• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pictorial health warnings

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Changes in Vietnamese Male Smokers' Reactions Towards New Pictorial Cigarette Pack Warnings Over Time

  • Tran, Thu Ngan;Le, Vu Anh;Nguyen, Thi Tuyet My;Nguyen, Ngoc Bich
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2016
  • Printing of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packages became obligatory by the Vietnam Law on Prevention and Control of Tobacco Harm in May 2013. Literature from high-income countries suggests that PHWs motivate smokers to quit smoking although their long-term effects have been questioned due to reduction of impact over time. This study aimed to assess the salience of PHWs and smokers' reactions towards PHWs over time. In May 2014 and May 2015, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based household survey was administered to respectively 1,462 and 1,509 Vietnamese male smokers aged 18 to 35. The result showed that salience of the PHWs 2 years after the implementation was higher than at the point of 1 year after the implementation. The proportion of respondents who tried to avoid noting the PHWs was reduced from 35% in wave 1 to 23% in wave 2. However, "Tried to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs" increased 1.5 times the odds of presenting quit intention compared to those respondents who did not try to avoid looking/thinking about the PHWs (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.2-2.0). In conclusion, avoidance regarding PHWs may not work as a barrier when aiming at a higher level of quit intention. Salience of the PHWs may increase in the period shortly after their introduction onto packs but can be expected to decrease with time. In other words, it might be advisable to change or renew PHWs after a period of implementation to maintain their beneficial effects.

Evaluation of the Knowledge and Perceptions with Regards to Pictorial Health Warnings on Tobacco Products among Tobacco Users Diagnosed with Head and Neck Carcinoma: a Study from the Kumaon Hills of India

  • Pant, Nirdosh Kumar;Pandey, Kailash Chandra;Madabhavi, Irappa;Pandey, Vinod;Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7891-7895
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    • 2014
  • Background: Tobacco products continue to be used in large quantities in India despite the mandatory inclusion of pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on all tobacco packaging. The circumstances as to how people could continue the use of tobacco to the point of developing head and neck cancer despite enhanced awareness about the ill effects of tobacco is the main focus of this study. Materials and Methods: This study concerned patients with least 5-years history of tobacco use, having been diagnosed with histopathologically proven malignancies of the hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx and oral cavity presenting at the Government Medical College-Haldwani, Nainital, India. A total of 183 patients were eligible for inclusion during July 1 2013 - June 30 2014. Of these, 59 patients used smoked tobacco exclusively, 22 patients used smokeless tobacco exclusively, and 102 patients used both forms of tobacco. Among users of smoked forms, 75.2% (n=121) were beedi users, and 24.8% (n=40) were cigarette users. Patients were asked direct questions as to whether they had noticed the presence of PHWs upon tobacco products. The reasons as to why PHWs were not effective in stopping the patients from tobacco use were investigated. Results: Of the 183 patients, 146 reported being aware about the presence of PHWs, and when they were asked reasons as to why they continued tobacco despite being aware of ill-effects, the commonest reason chosen (by 53.4%) was that patients had not regarded themselves as using tobacco heavy enough to cause cancer. Among the 36 patients who reported as being oblivious to the presence of PHWs on tobacco products, 63.9% reported that the products they used never displayed any PHWs, and 36.1% reported never having paid attention to the packaging. The awareness about PHWs was higher among cigarette smokers in comparison to beedi smokers (100% vs 76.1%, p=0.0002). Conclusions: Locally produced and marketed tobacco products such as beedis and oral tobacco often fail to display PHWs. The presence of PHWs without doubt enhances awareness about the carcinogenic risks of tobacco. However, enhanced awareness alone may not be enough, and as elucidated by this study, some persons continue to use tobacco to the point of developing malignancies. The need of the hour is the implementation of legal and economic sanctions discouraging the use of tobacco products.

Tobacco Control Policies in Vietnam: Review on MPOWER Implementation Progress and Challenges

  • Hoang, Van Minh;Tran, Thu Ngan;Vu, Quynh Mai;Nguyen, Thi Tuyet My;Le, Hong Chung;Vu, Duy Kien;Tran, Tuan Anh;Nguyen, Bao Ngoc;Vu, Van Giap;Nguyen, Manh Cuong;Pham, Duc Manh;Kim, Bao Giang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2016
  • In Vietnam, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) took effect in March 2005 while MPOWER has been implemented since 2008. This paper describes the progress and challenges of implementation of the MPOWER package in Vietnam. We can report that, in term of monitoring, Vietnam is very active in the Global Tobacco Surveillance System, completing two rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) and three rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). To protect people from tobacco smoke, Vietnam has issued and enforced a law requiring comprehensive smoking bans at workplaces and public places since 2013. Tobacco advertising and promotion are also prohibited with the exception of points of sale displays of tobacco products. Violations come in the form of promotion girls, corporate social responsibility activities from tobacco manufacturers and packages displayed by retail vendors. Vietnam is one of the 77 countries that require pictorial health warnings to be printed on cigarette packages to warn about the danger of tobacco and the warnings have been implemented effectively. Cigarette tax is 70% of factory price which is equal to less than 45% of retail price and much lower than the recommendation of WHO. However, Vietnam is one of the very few countries that require manufacturers and importers to make "compulsory contributions" at 1-2% of the factory price of cigarettes sold in Vietnam for the establishment of a Tobacco Control Fund (TCF). The TCF is being operated well. In 2015, 67 units of 63 provinces/cities, 22 ministries and political-social organizations and 6 hospitals received funding from TCF to implement a wide range of tobacco control activities. Cessation services have been starting with a a toll-free quit-line but need to be further strengthened. In conclusion, Vietnam has constantly put efforts into the tobacco control field with high commitment from the government, scientists and activists. Though several remarkable achievements have been gained, many challenges remain. To overcome those challenges, implementation strategies that take into account the contextual factors and social determinants of tobacco use in Vietnam are needed.