• Title, Summary, Keyword: Physiology of menopause

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Biological Approach to Menopausal Syndrome (폐경기 증후군의 생물학적 접근)

  • Kang, Byung-Jo;Lee, Zuk-Nae;Rim, Hyo-Deog;Kang, Suk-Hun
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.109-119
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    • 1996
  • Hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women has recently been a hot issue in medical fields. The author reviewed the physiology of menopause and discussed the physiological mechanism and biological management of vascular flushing and menopausal depression. The above symptoms are hard to distinguish from those of psychiatric disorders.

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Effects of Schisandrae Fructus on menopause symptoms in ovariectomized mice (난소를 절제한 마우스에서 갱년기증후군에 대한 오미자의 효과)

  • Shin, Dasom;Hong, Seong Bin;Geum, Jeong Ho;Ma, Jin Yeul;Chung, Hwan-Suck
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Schisandrae Fructus (SF) on menopause symptoms in ovariectomized mice. Methods: 6 weeks old female mice were ovariectomized (OVX), and the OVX mice were fed with a three doses of SF (25, 100, and 400 mg/kg, respectively) or $17{\beta}$-estradiol (E2, 0.5 mg/kg) 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Body weight was measured at every week and uterus weight was also measured at the end of experiment. Lipids and osteocalcin levels in serum were analyzed. Results: The uterine weight was not changed in SF treated group, while E2 intake increased the reduced uterine weight by OVX. Although Body weight was increased since two weeks after ovariectomy compared with sham operated group, there was no change in SF or E2 treated group compared with OVX. But LDL was significantly reduced in SF (400 mg/kg) or E2 fed mice and SF or E2 treatment decreased enhanced osteocalcin level by OVX. Conclusion: These results indicated that SF would be effective in the improvement of LDL level and osteoporosis on menopause.

A Study about the Mechanism of $Ca^{2+}$ and Pi Homeostasis by Estradiol 17$\beta$ in Proximal Tubule Cells in the Osteoporosis

  • Han Ho-jae;Park Soo-Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2004
  • It has been reported that osteoporosis induced by the deficiency of estrogens in menopause is associated with the unbalance of Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi levels. Proximal tubule is very important organ to regualte Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi level in the body. However, the effect of estrogens on Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi regulation was not elucidated. Thus, we examined the effect of 17-β estradiol (E₂) on Ca/sup 2+/ and Pi uptake in the primary cultured rabbit renal proxiaml tubule cells. In the present study, E₂(> 10/sup -9/M) decreases Ca/sup 2+/uptake and stimulates Pi uptake over 3 days. E₂-induced decrease of Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulation of Pi uptake were blocked by actinomycin D (a gene transcription inhibitor), cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). tamoxifen, and progesterone (estrogen receptor antagonists). E₂-induced decrease of Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulation of Pi uptake were blocked by SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor), Rp-cAMP (a cAMP antagonist), and PKI (a protein kinase A inhibitor). Indeed, E₂ increased cAMP formation. In addition, E₂-induced decrease of Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulation of Pi uptake were blocked by staurosporine, H-7, and bisindolylmaleimide I (protein kinase C inhibitors) and E₂ translocated PKC from cytoslic fraction to membrane fraction. In conclusion, E₂ decreased Ca/sup 2+/ uptake and stimulated Pi uptake via cAMP and PKC pathway in the PTCs.

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Development of a Guideline for the Application of a Diagnostic Tool for Menopausal Syndromes Based on the Use of Systemic Review and Delphi Method (체계적 문헌고찰과 델파이 기법을 활용한 갱년기장애 변증(辨證)진단 도구 개발을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Lee, In-Seon;Kim, Dong-Il;Yoo, Jeong-Eun;Kang, Chang-Wan
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.175-202
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: This study was conducted towards developing a screening tool for syndrome differentiation in the diagnosis of menopause in menopausal and perimenopausal women. Methods: We conducted a literature review of studies on menopausal diagnosis based on syndrome differentiation, and examined well-founded differentiated syndromes and their respective clinical symptoms. Based on the findings, we created a questionnaire through consultations with Oriental medicine experts in physiology, pathology, and diagnostics. Finally, the research team conducted an expert Delphi study on differentiated syndromes and the associated clinical symptoms. Results: Seven differentiated syndromes were selected, including Liver Depression (肝鬱), Kidney Yin Deficiency (腎陰虛), Kidney Yang Deficiency (腎陽虛), Liver and Kidney Yin Deficiency (肝腎陰虛), Kidney Yin and Yang Deficiency (腎陰陽兩虛), Heart-Kidney Noninteraction (心腎不交), and Dual Deficiency of Heart and Spleen (心脾兩虛); 4 disease locations, including liver (肝), heart (心), spleen (脾), and kidney (腎); and 3 disease natures, including Yin Deficiency (陰虛), Qi Stagnation (氣滯), and Blood Deficiency (血虛). In addition, we added 3 supplemental disease natures, including Yang Deficiency (陽虛), Qi Deficiency (氣虛), and Heat (火熱), in consideration of syndrome differentiation categories that may possibly be added in a follow-up clinical questionnaire. Conclusions: This resulted in a total of 7 differentiated syndromes, 4 disease locations, and 6 disease natures. We translated the clinical symptoms of these 17 categories into Korean Hangeul. After consulting with 5 Oriental medicine experts and a psychology expert, we produced a questionnaire for use in diagnosing menopause based on syndrome differentiation. The calculation of scores for the syndrome differentiation screening tool will be confirmed through clinical research based on the results of a review of existing literature.

A literature study of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy in the the uterine section (in the Naegyeong Chapter) of Dong-Ui-Bo-Gam (동의보감(東醫寶鑑) 포문(胞門)의 침구법(鍼灸法)에 관한 소고(小考))

  • Kim, Kyung-Min;Yang, Gi-Young;Lee, Byung-Ryul
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.59-71
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to show the rationale of point-selection for acupuncture and moxibustion in the Uterine section(in the Naegyeong Chapter) of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam. Methods : We reviewed the causes of each disease in the Uterine section of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam, and then explained the rationale of acupoint-selection for the treatment of those diseases referring to etiology and physiology of Oriental medicine, other applications of each acupoints in the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam, characteristic of each acupoints, flow of Gi (Qi) through meridian pathways and specific acupoints etc. Results : There are comments on acupuncture and moxibustion for abnormal menstruation, amenorrhea, metrorrhagia, leukorrhea, bleeding from uterus after menopause in the Uterine section of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam. Conclusions : Acupoints of conception vessel, and three foot Yin meridians are preferably used for acupuncture and moxibustion in the Uterine section of the Dong-Ui-BO-Gam. Out of them, CV3 is most frequently used and SP6, CV6, BL23, LR2 are also used often.

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Analysis of Pathogenic Factors in the Menopausal Symptoms of Middle-aged Women in Relation to Sasang Constitutional Type

  • Cho, Hye-Sook;Kim, Jong-Won;Lee, Yong-Tae;Kim, Kyu-Kon;Lee, In-Seon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.60-68
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    • 2014
  • Background: Pattern identification is a unique diagnostic method of traditional Oriental medicine that has recently been the target of questionnaire-based research. Sasang (four-types) constitutional medicine (SCM) is a practice in traditional Korean medicine that seeks to promote objectivity in diagnostics. This paper attempts to illuminate the relationship between constitutions and the pathogenic factors of pattern identification through questionnaires completed by menopausal women about their symptoms. Methods: From March to October 2012, we examined 291 women from the general population, with ages ranging from 40 to 60 years, applying the Kupperman index, the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL), pattern identification based on the Diagnosis System of Oriental Medicine (DSOM), and SCM. We then analyzed the relationship between constitutional type and pathogenic factors. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of either the Kupperman index or MENQOL questionnaire in relation to constitutional type. However, in a statistical analysis correlating the DSOM pathogenic factor scores (PFS) with the scores of the Kupperman index and MENQOL vasomotor subscale, heat showed a significant positive correlation with SoYang type (SY) and TaeEum type (TE), but not SoEum type (SE), while insufficiency of yin and insufficiency of yang, as well as blood deficiency, showed a significant positive correlation with the TE and SE types. Conclusion: The pathogenic factors in the menopausal symptoms of middle-aged women, specifically the prominent menopausal symptom of facial flushing, differed significantly according to constitutional type.

The Effect of Trigonella foenum-graceum L. (Fenugreek) Towards Collagen Type I Alpha 1 (COL1A1) and Collagen Type III Alpha 1 (COL3A1) on Postmenopausal Woman's Fibroblast

  • Yusharyahya, Shannaz Nadia;Bramono, Kusmarinah;Sutanto, Natalia Rania;Kusuma, Indra
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2019
  • Trigonella foenum-graceum L. (fenugreek) is a phytoestrogen, a nonsteroidal organic chemical compound from plants which has similar mechanism of action to sex hormone estradiol-$17{\beta}$. This study aims to assess the effectivity of fenugreek seeds extract on collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) and collagen type III alpha 1 (COL3A1) which are both decreased in aging skin and become worsen after menopause. This in vitro experimental study used old human dermal fibroblast from leftover tissue of blepharoplasty on a postmenopausal woman (old HDF). As a control of the fenugreek's ability to trigger collagen production, we used fibroblast from preputium (young HDF). Subsequent to fibroblast isolation and culture, toxicity test was conducted on both old and young HDF by measuring cell viability on fenugreek extract with the concentration of 5 mg/mL to $1.2{\mu}g/mL$ which will be tested on both HDF to examine COL1A1 and COL3A1 using ELISA, compared to no treatment and 5 nM estradiol. Old HDF showed a 4 times slower proliferation compared to young HDF (p<0.05). Toxicity test revealed fenugreek concentration of $0.5-2{\mu}g/mL$ was non-toxic to both old and young HDF. The most significant fenugreek concentration to increase COL1A1 and COL3A1 secretion was $2{\mu}g/mL$ (p<0.05).

Study of Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Bone Mineral Density on Post Menopausal Chronic Low Back Pain Patients Under Oriental Medicine Treatment (요통으로 한방치료중인 폐경 후 여성의 대사증후군 요인이 골밀도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong Deok;Kim, Dong Woung
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.118-123
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed from April, 2007 to August, 2012 with female patients who were being treated for and suffering from chronic lumbar pain for periods of 6 months and over. The 53 female patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis by having a T-Score of <-2.5 in a bone mineral density(BMD), as well as showing signs of metabolic syndrome. This was deduced by taking measurements of blood pressure, carrying out blood-chemical examinations and physical measurements such as weight, height, waist measurement and body mass index(BMI). After 5 minutes rest, the patient's blood pressure, height and weight were measured. BMI was calculated using the equation BMI = weight (Kg)/height ($m^2$). The patients had their blood taken in a fasted state(more than 12hours), the fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol were measured. The average BMD and T-score were calculated by measuring BMD(mg/cc) of L1-L3 using QCT. In a correlation analysis of the physical examinations, clinical character of metabolic syndrome and T-score, the result showed that age and T-score had a negative correlation(r=-0.699, p<0.01) as did triglyceride and T-score (r=-0.047, p<0.01), where as weight(r=0.239, p<0.05) and height(r-=0.329, p<0.01) and T-score had a positive correlation. There was no significant correlation with total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure and T-score. This study showed that there are significant correlations with age, weight, height and T-score. But there are no significant correlations with total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood sugar, blood pressure and T-score and that these did not influence bone density. Further research with more subjects is required to determine whether there is a correlation of clinical character of metabolic syndrome and T-score.

Role of Ghrelin in the Control of Reproductive Endocrine Function (포유류 생식 내분비 기능 조절에서 Ghrelin의 역할)

  • Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2009
  • Numerous factors can affect the activities of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) hormonal axis, resulting in alteration of reproductive capacity or status such as onset of puberty and menopause. Soon after the finding of leptin, a multifunctional hormone secreted from adipocytes, a close relationship between reproduction and body energy balance have been manifested. Ghrelin, another multifunctional hormone from gastrointestinal tract, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), and is thought to be a counterpart of leptin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. As expected, ghrelin can also modulate the reproductive capacity through the modulation of activities of HPG axis. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the discovery, gene structures, tissue distribution and roles of ghrelin and GHSRs in mammalian reproduction in particular modulation of reproductive hormone secretion in HPG axis. Like POMC gene expression in pituitary gland, preproghrelin gene can generate a complex repertoire of transcripts which further undergo alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications. Concerning the roles of preproghrelin gene products in the control of body physiology except energy homeostasis, limited knowledge is available so far. Several lines of evidence, however, show the interplay of ghrelin between metabolism and reproduction. In rat and human, the distribution of ghrelin receptor GHSRs (GHSR1a and GHSR1b) has been confirmed not only in the hypothalamus and pituitary which were originally postulated as target of ghrelin but also in the testis and ovary. Expression of the preproghrelin gene in the brain and gonads was also verified, suggesting the local role (s) of ghrelin in HPG axis. Ghrelin might play a negative modulator in the secretions of hypothalamic GnRH, pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroids though the action on pituitary is still questionable. Recent studies suggest the involvement of ghrelin in regulation of puberty onset and possibly of menopause entry. It is now evident that ghrelin is a crucial hormomal component in 'brain-gut' axis, and is a strong candidate links between metabolism and reproduction. Opposite to that for leptin, ghrelin signaling is likely representing the 'hunger' state of body energy balance and is necessary to avoid the energy investment into reproduction which has not a top priority in maintaining homeostasis. Further researches are needed to gain a deep insight into the more precise action mechanism and role of ghrelin in reproduction, and to guarantee the successful biomedical applications.

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Sex Steroid Hormone and Ophthalmic Disease (성호르몬과 안질환)

  • Kim, Jin-Ju;Yu, Hyeong-Gon;Ku, Seung-Yup
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.89-98
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    • 2010
  • Sex and its tropic hormones influence the lacrimal system, corneal anatomy and disease, aqueous humor dynamics and glaucoma, crystalline lens and cataract, and retinal disease. Dry eye occurs especially frequently during pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and after menopause, during which androgen levels decrease. Androgen control development, differentiation, and lipid production of sebaceous glands throughout the body, and androgen deficiency also leads to meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporative dry eye. On the other hand, estrogen causes a reduction in size, activity, and lipid production of sebaceous glands. Sex and its tropic hormones also influence the corneal anatomy and disease, and corneal thickening occurred on the second day of the menstrual cycle and around the time of ovulation and appeared to be related to estrogen levels. Fuchs' dystrophy is more commonly seen in postmenopausal women than men and may be linked to hormonal changes that occur with aging. In addition, overexpression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the conjunctiva of vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients. Serum progesterone levels also may be associated with intraocular pressure especially in pregnant women, and for the women. For women with cataracts, hormone levels were typical of menopause, and there was a significant negative correlation between estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone levels. In addition, serum testosterone levels are associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. Although the role of sex hormones on the eye is largely unknown, and the results should be interpreted with caution until replicated, the functions of sex hormones in ocular disease remains to be investigated, because they may be involved in structure and function of the ocular components, which are important in the pathogenesis of ocular disease.