and fashion as a material culture represents a masquerade as a identity vehicle, which constructs and de-constructs sexuality at the same time.

A New Paradigm of Fashion Magazine - focusing on the U.S.A. VOGUE - (패션 매거진 편집구성의 패러다임 변화 -미국 VOGUE를 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Seh-Jung;Chung, Eun-Sook;Suh, Dong-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.10
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2007
  • The development of mass media in the $20^{th}$ century has resulted in the rapid growth of the fashion industry. Fashion magazines like are performing the function of spreading new styles in addition to simple provision of fashion trend information. Therefore, the present study tracked the trend of changes in the cover models of USA during the last 10 years $(1997{\sim}2006)$, and examined qualitative and quantitative changes in the contents of USA for the last 20 years. According to the results, $50{\sim}75%$ of cover models were super models during the period from 1997 to 2006, but the percentages of fashion models and celebrities became similar to each other in 2001, and from 2002 to 2006 celebrities occupied around $75{\sim}92%$ of cover models. When the contents of USA were analyzed by category, columns that showed strength in 1986 but decreased gradually until 2006 were style suggestions(p<.001), fashion shooting on the theme of TPO and items(p<.05). Fashion columns that showed weakness in 1986 but increased through the 1990s and until 2006 were celebrity style(p<.05), item introductions(p<.001), shopping information(p<.001), designer interviews(p<.05) and fashion shooting on the theme of mood and celebrity(p<.05). These results suggested that the function of USA as a fashion magazine was mainly the provision of information on how to wear the new styles in 1986, but nowadays the contents have changed to information on what to buy. In addition, the results show that contents using highly popular celebrity increased rapidly in the 2000s.