• Title, Summary, Keyword: Plasma Osmolality

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Plasma Osmolality Controls Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.8
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    • pp.1069-1085
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    • 2011
  • In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to clarify whether or not increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding suppress dry forage intake. Eight large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 3 to 6 years, weighing $72.3{\pm}2.74$ kg) were used in two experiments conducted under sham feeding conditions. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 h during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in the control replenished saliva lost via the esophageal fistula and an intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution (RIHS) in the treatment was carried out in order to reproduce the effects of changing salt content due to feed entering the rumen. In experiment 2, the RIHS control was conducted in the same manner as the RIHS treatment of experiment 1. The treatment group consisted of RIHS-with an intravenous infusion of artificial mixed saliva (VIAMS) treatment that was carried out for 3 h to prevent increases in plasma osmolality during feeding. The results of the RIHS treatment in experiment 1 showed that ruminal fluid osmolality increased and then an increase in plasma osmolality was observed. This resulted in the production of thirst sensations and the reduction of cumulative dry forage intake to 43.3% (p<0.05) of the RIAPS control. The results of the RIHS-VIAMS treatment in experiment 2 indicated that ruminal fluid osmolality was the same as the RIHS control but plasma osmolality significantly decreased, and thirst level was markedly reduced. This caused a significant increase of 31.4% (p<0.05) in cumulative dry forage intake in the RIHS-VIAMS treatment compared to the RIHS control. These results indicate that increases in ruminal fluid osmolality during dry forage feeding indirectly suppresses dry forage intake by causing an increase in plasma osmolality and subsequently inducing thirst sensations. The results of the present study suggest that marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding.

Pathophysiology and management of disorders in water metabolism (수분 대사 장애 질환의 병태 생리와 치료)

  • Kim, Dong Un
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.430-435
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    • 2007
  • Even though we drink and excrete water without recognition, the amount and the composition of body fluid remain constant everyday. Maintenance of a normal osmolality is under the control of water balance which is regulated by vasopressin despite sodium concentration is the dominant determinant of plasma osmolality. The increased plasma osmolality (hypernatremia) can be normalized by the concentration of urine, which is the other way of gaining free water than drinking water, while the low plasma osmolality (hyponatremia) can be normalized by the dilution of urine which is the only regulated way of free water excretion. On the other hand, volume status depends on the control of sodium balance which is regulated mainly by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, through which volume depletion can be restored by enhancing sodium retention and concomitant water reabsorption. This review focuses on the urine concentration and dilution mechanism mediated by vasopressin and the associated disorders; diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

In vitro Effect of High Osmolality on Plasma Membrane Activities in the Spermatozoa (In Vitro 고삼투압이 정자 원형질막의 Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation에 미치는 영향)

  • 오영근;장재호;최인호;정노팔;신형철;곽병주
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2000
  • It has been reported that plasma membrane activity of the spermatozoa may be susceptible to be influenced by extracellular osmolality and such membranous changes involve infracellular molecular changes, special regard to the structure of membranous lipids, and the accompanying ion-channel of which are closely related with their fluidity of $Ca^{2+}$ and HCO$^{-}_{3}$. It is of common recognition that a certain kind of sterol acceptor player an important to induce lipid fluctuation of the sperm plasma membrane which have been influenced by BSA administration and came in effect to outflow of cholesterol from the spermatozoa and resulted in changes of ionic fluidity to facilitate adenylyl cyclase, and to induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation by increase of cAMP and activation of PKA. Thus it seems likely that an augmentation of the acrosomal reaction is closely related with protein tyrosine phosphorylation. The following experimental results were obtained in the present study; Under the high osmolality conditions, the spermatozoa motility declined significantly and the structural change of the plasma membrane diminished to confirm that the response degrees to the osmolality depended upon the water transfer volume through the plasma membrane and the changes of cellular volume. Those experimental results suggest that a physiological parameter such as low temperature condition played an important role for presentation of spermatozoa and that inducement of spermatozoa activation for reinforcement of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. On the other hand, it seemed likely that the BSA administration as one of sterol accepters might represent a key role also under the high osmolality condition and their result also suggests that osmolality change, special regard to high osmolality condition may play an important role also in the processes of signal transmission.

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The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Mechanisms Controlling Feed Intake in Large-type Goats Fed on Dry Forage

  • Sunagawa, K.;Ooshiro, T.;Murase, Y.;Hazama, R.;Nagamine, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.1182-1189
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    • 2007
  • An intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of somatostatin 1-28 (SRIF) was used as a thirst-controlling peptide antagonist to investigate whether or not thirst-controlling peptides are involved in the significant decrease in feed intake during the initial stages of feeding large-type goats on dry forage. A continuous ICV infusion of SRIF was conducted at a small dose of $4{\mu}g$ ml/h for 27 h from day 1 to day 2. Goats (n = 5) were fed roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h twice daily and water was given ad libitum. Feed intake was measured during ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and SRIF. The feed intake during SRIF infusion increased significantly compared to that during ACSF infusion. In comparison to the ACSF treatment, plasma osmolality during the SRIF treatment significantly decreased during the first half of the 2 h feeding period. The factor causing the decrease in plasma osmolality during the ICV infusion of SRIF was a decrease in plasma Na, K, Cl, and Mg concentrations. In comparison to the ACSF infusion treatment, parotid saliva secretion volumes during the 2 h feeding period in the SRIF infusion treatment were significantly larger. While there was no significant difference in cumulative water intake (thirst levels) between the SRIF and the ACSF treatments upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period, based on the plasma osmolality results it is thought that thirst level increases brought about by alfalfa hay cube feeding in the first half of the feeding period were reduced. It is thought that the somatostatin-induced increases in feed intake during the 2 h feeding period in the present experiment were caused by decreases in plasma osmolality brought about by the somatostatin infusion. As a result, it is suggested that the significant decrease in feed intake during the initial stages of feeding in large-type goats given roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes, was due to the actions of thirst-controlling peptides.

The Main Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kishi, Tetsuya;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.341-352
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    • 2012
  • In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are mainly caused by the two factors, that is, ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst produced by dry forage feeding. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing $85.1{\pm}4.89kg$) were used in two experiments. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 am during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, saliva lost via the esophageal fistula was replenished by an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS) in sham feeding conditions (SFC) control, and the treatment was maintained under normal feeding conditions (NFC). In experiment 2, a RIAPS and non-insertion of a balloon (RIAPS-NB) control was conducted in the same manner as the SFC control of experiment 1. The intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and insertion of a balloon (RIHS-IB) treatment was carried out simultaneously to reproduce the effects of changing salt content and ruminal distension due to feed entering the rumen. The results of experiment 1 showed that due to the effects of multiple dry forage suppressing factors when feed boluses entered the rumen, eating rates in the NFC treatment decreased (p<0.05) after 40 min of feeding and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period reduced to 43.8% of the SFC control (p<0.01). The results of experiment 2 indicated that due to the two suppressing factors of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst, eating rates in the RIHS-IB treatment were, as observed under NFC, reduced (p<0.05) and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period decreased to 34.0% of the RIAPS-NB control (p<0.01). The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.5% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst are the main factors in the suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats.

Role of Plasma Osmolality in AVP and Aldosterone Release in Korean Young Men (혈장 삼투질 농도 변동에 따른 항이뇨 호르몬과 Aldosterone 분비조절 : 한국청년)

  • Lee, Won-Jung;Choo, Young-Eun;Koo, Ja-Hoon
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 1987
  • A study was carried out to find out the relationship between arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and plasma osmolality in 15 young men (age: 21.4 yr). After an overnight fasting, wale. (20 ml/kg) was imbibed, and venous blood and urine samples were collected every 30 min for 90 min. then 5% saline was infused (0.06 ml/min/kg) for 120 min. AVP was extracted on Sep-Pak column and measured by radioimmunoassay. Under basal condition, plasma osmolality (pOsm), AVP (pAVP) and aldosterone (pAldo) levels were 286.5 mOsm/kg, 1.1 pg/ml, and 140 pg/ml, respectively. pAVP became undetectable during maximum water diuresis, and increased in response to hypertonic saline infusion. pAVP level began to increase when pOsm was above 280 mOsm/kg. Changes in urinary AVP excretion (uAVP) was parallel to pAVP levels. The fall in pAVP was followed by a decrease in uAVP, uOsm and an increase in free water clearance, while the later rise in pAVP was followed by an increase in uAVP, uOsm and a decrease in free water clearance. When pooling all data together, relationships between pAVP and pOsm, and uAVP and uOsm were best expressed by an exponential relationship (r=0.78, 0.86, respectively). pAldo level decreased to 71 pg/ml after water ingestion, and decreased further to 30 pg/ml 2 hr after 5% saline infusion. Even at the same pNa, pAldo level during dehydration state was significantly higher than during hydration state. Negative exponential relation (r=-0.59) was observed between pAldo and pNa. Response to change in body fluid volume was greater in aldosterone than in AVP release.

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Milt Property and Sperm Motility of Panther Puffer, Takifugu pardalis (졸복, Takifugu pardalis 정액의 성상과 정자 운동성)

  • Kho, Kang Hee
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.168-172
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    • 2007
  • In the present study, attempts were made to find out the physico-chemical properties of milt and the sperm motilities in various osmotic conditions using Panther puffer, Takifugu pardalis. The average concentration of sperm in the milt was $12.1{\pm}3.2{\times}10^9/mL$. pH and osmolality of seminal plasma were $8.2{\pm}0.3$, $385.5{\pm}12.5mOsm/kg$, respectively. Spermatozoa were immotile when the milt was mixed with solutions (electrolyte or non-electrolyte) of lower osmolality than the average seminal plasma osmolality ($385.5{\pm}12.5mOsm/kg$), but became motile after mixing milt with hyperosmotic solutions.

A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats

  • Thang, Tran Van;Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kishi, Tetsuya;Ogura, Go
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.502-514
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    • 2012
  • When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing $85.1{\pm}4.89kg$) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (p<0.05) in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. However, plasma osmolality in the FBR treatment was lower (p<0.05) than compared to the NFC control from 30 min after the start of feeding. Therefore, thirst level in the FBR treatment was 82.7% less (p<0.01) compared with that in the NFC control upon conclusion of the 30 min drinking period. The results of the study indicate that the increased plasma osmolality in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period is the main physiological stimulating factor of water intake during and after dry forage feeding in large-type goats.

Safety Assessment of Osmolality Concentration and Biochemical Factors Changes in Electrolyte Metabolism during an Ultra-marathon (100 km) (울트라 마라톤(100 km)에서 삼투압 농도와 전해질 대사의 생화학적 요인 변화에 대한 안전성 평가)

  • Shin, Kyung-A;Kim, Young-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate the electrolyte metabolic responses to a 100 km ultra-marathon in 22 male amateur runners. Their average age was $50.91{\pm}4.77$ years old and their $VO_2max$ value was $48.19{\pm}6.4 mL/kg/min$. The participants completed the race with a mean finishing time of $205.55{\pm}19.61$ minute. Electrolyte parameters based on blood tests including calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, total carbon dioxide, anion gap, plasma volume change and osmolality were measured pre-race, at 50 km, and at 100 km (post-race). Only slight changes in sodium level with no cases of hypernatremia or hyponatremia were observed. Additionally, all the electrolyte parameters changes were within the normal range and plasma volumes were unchanged. Overall, amateur marathon runners are not at risk to develop clinically significant electrolyte or osmolality changes during a 100 km ultra-marathon.