• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pinus densiflora

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Vegetation Structure and Management Planning on the Historical Landscape of Pinus densiflora Forest in Guryong Valley, Chiak National Park (역사문화적 관점에서의 치악산국립공원 구룡계곡 소나무림의 식생구조 및 관리방안)

  • Oh, Hee-Young;Kang, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Myeong-Seop;Back, Seung-Jun;Hong, Jeum-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.117-131
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to draw vegetation landscape elements in the ancient literature, investigate plant community structure, understand vegetation structure, and suggest reasonal conservation management methods. As a result of analyzing ancient literature, geomorphological landscapes in Guryong valley were canyon landscape and valley surrounded in Mt. Chiak. Plant landscape factors were as followed. Rhododendron spp. spread around valley. Also, Pinus densiflora communities were distributed in Guryong valley around. Especially, the entrance zones of Guryong valley were described as covered with Pinus densiflora and Whangchangkumpyo(黃腸禁標). Therefore, it was estimated that entry of Guryong valley was covered with Pinus densiflora community landscape. As for current vegetation result, the main vegetation was divided into mixed deciduous broad-leaved trees community and Pinus densiflora community. As a result of analysis by TWINSPAN for community classification, five communities(Deciduous broadleaved trees, Pinus densiflora, Pinus densiflora-Abies holophylla, Abies holophylla, and Pinus koraiensis community) were classified. To maintain historic plant landscape and conserve crucial resources, Pinus densiflora community was classified as concentrated conservation management area($105,472m^2$). To maintain Pinus densiflora landscape which has high historical and cultural value of Guryong valley, it was considered that active density control of lower layer vegetation would be necessary. Accordingly, to conserve P. densiflora landscape, Whangchangkumpyo(?腸禁標), that area was separated into Pinus densiflora lower layer forest management area($84,029m^2$) and Pinus densiflora seedling conservation management area($21,443m^2$). In understory of Pinus densiflora lower layer flora, the target tree species for elimination and management were Quercus serrata and Quercus mongolica. They were $4{\sim}6trees/100m^2$ and their average diameter was 7.1cm. To preserve Pinus densiflora seedlings, areas with Sasa borealis, the ground vegetation of Pinus densiflora community, rate of 80% or more should be selected as priority management areas and concentrated elimination and management of Sasa borealis should be implemented. Likewise, traditional Pinus densiflora forest is a historically cultural heritage to preserve with sustainable interest and survey. Efficient management method through systematic monitoring system should be made.

Fatty Acid Composition of Total Lipids from Needles and Pollen of Korean Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis (소나무 및 잣나무의 잎과 꽃가루의 지방산 조성)

  • Yoon, Tai-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1992
  • The needles and pollen of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis were studied for their lipid contents and fatty acid composition. The total lipid contents in needles of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis were 5.0 and 4.5%, whereas in pollen of Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis 3.5 and 5.6%, respectively. Twenty-four fatty acids ranged from lauric acid to docosahexaenoic acid(22:6${\omega}$3) were identified in the needle lipids. In needles, linolenic acid and palmitic acid were the major fatty acids. The needles of Pinus densiflora showed higher proportions of docosahexaenoic acid and 5-olefinic nonmethylene-interrupted polyenoic acids than those in the Pinus koraiensis. Twenty fatty acids ranged from myristic acid to lignoceric acid were identified in the pollen lipids. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid in the pollen followed by oleic and palmitic acid. The fatty acid profile of pollen of Pinus densiflora was similar to those of the Pinus koraiensis pollen lipids.

Community Structure and Environmental Factors of the Major Type of Pinus densiflora Populations in Korea (우리나라 소나무 주요유형지별 식생구조와 환경요인)

  • Yoon, Jung Won;Kim, Yong Shik;Kim, Gi Song;Sung, Jung Won;Park, Ki Hwan;Lee, Chang Hyun;Shin, Hyun Tak;Yi, Myung Hoon
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.167-178
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    • 2014
  • The populations of Pinus densiflora in South Korea were grouped into 4 types; Community of Pinus densiflora-Quercus serrata, Community of Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica, Community of Pinus densiflora-Fraxinus sieboldiana & Rhus javanica & Quercus mongolica and Community of Pinus densiflora-Prunus sargentii & Rhododendron mucronulatum. The Shannon diversity index was varied between 0.9171 and 1.5016, while the Similarity index was varied between 43.18 and 72.16. The species of Pinus densiflora are correlated positively significant with Carex humilis var. nana, Quercus serrata and Atractylodes ovata and negatively significant with Aster scaber and Sorbus alnifolia in order. According to the Correlation analysis, the relationship between the distribution of Pinus densiflora populations and the environment factors are closely related with the character of forest soil. Thus types for Pinus densiflora are differed. pH, Ex. K and Ex. Ca of Pinus densiflora populations effect No. of species and H'(shannon index). Canopy open effects No. of Individuals of Pinus densiflora community.

Regeneration of Pinus densiflora Commuity around that Yeocheon Industrial Complex Disturbed by Air Pollution (대기오염으로 교란된 여천공단 주변 소나무군락의 재생)

  • Lee, chang Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.305-316
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    • 1993
  • Stands profiles, yearly changes in growth of annual rings, age and diameter structure, and spatial distribution pattern of individuals in the Pinus densiflora stands around the Yeocheon industrial complex were investigated. Growth of annual ring in Pinus densiflora, which survived when vegetation of this area was damaged by air pollutants, was suppressed for about 10 years since 1974 when factories in this area began to operate, but since then such suppressed growth tended to be recovered. It was supposed that the suppresed growth was originated from air pollution and that improvement of growth since the suppressed period was due to the release from competition with them by death of neighbouring trees and the resuction of the amount of air pollutants. Physiognomy of Pinus densiflora stands showed mosaic pattern composed of different patches. Spatial distribution pattern of individuals an stand profiles were similar to those of Pinus densiflora stands regenerated after natural and artificial disturbances. In an age distribution diagram, age of Pinus densiflora population ranged from 1 to 33 years, Among these individuals were recrited corresponded to the suppresed period of growth of annual ring in Pinus densiflora survived when the vegetation was damaged by air pollution. On the other hand, from the result of analysis of frequency distribution diagram of diameter, it was postulated that even if whis Pinus densiflora community can be maintained as it is for the time being, it might be changed to Quercus community with the lapse of time.

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Flavor Components of the Needle Oils from Pinus rigida Mill and Pinus densiflora Sieb & Zucc (리기다송(Pinus rigida Mill)과 적송(Pinus densiflora Sieb & Zucc)잎 정유의 향기성분)

  • Choi, Kyoung-Sook;Park, Hyoung-Kook;Kim, Jung-Han;Kim, Yong-Taik;Kwon, Ik-Boo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.769-773
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    • 1988
  • The needle oils of Pious rigida Mill and Pious densiflora Sieb & Zucc were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The major components of Pinus rigida were ${\alpha}-pinene$, 1-hexen-3-ol formate, sabinene, ${\beta}-pinene,\;{\alpha}-terpineol$ and ${\beta}-caryophyllene,\;{\alpha}-pinene$, bornyl acetate, ${\beta}-pinene$ and ${\beta}-hpellandrene$ were the major components fo Pious densiflora. Pious densiflora had sweeter and more greenish note than Pines rigida because the bornyl acetate content of Pious densiflora was about three times more than that of Pious rigida.

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The Monoterpenoids in Pinus tyhunbergii, Pinus rigida and Pinus densiflora (곰솔, 리기다소나무 및 소나무의 Monoterpenoids)

  • 강호남;김종희
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 1997
  • The monoterpenoids are analysed in leaves and fallen leaves of Pinus species (P. thunbergii, P.. rigida. P. densiflora.). The amount of total monoterpenoids of P. thunbergii was always the highest, and then those of P. rigida and P. densiflora were orderly decreasing (P<0.05). The major monoterpenoids of P. thunbergii, P. rigida and P. densiflora are ${\beta}-pinene$, comphene and sabinene. There was no significant difference among the seasonal variation in monoterpenoids composition (P>0.05), but the concentrations of fenchone and bornyl acetate were varied (P<0.05).

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Structure and Dynamics of Pinus densiflora Community in Mt. Kaya (가야산(伽倻山) 소나무(Pinus densiflora)군락(群落)의 구조(構造) 및 동태(動態))

  • Bae, Kwan Ho;Hong, Sung Cheon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.85 no.2
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    • pp.260-270
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    • 1996
  • Structure and dynamics of Pinus densiflora community in Mt. Kaya were studied to provide the information needed for management of Pinus densiflora forest in the southern inland of Korea. Stratification structure of Pinus densiflora community in the lower and middle slope consisted of tree layer(10~15m), subtree layer(4~10m), shrub layer(1~4m), and herb layer(below 1m), while in the rock zone of ridge and top area consisted of tree layer(7~10m), subtree layer(2~7m), shrub layer(1~2m), and herb layer(below 1m). According to the diameter distribution of tree species in Pinus densiflora community, secondary Pinus densiflora forest will gradually decline. Its forest may be replaced by Quercus mongolica, Quercus serrata, Carpinus laxiflora, C. cordata, and Fraxinus rhychophylla in the lower slope, and by Quercus mongolica in the middle slope. Pinus densiflora forest has its seedlings and saplings in ridge and top area, so it may be sustained. By taking cores from Pinus densiflora trees in research area, it could be obtained that in the lower and middle slope, age of Pinus densiflora forest was about 80~90 years old. When the age of its trees was about 72~80 years old, withering trees of standing dead occurred. Disturbance regime of Pinus densiflora community in Mt. Kaya consisted of standing dead, uprooting and limbfall, these were 70.6%, 17.6% and 11.8% respectively. It takes about 100~110 years for advance growth of Pinus densiflora in ridge and top area to reach tree layer. During the period, it has twice chances of disturbance in standing dead. Annual diameter growth of Pinus densiflora was 2.45~2.9mm in the lower and middle slope, while it was 1.75mm in ridge and top region, by measuring cores.

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Management Plan to Consider Ecological Characteristic of Pinus densiflora Community in Seoul (서울시 소나무림의 생태적 특성에 따른 관리방안 연구)

  • Lee, Soo-Dong;Lee, Kyoung-Jae;Choi, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.258-271
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    • 2009
  • Various environmental parameters change and ecological succession often lead to decline of Pinus densiflora forest in Seoul. Due to decline of it, we proposed the ecological management for conserving and improving from decrease of its dominant area on there. We analysed the P. densiflora forest's classification and suggested its ecological management that based on relation to competition between dominant species in the upper tree layer, the presence of competitive species in shrub layer and vegetation management standard. The Pinus densiflora forest types has been classified 6 types by ecological characteristics. The results from categorized its types are following as; 1) Pinus densiflora pure forest type; edaphic climax Pinus densiflora forest(26.1%), Pinus densiflora pure forest(21.5%). 2) the forest of Pinus densiflora and other species that compete with each other type; Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica forest(28.0%), Pinus densiflora-Pinus rigida forest(13.1%), Pinus densiflora-Quercus acutissima(4.2%). We conclude that the results in these kind of 4 types; Pinus densiflora pure forest type where possible to maintain the forest by edaphic climax, human trampling damage, vegetation management(e.x. remove the competition species, shrub layers management etc.) are mainly need to negative management. Whereas, the others 4 types; Pinus densiflora and other species(Quercus variabilis, foreign species, naturalized species etc.) that compete with each other types are need to positive management such as manage the same niche competition species, shrub layers management, remove the foreign species, naturalized species etc.. In these kinds of ecological management are very necessary to maintain Pinus densiflora forest.

A Phytosociological Study of the Forest Communities on Mt. Kwanak, Seoul (관악산의 산림군락에 관한 식물사회학적 연구)

  • 이병굉
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1972
  • As part of the study of the structure and the successional trends of our temperate forests, a quantitative survey was made of the relatively well conserved forest stands on Mt. Kwanak, Seoul. Three community types were observed; the Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica community, the Pinus densiflora community, and the Quercus mongolica community. Evidence suggests that the dominance of Pinus densiflora and quercus mongolica will continue in the Pinus densiflora-Quercus mongolica community, however, in the Pinus densiflora community the dominant species, Pinus densiflora, is now being replaced by Quercus mongolica. The trend toward an increased in Acer pseudo-sieboldianum var. koreanum, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Carpinus cordita, and Acer mono is observed in the Quercus mongolica community. An analysis of the overall composition of the forest reveals that the upper story is mostly occupied by Quercus mongolica and Pinus densiflora, the shrub layer by Rhododendron schlippenbachii and Lespedeza maximowiczii, and the herb layer by Spodiopogon cotulifer and Artemisia keiskeana. Quercus mongolica may cover most part of the forest, gradually excluding Pinus densiflora. Acer pseudo-sieboldianum var. koreanum, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Carpinus coradata, and Acer mono are increasing in importance with the potentiality of developing into major canopy components. With the diversification of the physical habitat Cephalotaxus koreana and Magnolia sieboldii, the species which had almost completely been eliminated form the forest through the severe interferences, have reappeared.

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Domestic Use of Wood for Furniture and Woodcraft Materials Characteristics Evaluation (I) - Focusing on Pinus densiflora and Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki Wood - (국내산 주요 수종의 가구 및 목공예재 활용을 위한 특성 평가 (I) - 금강송과 소나무를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Byung Ho;Hee, Jo Won;Kim, Nam Hun
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.36-44
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    • 2014
  • This study was investigated to sensible characteristic and physical characteristic to estimate value of the craft for Pinus densiflora and Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki wood. The sensual characteristics of wood are evaluated by wood figure, wood grain, odor, and the physical characteristics by weathering, abrasion, surface roughness and hardness. The wood figure of these species were observed at flat grain in the radial section and edge grain in the tangential section. Also, burl's figure was observed in Burl of Pinus densiflora wood. Pinus densiflora for. erecta Uyeki wood had volatile aroma compounds such as Camphene, Thymyl ether, ${\alpha}$-Longipinene, etc. Pinus densiflora wood had volatile aroma compounds such as ${\alpha}$-Longipinene, (+)-Cedrol, etc. The moisture soption, abrasion, hardness and roughness were very different between the two species.

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