• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pinus thunbergiana

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Effects of Aluminum Solution Treatment on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Three Tree Species (알루미늄용액 처리가 세 수종의 종자발아와 묘목생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 김갑태;추갑철;엄태원
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 1993
  • To examine aluminum toxicity on woody plants, aluminum solution and ground water(pH 6.75) were treated on the seeded pot (48$\times$33$\times$9cm) of Pinus thunbergiana, Thuja orientalis and Ligustrum obtusifolium, filled with sand, three times per week, 5mm per time, from April 28, 1993 to June 16. Aluminum solution were prepared 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mM aluminum potassium sulfate, dilulted with ground water. Growth-related characters(seedling number, seedling height, top, root and total dry weight) were measured and compared among species and treatments. The response of seedling growth-related characters to aluminum solution treatment differed among the species, and the most sensitive species is Ligustrum obtusifolium, and the most tolerant species is Pinus thunbergiana.

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The Effect on the Forest Plant Community by the Air Pollution around Daesan and Kunsan Industrial Complex Areas (대산.군산공단지역의 대기오염이 삼림식물군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Kyung-Jae;Cho, Woo;Han, Bong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 1995
  • To investigate the damage on the forest plant community by the air pollution around Daesan, Kunsan industrial complex, five sites(Daesan) and three sites(Kunsan) were set up and surveyed(Area : 500$m^2$/site). In the analysis of community structure, the dominant species in the canopy and understory layer were Pinus densiflora, P. thunbergiana. ones in the shrub layer appeared Rhododendron mucronulatum and Quercus spp. in the Daesan industrial complex. Species diversity of the plant community in Daesan industrial complex showed very severe difference between plots. Soil acidity measured 4.67~5.12. It was not found that plant community in Daesan industrial complex appeared serious damage by the air pollutant. In the analysis of community structure the dominant species in the canopy and understory layer were P. densiflora, P. thunbergiana in Kunsan industrial complex. Species diversity of the plant community in Kunsan industrial complex was prove to low as nearer from the pollutant. Soil acidity measured 4.32~4.76 and it was very strong acidity. It was found that plant community as nearer from the pollutant appeared visible damage entirely by the air pollutant in Kunsan industrial complex.

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A Study on the Production and Decomposition of Litters of Major Forest Trees in Korea (우리 나라 주요 삼림수종의 낙엽의 생산과 분해에 관한 연구)

  • 김종희;장남기
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 1997
  • The production and decomposition rate of litters of major forest trees in Korea, such as Quercus acutissima, Quercus mogolica Robinia pseudoacacia Pinus rigida, Pinus thunbergiana, Abies koreana,Phy'llostackys reticulata, were estimated by Olson model. The amount of mineral nutrients in litters and soil were measured, and the relationships among them were studied. The annual litter production was the most in the forest of broadleaved deciduous trees and the least in the forest of monocotyledonous trees. The decomposition rate of broadleaved deciduous litters was higher than that of coniferous litters and lower than that of R. pseudoacacia litters. The time required for the decomposition of half of the accumulated organic matter of R.pseudoacacia litter, Quercus litter, P. rigida litter, Ph. reticulata litter, P. thunbergiana litter and .4.koreana litter in the forest stands were 1.263 years, 2.290~2.365 years, 2.644 years, 4.660 years,4.750 years, 6.699 years respectively. The amounts of N in litters and the amounts of N returned to the soil in the forests of R. pseudoacacia. Quercus, Pinus were proportional to the decay rate of organic matter. Key words: Annual litter production, Decomposition rate.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plant Extracts against Streptococcus mutans II

  • Eum, Jin-Seong;Park, Young-Doo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Information and Commucation Sciences Conference
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    • pp.865-869
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to research antimicrobial agents from medicinal plants, Pueraria thunbergiana, Sophora flavescens, Lonicera japonica, Pinellia ternata, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Paeonia lactiflora, Angelica dahurica, Spirodela polyrhiza, Cryptotympana pustulata, Pinus densiflora, Cimicifuga heracleifolia, Bupleurum falcatum, Magnolia kobus, Artemisia princeps, Houttuynia cordata, Forsythia koreana, Arctium lappa, Castanea crenata, Aster tataricus, Citrus unshiu, Gardenia jasminoides, Ledebouriella seseloides, Hovenia dulcis, Prunus sargentii. The ethanol extracts of 24 medicinal plants were tested for the antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. The extracts of Sophora flavescens, Pinus densiflora, Cimicifuga heracleifolia, Gardenia jasminoides and Ledebouriella seseloides showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans. The extracts of Pinus densiflora and Sophora flavescens among these medical plants showed significant antimicrobial activity against Streptcoccus mutans. These results suggested that the extracts from Pinus densiflora and Sophora flavescens could be the potential source of antimicrobial agents against S. mutans.

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Effects of Artificial Acid Rain on Seed Germination, Growth and Needle of Several Conifers(1) (인공산성우가 몇 침엽수종의 종자발아, 생장 및 침엽에 미치는 영향(1))

  • 김갑태
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1992
  • Artificial acid rain (pH 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) was treated on the seeded pots of 4 species to examine its effects on germination, leaf injury and seedling growth. Artificial acid rain was prepared by diluting sulfuric acid with ground water and ground water (pH 6.5) was used as control. Artificial acid rain was sprayed to seeded pots three times per week. About 5mm of artificial acid rain was treated each time from early April to early October, 1991. Germination, seedling establishment, leaf injury, soil acidity and seedling growth were measured and compared among the treatments. The results were summarized as follows; 1. Germination and seedling establishment rate of Pinus thunbergiana was highest on the pH 4.0 pot whereas that of Picea abies was highest on the pH 3.0 pot. Those of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were not significantly differed among the treatments. 2. The differences in seedling height of all species were not significantly differed among the treatments. 3. Seedling dry weight of Pinus densiflora differed significantly among the treatments. but that of Pinus thunbergiana did not differ. 4. With decrease of pH value of artificial acid rain. the number of injured needle and injured individual tended to be increased. 5. The differences of soil acidity were significant among the treatments for all species.

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Vegetation Structure and Succession of Highway Cutting-slope Area (고속도로 절토비탈면의 식생구조와 천이)

  • Song, Hokyung;Jeon, Giseong;Lee, Sanghwa;Kim, Namchoon;Park, Gwansoo;Lee, Byungjun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.69-79
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to select proper species for early stage replantation in highway cut-slope area. In highway cut-slope area, sample plots of 106 were selected, and their vegetations and environmental factors were investigated. 1. We found total 172 species in the 106 cutting area of highway. The species of high frequency of highway cut-slope were found in the order of Lespedeza bicolor, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Festuca arundinacea, Erigeron annuus, Lespedeza cuneata, Lactuca indica var. laciniata, Eragrostis curvula, Dactylis glomerata, Oenothera lamarckiana, Wistaria floribunda, Humulus japonica, Commelina communis, Miscanthus sinensis, Pueraria thunbergiana, Pinus densiflora, etc. 2. The average vegetation coverage was over 90% in the study sites and the average coverage was 91.4% in the total cut-slope area. The species of high coverage of highway cut-slope area were found in the order of Festuca arundinacea, Eragrostis curvula, Lespedeza bicolor, Wistaria floribunda, Lespedeza cuneata, Dactylis glomerata, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Humulus japonica, Pueraria thunbergiana, Robinia pseudoacacia, Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Festuca ovina, Pinus densiflora, Parthenocissua tricuspidata, etc. 3. The total coverage in the foreign plants of Festuca arundinacea, Eragrostis curvula, Dactylis glomerata, Poa pratensis, Medicago sativa, Coreopsis drummondii and native plants of Lespedeza bicolor, Wistaria floribunda, Lespedeza cuneata, Amorpha fruticosa, Indigofera pseudotinctoria, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya were 57.52%. That is, the ecological succession of native herbs and parachute shrubs have delayed because the afforested plants occupy 57.52%. In future, the coverage of foreign herbs have to reduce, and the coverage of the native herbs and parachute shrubs must be increased. 4. The native seed of Artemisia sp., Miscanthus sinensis, Smilax china, Pueraria thunbergiana, Rubus crataegifolius, Rubus parvifolius, Pinus densiflora, Rhus chinensis, Albizzia julibrissin, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Clematis apiifolia, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Prunus sargentii could be added in the seedling of the temperate south zone highway with the used seeds. The native seed of Artemisia sp., Miscanthus sinensis, Rubus crataegifolius, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Weigela subsessilis, Stephanandra incisa, Rhus chinensis, Pinus densiflora, Salix koreensis, Cocculus trilobus, Populus alba, Spiraea prunifolia for. simpliciflora, Clematis apiifolia, Lindera obtusiloba, Quercus serrata, etc., could be added in the seedling of the temperate middle zone highway with the used seeds. 5. We have some recommendation. The native plants have to growth in the highway cut-slope area instead of foreign plants to have good environmental ecology. The role of the foreign plants should be the plant for the initial several years in the highway cut-slope area. And, the native plants should growth in the next season. 6. We should protect shrubs and trees in the highway slope area because shrubs and trees can be more helpful in stabilizing of the slope area than herbs.

Within0tree Disribution of matsucoccus thunbergianae on Pinus thunbergiana (해송에서의 솔껍질깍지의 벌레 수상분포 양식)

  • 박승찬
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.114-121
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    • 1994
  • Population densities of intermediate nymphs and egg saw of Matsucoccus thunbergianae, a major insect pest of Pinus thunbergiona in southern coastal area of Korean peninsula, were est~mated. Tree samples of ca. 10cm D.B.H. were collected from old infestation area and newly invaded area. The numben of plimaly branches per tree were not significantly different by the locality, but those of secondaly and smaller branches were smaller in old infestation area The numbers of intermediate nymphs per tree in old infestation area and in newly invaded area were 10.8 and 13.1 times more than those on the trunk, respectively Approximately between 4, 200 and 208, 500 nymphs per tree were estimated. Men secondaw and smaller bmnch samples collected from the basal part of middle crown height, or from the central or the basal part of lower crown height, the number of samples required for the emr range of 20% were 21 and 11 far 10-20cm and 20-3 crn long branches, respectively. Approx~mately 63.6% of egg sacs of the whole tree were on the trunk. The node/intemode bearing the largest branch had the highest egg sac density; including that, four adjacent nodes/intemodes had ca. 37% of egg saw on the trunk.

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Analysis on the Vegetation Structure of the Decomposed Granite Cut-slope - In case study on forest road of Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do - (화강암질 풍화토 절토비탈면의 식생구조 분석 - 경상도와 전라도 임도를 중심으로 -)

  • Song, Ho-Kyung;Park, Gwan-Soo;Lee, Joon-Woo;Lee, Mi-Jeong;Kim, Hyo-Jeong;Kwon, Oh-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to select proper species for early stage replantation in granite forest roads cut-slope. From one to fourteen year elapsed forest roads in eight regional areas of Gyeongsang-do and Jeolla-do, sample plots were selected, and their vegetations and environmental factors were investigated. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, soil moisture content, and bulk density in the granite weathering soils were below 0.4%, 0.03%, 12.4%, and above 1.2g/$cm^3$, respectively. The result indicated that the soil was not good for plant growth. The environmental factors affecting distribution of species in the granite forest roads were the elapsed year, elevation, and cut-slope aspect. Invaded species with high frequency in the forest road cut-slope ordered Pinus densiflora, Lespedeza bicolor, Rubus crataegifolius, Alnus hirsuta, Youngia denticulata, Patrinia villosa, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, and Dactylis glomerata. Herbs seeded in earth stage such as Dactylis glomerata, Eragrostis curvula, Festuca arundinacea, Lespedeza sp., and Amorpha fruticosa had changed into perennial herbs and shrubs such as Youngia denticulata, Patrinia villosa, Aster scaber, Patrinia scabiosaefolia, Melica onoei, Astilbe chinensis var. davidii, Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum, Pueraria thunbergiana, Stephanandra incisa, and Clematis apiifolia, and had changed into plants such as Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Artemisia keiskeana, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora, Rhododendron mucronulatum, Rubus crataegifolius, and Zanthoxylum schinifolium according to elapsed year of forest roads. Leguma such as Lespedeza sp., Pueraria thunbergiana, Amorpha fruticosa, etc., herbs such as Artemisia keiskeana, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis, Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum, Miscanthus sinensis, etc., and woody plants such as Pinus densiflora, Rubus crataegifolius, Rhododendron mucronulatum, etc., with foreign herbs were considered as proper species for replantation in granite forest road cut-slope.

Ecological Study on the Flora of the Wi Island (위도 식물상의 생태학적 연구)

  • Huh, Kwang Shin;Il Koo Lee
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.4 no.3_4
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    • pp.68-79
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    • 1981
  • We discovered following on our surveys to the island six times in May, August (1978), in April, May, June, July (1979). There are 73 families, 158 genera, 189 species, 31 varieties over Tracheophyta Fuller & Tippo. Till early or middle age of Lee Dynasty, the island's dominant plants was evergreen broad-leaved trees, mainly consisted with Camellia japonica L. and Castanopsis cuspidata Schot, var. sieboldii Nakai but due to the population growth and increased exiles constant ground burnt off fr cultivation, the number of evergreen broad-leaved trees was decreased and that of P. densiflora S. et Z. replaced position. That is to say, the island was dominated by the flora of the subtropical zone era, but it has been complicated by flora of the temperate zone whose reproductivity is more vivid, in modern era. Recently Pinus thunbergiana Franco, Robinia pseudo-acasasia L. Amoroha fructicasia L. invaded and reserved inthe island. During a decade of the end of Japanes rule and after liberation about all of Pinus densiflora S. et Z. were cut downed, and after that, under the Forest Bureau, there have being sucessed to Pinus thunbergiana France. Camellia japonica L. other 20 species of evergreen broad-leaved trees are distributed in Island Wi, a tutelary shrine of Dae Ri, a mountain at the back of a village of Chi Do Ri and a mountain at the back of Jin Ri administrative office of a township. The special plants of the island are 1) state of Lycoris aurea Herb which of foun in a ridge between fields and forest around Jin Ri and 2) stock of Cmbidium virescens Lindly bloomed under the Pinus densiflora forest of Keun Tan Chi Do.

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Monitoring of Black Pine Bast Scale, Matsucoccus thunbergianae (Homoptera: Margarodidae) Using Yellow Sticky Trap (황색 끈끈이트랩을 이용한 솔껍질깍지벌레(Homoptera: Margarodidae) 예찰)

  • Lee, Chang Jun;Kim, Dong Soo;Chung, Young Hack;Lee, Sang Myeong;Lee, Suck Jun;Lee, Dong Woon
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.143-149
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    • 2018
  • The black pine bast scale (BPBS), Matsucoccus thunbergianae (Homoptera: Margarodidae), is one of the most serious insect pests of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergiana) in Korea. The density of BPBS varies by tree, branch, and location, making it difficult to monitor them. This study investigated to find a monitoring method for distribution and occurrence of BPBS on Japanese black pine using the yellow sticky trap. The density of male BPBS on sticky trap and nymphs from the branch of Japanese black pine was highly correlated in various surveyed sites. The number of male BPBS that attracted to the yellow sticky traps was higher in upper crown than the lower crown of P. thunbergiana but this was not statistically significant. The density of BPBS nymphs increases with the increase of the diameter of the branch, but the differences were not significant from 1 to 2.5 cm. BPBS was highly distributed in bottom-faced branch than the upper-faced branch of P. thunbergiana. Therefore, we suggest, the yellow sticky trap for the monitoring of BPBS and when examining the nymph density in branch, it is recommended that the bottom-faced branch of the 2-2.5 cm diameter branch be examined.