• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pollen traits

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Cone Sex Ratio and Pollen Traits in Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae)

  • Kang, Hyesoon;Yoon, Jumsoon
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2000
  • The pattern of variations in cone sex ratio and pollen traits such as pollen number and size was examined for two years in populations of red pines In Korea. We evaluated; (1) the relationship between tree size and cone sex ratio, (2) the relationship between year and cone sex ratio, and (3) the relationship between cone sex ratio and pollen traits. Larger trees in height and circumference at breast height produced more male as well as female cones. However, cone sex ratio was independent of these plant sizes. Across the two populations, both female cone numbers per tree and male cone numbers per new shoot increased 2.2 and 1.2 times, respectively, in 1999 compared to 1998, while the yearly pattern of male cone-bearing shoots per tree differed significantly between populations. Thus, cone sex ratio varied significantly between years in one of the two populations. Pollen traits such as the number of pollen grains and diameter did not vary significantly among populations. Pollen diameter and grain numbers per male cone were significantly negatively correlated with the cone sex ratio in two populations and one population, respectively. Trees which stopped female cone production in the first year and those which produced female cones in both years differed in the cone sex ratio and pollen size in the second year. The long duration of one reproductive episode and the potential of masting in red pines emphasize the need to conduct long-term studies on the dynamics of cone production, cone sex ratio, and simultaneous changes in pollen traits in red pines.

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Genetic Variation of a Single Pollen-derived Doubled Haploid Population in Rice

  • Moon, Huhn-Pal;Kang, Kyung-Ho;Ahn, Sang-Nag;Choi, Seon-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.250-253
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    • 1998
  • Somaclonal variation was observed in the field on doubled haploid plants derived from single pollen of a rice cultivar "Hwaseongbyeo". The variations of seven quantitative traits including plant height and one qualitative trait (pubescence) in 436 lines ($R_2$ generation) were analyzed. The number of lines which fell beyond the boundaries of the 95% confidence intervals of the check variety, Hwaseongbyeo was checked for each quantitative trait, and of those fertility showed the highest variation frequency (85.6%), followed by plant height (77.5%), flag leaf length (66.5%), grains per panicle (42.2%), days to heading (34.5%), panicle length (30.7%) and panicles per hill (22.7%). And the variations of quantitative traits except days to flowering appeared to move in the negative direction compared to "Hwaseongbyeo". Variability within lines was also observed for quantitative and qualitative traits. Twenty-nine $R_2$ lines (7%) segregated for pubescence and 130 $R_2$ lines (30%) showed variation with regard to fertility. This suggests that mutations usually occur before diploidization. Twenty-nine $R_2$ lines representing a wide spectrum of variation were chosen for RAPD analysis. The number of lines showing DNA polymorphism compared to Hwaseongbyeo ranged 0 from to 10 according to the primer used and this seems to indicate that specific loci have highly mutable genomic site.utable genomic site.

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Pollen morphology and character evolution in the subtribe Neoguillauminiinae (Euphorbiaceae)

  • PARK, Ki-Ryong
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2019
  • A pollen morphological study was conducted using light and scanning electron microscopy involving six species belonging to the subtribe Neoguillauminiinae. Pollen samples from the six species are tricolporate, and the colpi are surrounded by broad margo, with the widest width in the equator, narrower toward the pole, and rounded at the end. Based on the pollen morphology, pollen of the species in the subtribe Neoguillauminiinae were divided into four types: the Neoguillauminia type (T1), the C. collinus type (T2), the C. casuarinoides type (T3) and the C. paucifolius type (T4). The generic divergence between Neoguillauminia and Calycopeplus was supported by the pollen characters of the size, amb and lumina shape. In particular, the traits of rounded shape in the outline of the polar view and circular lumina, which appear only in the pollen grains of N. cleopatra, support the recognition of Neoguillauminia as a monotypic genus. Calycopeplus oligandrus and C. paucifolius had the same reticulate pattern of pollen grains, supporting Forster's hypothesis that these two species are closely related. On the other hand, the close relationship between the morphologically similar C. collinus and C. casuarinoides was not supported by the pollen characters. Within the subtribe there are two equally parsimonious hypotheses regarding the evolution of exine characters. The first consists of two changes of microreticulate through parallel evolution from the primitive reticulate exine, and the second is that the microreticulate pattern is differentiated from the reticulate state and then reversed to reticulate pollen grains.

Use of Androgenesis in Haploid Breeding

  • Yi, Gihwan;Kim, Kyung-Min;Sohn, Jae-Keun
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.75-82
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    • 2013
  • Haploids are plants with a gametophytic number of chromosomes in their sporophytes. Androgenesis occurs from asymmetric division of pollen grains into generative cells and vegetative cells, followed by re-entry of the vegetative cell during S-phase, which causes microspores progress into G2/M transition in culture. One of the most interesting features of haploids is the possibility to produce doubled haploid (DH) individuals. Doubled haploidy is extremely useful to plant breeders because it enables shortened breeding periods and efficiency in selection of useful recessive agronomic traits. Doubled-haploid technology is not only applicable to breeding, but also to transformation programs of desired genes. In addition to practical breeding programs, DH lines provide useful materials of fundamental genetics including exploitation of QTLs and genes conferred with various agronomic traits by establishing DH populations. This paper provides historical overviews on androgenesis and describes several mechanisms associated with pollen embryogenesis, including mode of actions in pollen embryogenesis, mechanisms of chromosome doubling and factors affecting androgenesis. We also discuss recent progress in application of haploids to breeding, genes associated with in vitro response and drawbacks to anther culture for application of doubled haploids in crop breeding.

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Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow between Glufosinate Ammonium-Tolerant GM and Non-GM Rice

  • Lee, Seung-Yeob;Kim, Min-Soo;Kim, Hyo-Jin;Ahn, Jeong-Ho;Baek, So-Hyeon;Shin, Woon-Chul;Kim, Hyun-Soon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2007
  • To assess the risk of genetically modified (GM) rice on the agricultural ecosystem, agronomic characteristics, pollen longevity and outcrossing rate between GM (Iksan 483 and Milyang 204) and non-GM (their wild types and female parents) varieties were investigated using the bar gene as a tracer marker in paddy field. The agronomic characteristics of two GM rice were similar to their female-parents (non-GM rice) except heading date and 1,000 grain weight of Iksan 483, and they did not show a difference by the introgression of the bar gene as the genetic traits of rice varieties. Pollen viability was more than 90% just after shedding, and it was rapidly decreased below 50% at 5 minutes after shedding both GM and non-GM varieties. The Pollen longevity was lost after 30 minutes of anthesis. When the distance of gene flow from GM to non-GM rice detected to 6 m from the edge of GM rice plant, the maximum distance of pollen dispersal was 4.5m and 3.9m in Iksan 483 and Milyang 204, respectively, and that was increased in order of west, south, east, and north to the dominant wind direction, west-south. Mean outcrossing rate was very low as 0.003 and 0.001% within 1.5 m from the edge of Iksan 483 and Milyang 204, and the GM hybrids by the pollen dispersal did not detected over 4.5 m from the edge of GM rice plant. The results may help to establish the strategy which reduce the risk of pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM rice.

Characteristics of 'Hongrou Taoye', a Grafted Chimera in Sweet Orange and Satsuma Mandarin

  • Zhang, Min;Xie, Zongzhou;Deng, Xiuxin;Liao, Shengcai;Song, Wenhua;Tan, Yong
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.390-395
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    • 2015
  • The synthesis of chimeras is a breeding approach for horticultural crops. In our breeding program, a new diploid citrus chimera, named 'Hongrou Taoye' (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck + Citrus unshiu Marc.), was found arising at the junction where a 'Taoye' sweet orange (C. sinensis) scion was grafted onto Satsuma mandarin (C. unshiu). As an artificial chimera, its fruit traits derived from the L1 cell layer, with juice color and carotenoid complement, in which ${\beta}$-cryptoxanthin accumulated predominantly, similar to those of Satsuma mandarin. By contrast, traits originating from the L2/L3 cell layer, including pollen, seed, and rind aroma characteristics, were the same as those of 'Taoye' sweet orange (the scion). SSR and cpSSR analyses showed that both nuclear and chloroplast genomes of the chimera were a combination of both donor parents. 'Hongrou Taoye' thus combined the valuable traits of both donor plants, and therefore has good potential in citrus fresh market.

Species Associations with Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis of Pinus rigida and Pyrola japonica

  • Huh, Man-Kyu;Huh, Hong-Wook;Kim, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 1999
  • The spatial distributions of allelic frequencies and ecological traits by randomization were studied in the natural population of two species (Pinus rigida and Pyrola japonica). Both species showed significant positive spatial autocorrelation as measured by Moran's I. In P. rigida, the genetic similarity was shown in individuals within up to a scale of 18 m distance and this is partly due to combination of pollen and seed dispersal by wind or men. In P. japonica, significant spatial autocorrelation was consisted of a scale of 8 m intervals. These population structure in the distribution of allelic frequencies is related to mating systems such as outcrossing and vegetative spread. The results also indicate that positive species associations between P. rigida and P. japonica can occur when both species select the same habitat or require the same environmental conditions.

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Characterization of Soybean Hybrid Seeds Resulted from Natural Hybridization between LM Soybean and Wild Soybean (LM콩과 야생콩인 돌콩의 교잡후대종 종자의 특성 평가)

  • Park, Hae-Rim;Yook, Min-Jung;Kim, Do-Soon
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.196-202
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    • 2016
  • With increasing LM soybean import, the concern about unintentional gene flow from LM soybean to wild soybean and consequential weedy risk has been growing. Therefore, we conducted this study to characterize seed traits including germination of hybrids resulted from gene flow from LM soybean to wild soybean in comparison with their parents, LM soybean and wild soybean. Pollen-donor LM soybean seeds were much greater and heavier (about 15.0 g of 100 seed weight) than F2 hybrid (5.7 g), while pollen-recipient wild soybean and F1 hybrid seeds were smallest and lightest (about 2.5 g). F2 hybrid was brown, intermediate between yellow LM soybean seed and black wild soybean seed. These findings indicate that F1 hybrid seeds show similar characteristics with wild soybean, while F2 hybrid seeds show intermediate color and size between two parents. F2 hybrid seed showed intermediate traits between two parents in germination and dormancy rates, which were 35% and 65%, respectively. LM soybean showed no dormancy, while wild soybean showed greater than 90% dormancy. This finding indicates that F2 hybrid show intermediate characteristics in seed germination with high dormancy trait, suggesting a potential weediness of hybrids resulted from gene flow from LM soybean to wild soybean.

The Characteristics of Progenies derived from Lilium lancifolium and Asiatic hybrid "Dreamland" (참나리와 Asiatic hybrid "Dreamland"의 교잡 후대 특성)

  • Park, In-Sook;Suh, Dong-Hee;Hwang, Yoon-Jung;Park, Song-Kyung;Kang, Si-Yong;Rhee, Hye-Kyung;Lim, Ki-Byung
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.451-455
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    • 2009
  • Lilium lancifolium, which is one of the Korean native lilies, possesses several useful genetic characteristics such as growth vigor, bulbil formation and resistance to Fusarium. Hybridization was performed to insert useful traits of Asiatic hybrid "Dreamland" as the male parent with upward direction and dark brown spotless on the petal into L. lancifolium as the female parent. The rate of pollen germination of L. lancifolium and "Dreamland" were 30% and 60%, respectively. The pollen germination ratio of $F_1$ progenies at flowering date was 25-57%, which is between the parents'pollen germination ratio. The individual flowering time was between 113 days and 131 days after planting. Of 99% of all plants, the leaf shape index was more than five, which means that the leaf shape of $F_1$ plants is more influenced by female than male parent. The flower color was separated into four types. 51.5% of the progenies showed orange and 44.2% showed light orange, respectively. The colors seemed to be highly influenced by female parents. Mixed colors of parents, orange yellow and light yellow orange, were 3.1%, 1.2%, respectively. Flowering directions were segregated by three different ways, upside, side, and downside. Side direction, which is medium type between female and male parent, was 73%. All progenies showed lots of spot on petals except one offspring. The percentage of bulbil formation on leaf axil was 49.4%. Among those, the maximum number of bulbil formation was 25. The mean number of bulbil formation per plant was five.

Phylogeny and systematics of Crossosomatales as inferred from chloroplast atpB, matK, and rbcL sequences

  • Oh, Sang-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.208-217
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    • 2010
  • Crossosomatales is a recently recognized order in the rosid II clade with about 64 species in eight morphologically distinct families that have been previously classified in as many as 15 other orders. Phylogenetic relationships among the families and genera within Crossosomatales were investigated using chloroplast atpB, matK, and rbcL sequences employing maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. The phylogenetic framework was used to examine the patterns of morphological evolution and synapomorphies for subclades within Crossosomatales. The combined data with representative species from all genera in the order strongly supported monophyly of Crossosomatales. Strong support was found for the families in the Southern Hemisphere, in which Aphloiaceae is sister to the clade of (Geissolomataceae, (Ixerbaceae + Strasburgeriaceae)). The sister relationship between the Southern Hemisphere clade and families distributed primarily in the Northern Hemisphere was also supported. As in the previous studies, following relationships were found within the Northern Hemisphere clade: Staphyleaceae is sister to a clade of (Guamatelaceae, (Stachyuraceae + Crossosomataceae)). The pattern analysis indicates that evolutionary pattern of morphological characters is complex, requiring multiple changes within Crossosomatales. Several reproductive traits, such as inflorescence, aril, stigma, and conspicuous protrusion from pollen aperture, corroborate the molecular phylogeny.