• Title, Summary, Keyword: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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In Vitro Mechanistic Studies of Photogenotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • Park, Jong-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.106-106
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    • 2003
  • Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are acutely toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms in the presence of environmentally realistic intensities of solar ultraviolet radiation (SUVR). The phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs through photodynamic activation of PAH compounds. Oxygen molecules react as quenchers with excited triplet states of PAHs producing reactive oxygen species (ROS).(omitted)

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Formation of particulate-phase and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke

  • Shimazu, Haruki;Yata, Tsuyoshi;Ozaki, Naoto
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.189-202
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    • 2017
  • This study examines the concentrations of particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and gas-phase PAHs in sidestream cigarette smoke. Sixteen PAHs were determined for four brands of cigarettes. The volume of the experimental room is approximately $66m^3$. The air samples in the room were collected before and after smoking. The median total of particulate-phase and gas-phase PAH concentrations before smoking $3.13ng/m^3$and $48.0ng/m^3$, respectively. The median concentrations of them after smoking were $10.0ng/m^3$ and $79.6ng/m^3$. The median increases in the total of 16 PAH concentrations per cigarette during smoking were 271 ng for the particulate-phase PAHs and 1960 ng for the gas-phase PAHs. According to the relationship between particulate-phase and gas-phase PAHs after smoking, the two- to four-ring gas-phase PAHs and the higher molecular weight particulate-phase PAHs were probably formed from similar precursors. The relationship between the total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration and the increase in the total particulate-phase concentration of the 16 PAHs per cigarette during smoking were significantly positive. The increase in the total gas-phase concentration of the 16 PAHs tended to increase as the TSP concentration increased. This may indicates that decreasing the amount of TSP produced inhibit the production of PAHs during smoking.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface water from the coastal area of Bangladesh

  • Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md.;Ahmed, Md. K.;Masunaga, Shigeki
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.177-200
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    • 2018
  • Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface water from the coastal areas of Bangladesh were analyzed by GC-MS/MS. Samples were collected in winter and summer, 2015. The total concentration of PAHs (${\Sigma}PAHs$) showed a slight variation in the two seasons, which varied from 855.4 to 9653.7 ng/L in winter and 679.4 to 12639.3 ng/L in summer, respectively. The levels of ${\Sigma}PAHs$ were comparable to or relatively higher than other coastal areas around the world. The areas with recent urbanization and industrialization (Chittagong, Cox's Bazar and Sundarbans) were more contaminated with PAHs than the unindustrialized area (Meghna Estuary). Generally, 2-3-ring PAHs were the dominant compounds. Molecular ratios suggested that PAHs in the study areas could be originated from both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. The risk assessment revealed the extremely high ecological risk of PAHs, indicating an intense attention should be paid to PAHs pollution in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

Excitation Mechanism of Fluorescent Polycyclic Aromatic Amines and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Peroxyoxalate Chemiluminescence Reactions

  • Sung Chul Kang;Kang-Jin Kim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.224-227
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    • 1990
  • The excitation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic amines (amino-PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) for the chemiluminescence arising from the reaction between oxalate ester, bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) or bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)oxalate (DNPO) and hydrogen peroxide has been studied in terms of the excitation efficiencies to singlet excitation energies and the oxidative half-wave potentials. As a results of the study, the excitations of both amino-PAHs and PAHs appear to involve the charge transfer type of energy transfer. However the chemiluminescence efficiency corrected for fluorescence quantum yield of the amino-PAHs are varied more sensitively to the oxidative half-wave potential than that of PAHs possibly due to the large difference in solvation energy between the compounds and their ions.

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Inhibitory effects of dietary antioxidants on the formation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled pork

  • Wongmaneepratip, Wanwisa;Jom, Kriskamol Na;Vangnai, Kanithaporn
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1205-1210
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The inhibitory effects of dietary antioxidants, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and quercetin, in marinade were investigated on the formation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA priority 16 PAHs) in grilled pork. Methods: The formation of PAHs in grilled sirloin pork with different marinades after charcoal-grilling for 2 min/side were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Compared with the control marinade treatment (without antioxidant), the addition of DADS (500 mg/kg meat sample) in marinade significantly decreased benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (100%) and heavy PAHs (84%) in charcoal-grilled pork, while the addition of quercetin at the same concentration could reduce 23% and 55% of BaP and heavy PAHs, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggested that the addition of DADS in the marinade could be important in decreasing the levels of PAHs in grilled meat.

Accumulation and Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Seafood from the Coastal Areas of Korea

  • Moon Hyo-Bang;Choi Hee-Gu;Kim Sang-Soo;Lee Pil-Yong
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 2002
  • Twenty seafood samples, which are common edible species and commercially important items in Korea, were purchased at the local fisheries markets and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer detector (GC/MSD). The levels of sixteen PAHs in seafood from Korean coasts were 161 to 2,243 pg/g wet weight. The highest concentration was found at saury (Coloabis saira) and the lowest level was found at jacopever (Sebastes schlegeli). The concentrations of potentially carcinogenic PAHs of six species were in the range of 9 to 123 pg/g wet weight. The residues of PAHs in fishes from Korean coasts were slightly low or relatively moderate to other countries. There was no correlation between PAH residues and lipid contents in seafood samples. The predominant contributors in fish samples were lower-molecular-weight two and three ring aromatic PAHs such as naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenanthrene. Filter-feeding organisms like shrimp, crab and topshell were dominated by three- and four-ring aromatic PAHs. The PAH profiles in marine sediments, bivalves, fishes, shrimp, crab and topshell according to exposure pathway were compared through factor analysis. The PAH profiles were clearly classified by the difference of species or environmental matrices. This result suggests that most of PAHs within the same samples behave identically in marine environment.

Disturbance in Testosterone Production in Leydig Cells by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • Oh, Seunghoon
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2014
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are ubiquitous in the air, are present as volatile and particulate pollutants that result from incomplete combustion. Most PAHs have toxic, mutagenic, and/or carcinogenic properties. Among PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) are suspected endocrine disruptors. The testis is an important target for PAHs, yet effects on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells are yet to be ascertained. Particularly, disruption of testosterone production by these chemicals can result in serious defects in male reproduction. Exposure to B[a]P reduced serum and intratesticular fluid testosterone levels in rats. Of note, the testosterone level reductions were accompanied by decreased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and $3{\beta}$-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase ($3{\beta}$-HSD) expression in Leydig cells. B[a]P exposure can decrease epididymal sperm quality, possibly by disturbing the testosterone level. StAR may be a key steroidogenic protein that is targeted by B[a]P or other PAHs.

Dietary Intake and Venous Blood Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Low-level Exposure (다환방향족탄화수소류의 음식물을 통한 섭취량과 혈중농도)

  • Moon, Chan-Seok
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the blood concentrations and dietary intake for 24-hour food duplicate of low level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Design: The geometric means of the blood concentrations and dietary intake of 16 PAHs in college student candidates were simply compared with instrumental detection. Methods: The concentrations of 16 PAHs in venous blood and 24-hour food duplicates were analyzed with head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, and acenaphthene among the 16 analyzed PAHs were simultaneously detected both in venous blood and 24-hour food duplicate samples. Conclusion: The main exposure source of the six PAHs is thought to be oral intake from food through low level non-occupational exposure.

Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by White Rot Fungi (백색부후균을 이용한 다환방향족 탄화수소(PAHs) 의 분해)

  • 류원률;서윤수;장용근;조무환
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.262-267
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    • 2000
  • The white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium(IFO 31249) Trametes sp and Pleurotus sp. were studied for their ability to degrade Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) using anthracene and pyrene as model compounds. The disapperarance anthracene and pyrene of from cultures of wild type strains. P chrysosporium Trametes sp. and Pleurotus sp was observed However the activities of ligninolytic enzymes were not detected in P chrysosporium cultures during degradation while ligninolytic enzymes were detected in both culture of Trametes sp. and Pleurotus sp. Therefore our results showed that PAHs was degraded under ligninolytic as well as nonligninolytic conditions. The results also indicate that lignin peroxidase(LiP) mananese peroxidase(MnP) and laccase are not essential for the biodegradation of PAHs by white rot fungi.

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Compositional Characteristics and Origin of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons[PAHs] of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products (원유와 석유제품 중의 다환방향족탄화수소류[PAHs] 분포특성과 발생원)

  • Chung, Hung-Ho;Park, Eun-Hee;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.397-403
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    • 2006
  • Compositional characteristics and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), which should be strongly regulated for environmental protection in the crude oils and petroleum products, have been investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). In the crude oils analyzed, two-rings compound(naphthalene) of PAHs was detected around $72.3\sim93.5%$, but five- or six-rings compound of PAHs was not detected. In the crude oils analyzed, the molecular ratio indices of Phe/Ant(phenanthrene/anthracene)>15, Fla/Pyr(fluoranthene/pyrene)<1, BaA/Chr(benzo (a)anthracene/chrysene)$\leq0.4$ could be effectively applied, and we found that the origin of PAHs was petrogenic sources. Total PAHs concentrations in the crude oils were increased with increasing API gravity and with decreasing sulfur contents of the analyzed crude oils. Five- or six-rings compound of PAHs were not included in ail petroleum products except bunker-C. Furthermore, the molecular ratio indices of Phe/Ant(phenanthrene/anthracene) vs. Fla/Pyr(fluoranthene/pyrene) could be effectively applied as the standard for the PAHs contamination criterion at the other Korean areas.