• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pig Fibroblasts

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Comparative N-Linked Glycan Analysis of Wild-Type and α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Gene Knock-Out Pig Fibroblasts Using Mass Spectrometry Approaches

  • Park, Hae-Min;Kim, Yoon-Woo;Kim, Kyoung-Jin;Kim, Young June;Yang, Yung-Hun;Jin, Jang Mi;Kim, Young Hwan;Kim, Byung-Gee;Shim, Hosup;Kim, Yun-Gon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2015
  • Carbohydrate antigens expressed on pig cells are considered to be major barriers in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Even after ${\alpha}1,3$-galactosyltransferase gene knock-out (GalT-KO) pigs are generated, potential non-Gal antigens are still existed. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no extensive study analyzing N-glycans expressed on the GalT-KO pig tissues or cells. Here, we identified and quantified totally 47 N-glycans from wild-type (WT) and GalT-KO pig fibroblasts using mass spectrometry. First, our results confirmed the absence of galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (${\alpha}$-Gal) residue in the GalT-KO pig cells. Interestingly, we showed that the level of overall fucosylated N-glycans from GalT-KO pig fibroblasts is much higher than from WT pig fibroblasts. Moreover, the relative quantity of the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) antigen is slightly higher in the GalT-KO pigs. Thus, this study will contribute to a better understanding of cellular glycan alterations on GalT-KO pigs for successful xenotransplantation.

Nuclear Transfer using Human CD59 and IL-18BP Double Transgenic Fetal Fibroblasts in Miniature Pigs

  • Ryu, Junghyun;Kim, Minjeong;Ahn, Jin Seop;Ahn, Kwang Sung;Shim, Hosup
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2016
  • Xenotransplantation involves multiple steps of immune rejection. The present study was designed to produce nuclear transfer embryos, prior to the production of transgenic pigs, using fibroblasts carrying transgenes human complement regulatory protein hCD59 and interleukin-18 binding protein (hIL-18BP) to reduce hyperacute rejection (HAR) and cellular rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. In addition to the hCD59-mediated reduction of HAR, hIL-18BP may prevent cellular rejection by inhibiting the activation of natural killer cells, activated T-cell proliferation, and induction of $IFN-{\gamma}$. Transgene construct including hCD59 and ILI-18BP was introduced into miniature pig fetal fibroblasts. After antibiotic selection of double transgenic fibroblasts, integration of the transgene was screened by PCR, and the transgene expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. Treatment of human serum did not affect the survival of double-transgenic fibroblasts, whereas the treatment significantly reduced the survival of non-transgenic fibroblasts (p<0.01), suggesting alleviation of HAR. Among 337 reconstituted oocytes produced by nuclear transfer using the double transgenic fibroblasts, 28 (15.3%) developed to the blastocyst stage. Analysis of individual embryos indicated that 53.6% (15/28) of embryos contained the transgene. The result of the present study demonstrates the resistance of hCD59 and IL-18BP double-transgenic fibroblasts against HAR, and the usefulness of the transgenic approach may be predicted by RT-PCR and cytolytic assessment prior to actual production of transgenic pigs. Further study on the transfer of these embryos to surrogates may produce transgenic clone miniature pigs expressing hCD59 and hIL-18BP for xenotransplantation.

Porcine Knock-in Fibroblasts Expressing hDAF on α-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) Gene Locus

  • Kim, Ji-Woo;Kim, Hye-Min;Lee, Sang-Mi;Kang, Man-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1473-1480
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    • 2012
  • The Galactose-${\alpha}1$,3-galactose (${\alpha}1$,3Gal) epitope is responsible for hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF) is a cell surface regulatory protein that serves as a complement inhibitor to protect self cells from complement attack. The generation of ${\alpha}1$,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knock-out pigs expressing DAF is a necessary step for their use as organ donors for humans. In this study, we established GGTA1 knock-out cell lines expressing DAF from pig ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer. hDAF expression was detected in hDAF knock-in heterozygous cells, but not in normal pig cells. Expression of the GGTA1 gene was lower in the knock-in heterozygous cell line compared to the normal pig cell. Knock-in heterozygous cells afforded more effective protection against cytotoxicity with human serum than with GGTA1 knock-out heterozygous and control cells. These cell lines may be used in the production of GGTA1 knock-out and DAF expression pigs for xenotransplantation.

Augmentation of Thermotolerance in Primary Skin Fibroblasts from a Transgenic Pig Overexpressing the Porcine HSP70.2

  • Chen, Ming-Yu;Tu, Ching-Fu;Huang, San-Yuan;Lin, Jyh-Hung;Tzang, Bor-Show;Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung;Lee, Wen-Chuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2005
  • A high environmental temperature affects the economic performance of pigs. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been reported to participate importantly in thermotolerance. This study aims to produce transgenic pigs overexpressing porcine HSP70.2, the highly inducible one of HSP70 members, and to prove the cellular thermotolerance in the primary fibroblasts from the transgenics. A recombinant plasmid in which the sequence that encodes the porcine HSP70.2 gene is fused to green fluorescence protein (GFP) was constructed under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer and promoter. Two transgenic pigs were produced by microinjecting pCMV-HSP70-GFP DNA into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs. Immunoblot assay revealed the varied overexpression level (6.4% and 1.4%) of HSP70-GFP in transgenic pigs. After heating at $45^{\circ}C$ for 3 h, the survival rate (78.1%) of the primary fibroblast cells from the highly expressing transgenic pig exceeded that from the non-transgenic pig (62.9%). This result showed that primary fibroblasts overexpressing HSP70-GFP confer cell thermotolerance. We suggest that transgenic pigs overexpressing HSP70 might improve their thermotolerance in summer and therefore reduce the economic loss in animal production.

Generation of Female Porcine Fibroblasts Expressing Efficiently Membrane Cofactor Protein at ${\alpha}1$,3-Galactosyltransferase locus (${\alpha}1$,3-Galactosyltransferase 유전자 좌위에서 Membrane Cofactor Protein을 효과적으로 발현하는 자성 돼지 섬유아세포의 생산)

  • Oh, Keon Bong;Kim, Bella;Hwang, Seongsoo;Ock, Sun-A;Im, Seoki;Park, Jin-Ki
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.289-295
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    • 2013
  • Xenotransplantation of pig organs into primates results in fatal damage, referred as hyperacute rejection (HAR), and acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR), to the organ graft mediated by antibodies pre-existing and newly-producing in primates against their cognate pig antigens. Functional ablation of ${\alpha}1$,3-galactosyltransferase (Gal-T KO) of pig which is an enzyme involved in synthesis of Gala1-3Galb1-4GlcNAc-R antigen is essentially required to prevent HAR. Moreover, additional genetic modification under Gal-T KO background for enforced expression of human complement regulatory proteins which can inhibits complement activation is known to effectively imped HAR and AHXR. In this study, we constructed a membrane cofactor protein (MCP) expression cassette under control of human $EF1{\alpha}$ promoter. This cassette was inserted between homologous recombination regions corresponding to Gal-T locus. Subsequently this vector was introduced into ear skin fibroblasts of female pig by nucleofection. We were able to obtained 40 clones by neomycin selection and 4 clones among them were identified as clones targeted into Gal-T locus of MCP expression cassette by long-range PCR. Real time RT-PCR was shown to down-regulation of Gal-T expression. From these results, we demonstrated human $EF1{\alpha}$ promoter could induce efficient expression of MCP on cell surface of fibroblasts of female pig.

Alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient miniature pigs produced by serial cloning using neonatal skin fibroblasts with loss of heterozygosity

  • Kim, Young June;Ahn, Kwang Sung;Kim, Minjeong;Kim, Min Ju;Ahn, Jin Seop;Ryu, Junghyun;Heo, Soon Young;Park, Sang-Min;Kang, Jee Hyun;Choi, You Jung;Shim, Hosup
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.439-445
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Production of alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (${\alpha}GT$)-deficient pigs is essential to overcome xenograft rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. However, the production of such pigs requires a great deal of cost, time, and labor. Heterozygous ${\alpha}GT$ knockout pigs should be bred at least for two generations to ultimately obtain homozygote progenies. The present study was conducted to produce ${\alpha}GT$-deficient miniature pigs in much reduced time using mitotic recombination in neonatal ear skin fibroblasts. Methods: Miniature pig fibroblasts were transfected with ${\alpha}GT$ gene-targeting vector. Resulting gene-targeted fibroblasts were used for nuclear transfer (NT) to produce heterozygous ${\alpha}GT$ gene-targeted piglets. Fibroblasts isolated from ear skin biopsies of these piglets were cultured for 6 to 8 passages to induce loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and treated with biotin-conjugated IB4 that binds to galactose-${\alpha}$-1,3-galactose, an epitope produced by ${\alpha}GT$. Using magnetic activated cell sorting, cells with monoallelic disruption of ${\alpha}GT$ were removed. Remaining cells with LOH carrying biallelic disruption of ${\alpha}GT$ were used for the second round NT to produce homozygous ${\alpha}GT$ gene-targeted piglets. Results: Monoallelic mutation of ${\alpha}GT$ gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in fibroblasts. Using these cells as nuclear donors, three heterozygous ${\alpha}GT$ gene-targeted piglets were produced by NT. Fibroblasts were collected from ear skin biopsies of these piglets, and homozygosity was induced by LOH. The second round NT using these fibroblasts resulted in production of three homozygous ${\alpha}GT$ knockout piglets. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the time required for the production of ${\alpha}GT$-deficient miniature pigs could be reduced significantly by postnatal skin biopsies and subsequent selection of mitotic recombinants. Such procedure may be beneficial for the production of homozygote knockout animals, especially in species, such as pigs, that require a substantial length of time for breeding.

Production of Transgenic Micro-Pig Expressing Human Heme Oxygenase 1

  • Koo, Ok Jae;Oh, Hyun Ju;Lee, Byeong Chun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 2015
  • Xenotransplantation of pig islet regarded as a good alternative to allotransplantation. However, cellular death mediated by hypoxia-reoxygenation injury after transplantation disturb success of this technique. In the present study, we produce transgenic pig expressing human heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) genes to overcome cellular death for improving efficiency of islet xenotransplantation. Particularly, Korean miniature pig breed, Micro-Pig, was used in the present study. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique was used to produce the HO1 transgenic pig. Six alive transgenic piglets were produced and all the transgenic pigs were founded to have transgene in their genomic DNA and the gene was expressed in all tested organs. Also, in vitro cultured fibroblasts derived from the HO1 transgenic pig showed low reactive oxygen species level, improved cell viability and reduced apoptosis level.

The oncogenic effects of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) in colon cancer cells

  • Park, Seon-Joo;Kim, Hong Beum;Kim, Jeeho;Park, Sanggon;Kim, Seok Won;Lee, Jung-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2017
  • The p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), initially identified as a gene downstream of p53, plays an important role in the apoptotic process triggered by p53-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Recently, several studies have suggested that PIG3 may play a role in various types of cancer. However, the functional significance of PIG3 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we found that PIG3 was highly expressed in human colon cancer cell lines compared to normal colon-derived fibroblasts. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate the functional role of PIG3 in colon cancer. PIG3 overexpression increases the colony formation, migration and invasion ability of HCT116 colon cancer cells. Conversely, these tumorigenic abilities were significantly decreased in in vitro studies with PIG3 knockdown HCT116 cells. PIG3 knockdown also attenuated the growth of mouse xenograft tumors. These results demonstrate that PIG3 is associated with the tumorigenic potential of cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and could play a key oncogenic role in colon cancer.

Gene Transfer into Pig and Goat Fetal Fibroblasts by Co-transfection of tPA Transgene and $Neo^r$ Gene

  • Kim, Bae-Chul;Han, Rong-Xun;Kim, Myung-Yoon;Shin, Young-Min;Park, Chang-Sik;Jin, Dong-Il
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.107-111
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    • 2009
  • The transfection efficiency of a transgene into pig and goat fetal fibroblast cells (PFF and GFF, respectively) was tested using co-transfection of a human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) transgene and neomycin-resistant ($Neo^r$) gene, followed by G418 selection. To initially test G418 resistance, GFF and PFF were incubated in culture medium containing different concentration of G418 for 2 weeks, and cell survival was monitored over time. Based on the obtained results, the concentrations chosen for G418 selection were 800 ug/ml and 200 ug/ml for GFF and PFF, respectively. For co-transfection experiments, the pBC1/tPA and $Neo^r$ vectors were co-transfected into GFF and PFF ($1{\times}10^6$ cells in each case) using the FuGENE6 transfection reagent, and resistant colonies were obtained following 14 days of G418 selection. We obtained 96 and 93 drug-resistant colonies of GFF and PFF, respectively, only 54 and 39 of which, respectively, continued proliferating after drug selection. PCR-based screening revealed that 23 out of 54 analyzed GFF colonies and 5 out of 39 analyzed PFF colonies contained insertion of the tPA gene. Thus, the experimentally determined transfection efficiencies for tPA gene co-transfection with the $Neo^r$ gene were 42.6% for GFF and 12.8% for PFF. These findings suggest that co-transfection of a transgene with the $Neo^r$ gene can aid in the successful integration of the transgene into fetal fibroblast cells.

Interaction between Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide and Toll-like Receptor 2 in Pig Fibroblast Cell Line, and Inhibitory Effect of Antibody against Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide on Interaction

  • Guo, Yijie;Fukuda, Tomokazu;Nakamura, Shuichi;Bai, Lanlan;Xu, Jun;Kuroda, Kengo;Tomioka, Rintaro;Yoneyama, Hiroshi;Isogai, Emiko
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.273-279
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    • 2015
  • Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) has shown potency in activating toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in pig fibroblasts (PEFs_NCC1), and causes the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the stimulation by L-LPS was weak eliciting the function of TLR2 sufficiently in pig innate immunity responses during Leptospira infection. In this study, the immune response of pig embryonic fibroblast cell line (PEFs_SV40) was investigated and was found to be the high immune response, thus TLR2 is the predominate receptor of L-LPS in pig cells. Further, we found a strategy using the antibody against L-LPS, to prevent L-LPS interaction with TLR2 in pig cells which could impact on immune activation.