• Title/Summary/Keyword: Polymorphisms

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Association of the Genetic Polymorphisms for CD247 Gene and Tuberculosis Case

  • Ju, Yeongdon;Kim, Sung-Soo;Lee, Kyung Eun;Park, Sangjung;Jin, Hyunwoo
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.22-27
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    • 2020
  • Tuberculosis is airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Host genetic factors of these tuberculosis play an important role in determining individual difference in susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases including tuberculosis. CD247 is named CD3zeta chain or CD3ζ. CD247 gene is a protein-coding gene involved in phagocytosis and signal transduction of the T cell receptor (TCR). Also, downregulation of the CD3ζ chain has been associated to chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to research association of the genetic polymorphisms for CD247 gene and tuberculosis. We analyzed association of CD247 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis using 149 imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Korean population. And the results of this study show that seven SNPs of CD247 were identified to associate with tuberculosis. The most significant SNP was rs858545 (OR=1.22, CI: 1.05~1.42, P=0.009481). This study suggests that polymorphisms of CD247 may affect the T cell receptor signaling pathway, which may associate the infection of tuberculosis.

Genetic Polymorphisms in Drug Transporters and Regulatory Xenobiotic Receptors in Korean Population

  • Lee, Sang-Seop;Shin, Jae-Gook
    • Proceedings of the Korea Environmental Mutagen Society Conference
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    • pp.27-29
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    • 2004
  • Drug transporters play an essential role in the absorption, distribution and elimination of clinical drugs, nutrients and toxicants. The importance of the transporters is exampled by therapeutic failure in cancer chemotherapy that is mainly caused by the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR)-related transporters. In addition, the transporters may involve in drug-drug interactions that lead to serious adverse drug responses and some transporters also contribute to inter-individual variation in drug responses. As an effort to understand the mechanism underlying the inter-individual variation of transporters activity, genetic and environmental factors influencing the expression or function of the transporters have extensively explored through last decade. Among them, genetic polymorphism of drug transporter encoding genes has generated much interest since the discovery of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of MDR1 gene. Besides drug transporters, xenobiotic receptors also modulate drug disposition by regulating the transcription of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Among many xenobiotic receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two most well characterized since these receptors show wide substrate specificities and regulate the expression of various enzymes involved in drug disposition. Recently, several functional genetic polymorphisms were reported in PXR coding gene. In the present study, genetic polymorphisms of two drug transporters, MDR1 and BCRP, and two xenobiotic receptors, PXR and CAR, were investigated in Korean population.

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Gene-Diet Interaction on Cancer Risk in Epidemiological Studies

  • Lee, Sang-Ah
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.360-370
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    • 2009
  • Genetic factors clearly play a role in carcinogenesis, but migrant studies provide unequivocal evidence that environmental factors are critical in defining cancer risk. Therefore, one may expect that the lower availability of substrate for biochemical reactions leads to more genetic changes in enzyme function; for example, most studies have indicated the variant MTHFR genotype 677TT is related to biomarkers, such as homocysteine concentrations or global DNA methylation particularly in a low folate diet. The modification of a phenotype related to a genotype, particularly by dietary habits, could support the notion that some of inconsistencies in findings from molecular epidemiologic studies could be due to differences in the populations studied and unaccounted underlying characteristics mediating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the actual phenotypes. Given the evidence that diet can modify cancer risk, gene-diet interactions in cancer etiology would be anticipated. However, much of the evidence in this area comes from observational epidemiology, which limits the causal inference. Thus, the investigation of these interactions is essential to gain a full understanding of the impact of genetic variation on health outcomes. This report reviews current approaches to gene-diet interactions in epidemiological studies. Characteristics of gene and dietary factors are divided into four categories: one carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and dietary factors including folate, vitamin B group and methionines; oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms and antioxidant nutrients including vegetable and fruit intake; carcinogen-metabolizing gene polymorphisms and meat intake including heterocyclic amins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; and other gene-diet interactive effect on cancer.

Effects of Styrene-metabolizing Enzyme Polymorphisms and Lifestyle Behaviors on Blood Styrene and Urinary Metabolite Levels in Workers Chronically Exposed to Styrene

  • Kim, Ki-Woong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.355-361
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 and lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, and exercise) modulate the levels of urinary styrene metabolites such as mandelic acid (MA) and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) after occupational exposure to styrene. We recruited 79 male workers who had received chronic exposure in styrene fiberglass-reinforced plastic manufacturing factories. We found that serum albumin was significantly correlated with blood styrene/ambient styrene (BS/AS), urinary styrene (US)/AS, and US/BS ratios as well as urinary metabolites, that total protein correlated with US/MA and US/PGA ratios, and that low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol significantly correlated with US/BS, US/MA, and US/PGA ratios. Multiple logistic regression analyses using styrene-metabolizing enzyme genotypes and lifestyle habits as dependent variables and blood and urine styrene concentrations and urine styrene metabolite levels as independent variables revealed that $CYP2E1^*5$ was associated with the MA/US ratio and GSTM1 with US/BS, that a smoking habit was associated with US/AS and MA/US ratios and MA and PGA levels, and that regular exercise was correlated with PGA/US. In conclusion, the results suggested that genetic polymorphisms of styrene-metabolizing enzymes, lifestyle behaviors, and albumin and LDL-cholesterol serving as homeostasis factors together are involved in styrene metabolism.

T-786C, G894T, and Intron 4 VNTR (4a/b) Polymorphisms of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene in Bladder Cancer Cases

  • Polat, Fikriye;Diler, Songul Budak;Azazi, Irfan;Oden, Artun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2199-2202
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    • 2015
  • The aim of the present study was to determine whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms play a role in development of bladder cancer in the Turkish population. The study was performed on 75 patients (64 men, 11 women) with bladder cancer and 143 healthy individuals (107 men, 36 women) with any kind of cancer history. Three eNOS gene polymorphisms (T-786C promoter region, G894T and intron 4 VNTR 4a/b) were determined with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment lenght polymorphism methods. In our study, GT and TT genotypes for eNOS G894T polymorphism were found to significantly vary among patients with bladder cancer and control group (OR: 0.185, CI: 0.078-0.439, p=0.0001 and OR: 0.324, CI: 0.106-0.990, p=0.026). Also, the frequency of the 894T allele was significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer (51%). No association was identified for eNOS T-786C and intron 4 VNTR 4a/b polymorphisms between patients with bladder cancer and control groups in our Turkish population.

Circulating levels of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis

  • Lee, Jung-Eun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.464-470
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    • 2011
  • Growing evidence suggests an elevated risk for colorectal neoplasia among individuals with low levels of vitamin D, the biological actions of which are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). To investigate the association among vitamin D status, VDR polymorphisms (FokI, and BsmI), and colorectal adenoma, we conducted a meta-analysis of nine studies of circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and five studies of FokI or BsmI polymorphisms in relation to colorectal adenomas. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. A total of 3398 coloreetal adenomas for 25(OH)D and 1754 colorectal adenomas for VDR were included in the meta-analysis. We identified a significant inverse association between colorectal adenoma (combined RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98 per 10 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D levels). When we examined FokI and BsmI polymorphisms in the meta-analysis, we found no association for either FokI (combined RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.95-1.06) or BsmI (combined RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93-1.05) in the additive model. These data suggest an inverse association between circulating 25(OH)D levels and colorectal adenoma risk.

Genetic Polymorphisms in Patients with Endometriosis in the Korean Population (한국인 자궁내막증 환자의 유전자 다형성 양상)

  • Lee, Gyeong-Hun;Choi, Young-Min
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.121-130
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    • 2009
  • Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea To analyze a wide variety of polymorphisms in patients with endometriosis is important since this disease has a strong genetic component. Until now, more than 30 Korean studies have been performed in order to elucidate the possible role of specific polymorphisms in the susceptibility to endometriosis. The most meaningful polymorphisms in Korean patients with endometriosis came from studies investigating GSTM1, AhRR, ER-alpha, VEGF, AHSG, and TNF-alpha. However, following studies should be made to confirm the consistency of the data to have some implications in the prediction of endometriosis. In this review, we also present the future direction of the association studies in complex trait disease such as endometriosis.

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Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer in Iran

  • Abediankenari, Saeid;Jeivad, Fereshteh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3187-3190
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    • 2013
  • Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor which contributes to many processes involved in cell survival, proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, that may lead to cancer development. Gastric cancer is one of the most common diseases of digestive system that has low 5-year-survival. The aim of this research was to determine the significance of EGFR tyrosine kinase domain gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 83 patients with gastric cancer and 40 normal subjects were investigated for EGFR gene polymorphisms in exons 18-21 by PCR-SSCP. Then, DNA sequencing was conducted for different mobility shift bands. Finally the data were statistically analyzed using the chi-2 test and the SPSSver.16 program. Results: Exon 18 of EGFR gene showed three different bands in SSCP pattern and DNA sequencing displayed one mutation. SSCP pattern of Exons 19 and 21 did not show different migration bands. Exon 20 of EGFR gene revealed multiple migrate bands in SSCP pattern. DNA sequencing displayed 2 mutations in this exon: one mutation was caused amino acid change and another mutation was silent. Conclusion: It may be that EGFR tyrosine kinase gene polymorphisms differ between populations and screening could be useful in gastric cancer patients who might benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

A Study on the DNA Polymorphisms at $\beta$fibrinogen Loci and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentration

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa;Ohrr, Hee-Choul;Song, Kyung-Soon
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 2001
  • Many prospective studies have confirmed the predictive value of plasma fibrinogen levels for vascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease. Several polymorphisms of the $\beta$fibrinogen gene have been investigated in relation to plasma fibrinogen levels. The blood samples for DNA were collected from 109 healthy Koreans who have no relationship by blood (67 males and 42 females) in due consideration of some other factors such as gender, age, and smoking status. Four polymorphisms of the $\beta$fibrinogen gene that consist of HaeIII, AluI, MaII and BcII restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were investigated to examine the associations between RFLPs and plasma fibrinogen levels. In conclusion, the significant associations between HaeIII, AluI, MnII RFLPs(H$_1$H$_2$, M$_1$M$_2$, $A_1$A$_2$) and the concentration of plasma fibrinogen were shown by the smokers as well as by the old people more than 50, whereas the association between BcII and plasma fibrinogen were shown no connection with the status of age and smoking. The concentration of plasma fibrinogen was significantly shown higher by the old people ($\geqq$50) by the younger people ($\leqq$49) in male and also higher by the smokers than by the nonsmokers.

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Association of GSTP1 and RRM1 Polymorphisms with the Response and Toxicity of Gemcitabine-cisplatin Combination Chemotherapy in Chinese Patients with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  • Yuan, Zhi-Jun;Zhou, Wen-Wu;Liu, Wei;Wu, Bai-Ping;Zhao, Jin;Wu, Wei;He, Yi;Yang, Shuo;Su, Jing;Luo, Yi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4347-4351
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    • 2015
  • Background: Previous studies showed that genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) were involved in glutathione metabolism and genetic polymorphisms of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM1) were correlated with DNA synthesis. Here we explored the effects of these polymorphisms on the chemosensitivity and clinical outcome in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with gemcitabine-cisplatin regimens. Materials and Methods: DNA sequencing was used to evaluate genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 Ile105Val and RRM1 C37A-T524C in 47 NSCLC patients treated with gemcitabine-cisplatin regimens. Clinical response was evaluated according to RECIST criteria after 2 cycles of chemotherapy and toxicity was assessed by 1979 WHO criteria (acute and subacute toxicity graduation criteria in chemotherapeutic agents). Results: There was no statistical significance between sensitive and non-sensitive groups regarding the genotype frequency distribution of GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism (p>0.05). But for RRM1 C37A-T524C genotype, sensitive group had higher proportion of high effective genotype than non-sensitive group (p=0.009). And according to the joint detection of GSTP1 Ile105Val and RRM1 C37A-T524C polymorphisms, the proportion of type A (A/A + high effective genotype) was significantly higher in sensitive group than in non-sensitive group (p=0.009). Toxicity showed no correlation with the genotypes between two groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Compared with single detection of genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 Ile105Val or RRM1 C37A-T524C, joint detection of both may be more helpful for patients with NSCLC to receive gemcitabine-cisplatin regimens as the first-line chemotherapy. Especially, genetic polymorphism of RRM1 is more likely to be used as an important biomarker to predict the response and toxicity of gemcitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy in NSCLC.