• Title, Summary, Keyword: Physiological Controlling Factors

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Variations of heart rate variability under varied physical environmental factors

  • Ishibashi, Keita;Yasukouchi, Akira
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility Conference
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    • pp.91-95
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    • 2001
  • In this study, we estimated the behavior of the diversity of physiological responses under varied physical environmental factors by measuring variations of heart rate variability (HRV), an index of activity of cardiac autonomic control. Seven healthy young male adults consented and participated in the study. The environmental conditions consisted of thermal, lighting, and acoustic conditions. Two components of HRV were measured. one was the low frequency (LF) component of HRV, which provided a quantitative index of the sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) activities controlling the heart rate (HR). The other component measured was the high frequency (HF) component, which provided an index of the vagal tone. The percent contribution of physical environmental factors to the variations in HRV indices were calculated by ANOVA. The contribution of physical environmental factors to the variations in HR was higher than the contribution of HF and LF. However, the contribution of these factors was lower than the contribution related with individual difference in all indices. This result showed that the individual diversity of physiological responses is not a negligible quantity.

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Taguchi's Robust Design Method for Optimization of Lysophosphatidic Acid Production in an Open Reactor System

  • Han, Jeong-Jun;Rhee, Joon-Shick
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 1998
  • The determination of appropriate parameters and parameter conditions is very important for the optimization of production of target materials. Taguchi's method has been used widely as the basis for development trials and optimization during industrial process design. Reaction variables which influence product yield are easily determined and their effects are revealed by just a few reactions, negating the need for extensive experimental investigation. There are usually some factors that are responsible for variations in process characteristics, so called noise factors. Controlling noise factors is very costly and difficult or impossible. Taguchi's experimental design method was examined to determine the control factor's level that is less sensitive to the changes in environmental conditions and other noise factors without control of noise factors. In this study, optimization of lipase-catalyzed production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which has various physiological functions was performed by Taguchi's method. We obtained LPA yields ($66.5\%$) with low variance (5.32) at 400 RPM, molar ratio of 40 : 3 (mol) (fatty acid: G-3-P), 48 h, and $50^{\circ}C$. Thus, bioactive LPA with a desired fatty acid moiety could be produced with high yields and low variance despite various environmental noise factors.

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The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.159-169
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    • 2016
  • The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of $NaHCO_3$ due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

Kami-bang-pung-tong-sung-san is Involved in Regulating Physiological Parameters Associated with Hypertension in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

  • Na Young Cheul;Nam Gung Uk;Lee Yang Koo;Kim Dong Hee
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2004
  • KBPT is the fortified prescription of Bang-pung-tong-sung-san(BPTS) by adding Spatholobi Clulis and Salviae Miltiorrzae Radix. BPTS prescription has been utilized in oriental medicine for the treatments of vascular diseases including hypertension, stroke, and arteriosclerosis. Yet, the overall mechanism underlying its activity at the cellular levels remains unknown. Using spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model, we investigated whether the KBPTS has an effect on the pathophysiological parameters related to hypertension. Pretreatment of SHR with KBPTS was found to lower blood pressure and heartbeat rate. Levels of aldosterone. dopamine, and epinephrine were found to be significantly reduced in the serum of KBPTS-treated SHR. Histological examination of adrenal cortex and superior aorta showed that tissues from KBPTS-treated SHR rats were more intact and cleaner compared to saline-treated control. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein in adrenal gland, aorta, myocardial tissue, and kidneys were higher in KBPTS-treated animals than control group. The present data suggest that KBPTS may play a role in normalizing cardiovascular function in SHR by controlling hypertension-related blood factors and superoxide stressors.

Analysis of the Determining Factor of Depressive Symptom among the Menopausal Women in Korea (한국 폐경기 여성의 우울증 경험에 관한 관련요인 분석)

  • Kim, Hyun-Soon;Han, Sam-Sung;Yoo, Wang-Keun
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2015
  • A majority of menopausal women experience serious depressive symptom because they are disturbed by their menstruation stop and by multiple physiological symptoms. The purpose of this study is to analyze the related factors of depressive symptom of menopausal women in Korea. A multiple regression model was used to study in association with depressive symptom, controlling for socio-economic characteristics, health status and behavior characteristics, women's health, and family support characteristics. For the data, Menopausal women were 4,680 peoples were selected for this study. PASW 18.0 was used to study in association with affecting factors of depressive symptom in the menopausal women The study shows that Education level, Marital status, Income, Employment status, Activity limitations, Perceived health status, Perceived body Image recognition, Current smoking, AUDIT, Frequency of induced abortion, Frequency of eating out, Breakfast with family, Lunch with family were associated with depressive symptom of menopausal women in Korea.

Control of Asymmetric Cell Divisions during Root Ground Tissue Maturation

  • Choi, Ji Won;Lim, Jun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.7
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    • pp.524-529
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    • 2016
  • Controlling the production of diverse cell/tissue types is essential for the development of multicellular organisms such as animals and plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana root, which contains distinct cells/tissues along longitudinal and radial axes, has served as an elegant model to investigate how genetic programs and environmental signals interact to produce different cell/tissue types. In the root, a series of asymmetric cell divisions (ACDs) give rise to three ground tissue layers at maturity (endodermis, middle cortex, and cortex). Because the middle cortex is formed by a periclinal (parallel to the axis) ACD of the endodermis around 7 to 14 days post-germination, middle cortex formation is used as a parameter to assess maturation of the root ground tissue. Molecular, genetic, and physiological studies have revealed that the control of the timing and extent of middle cortex formation during root maturation relies on the interaction of plant hormones and transcription factors. In particular, abscisic acid and gibberellin act synergistically to regulate the timing and extent of middle cortex formation, unlike their typical antagonism. The SHORT-ROOT, SCARECROW, SCARECROW-LIKE 3, and DELLA transcription factors, all of which belong to the plant-specific GRAS family, play key roles in the regulation of middle cortex formation. Recently, two additional transcription factors, SEUSS and GA- AND ABA-RESPONSIVE ZINC FINGER, have also been characterized during ground tissue maturation. In this review, we provide a detailed account of the regulatory networks that control the timing and extent of middle cortex formation during post-embryonic root development.

The history and regulatory mechanism of the Hippo pathway

  • Kim, Wantae;Jho, Eek-hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.106-118
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    • 2018
  • How the organ size is adjusted to the proper size during development and how organs know that they reach the original size during regeneration remain long-standing questions. Based on studies using multiple model organisms and approaches for over 20 years, a consensus has been established that the Hippo pathway plays crucial roles in controlling organ size and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Given the significance of these processes, the dysregulation of the Hippo pathway has also implicated various diseases, such as tissue degeneration and cancer. By regulating the downstream transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ, the Hippo pathway coordinates cell proliferation and apoptosis in response to a variety of signals including cell contact inhibition, polarity, mechanical sensation and soluble factors. Since the core components and their functions of the Hippo pathway are evolutionarily conserved, this pathway serves as a global regulator of organ size control. Therefore, further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms will provide physiological insights to better understand tissue homeostasis. In this review, the historical developments and current understandings of the regulatory mechanism of Hippo signaling pathway are discussed.

Profiling Pyocins and Competitive Growth Advantages of Various Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains

  • Heo YUN-JEONG;KO KWAN SOO;SONG JAE-HOON;CHO YOU-HEE
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.1368-1376
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    • 2005
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a variety of bacteriocidal substances including pyocins that are active against the same species, but their physiological roles are relatively unknown. Here, we profiled the bacteriocidal activities in the culture supernatants of various P. aeruginosa isolates and describe the competitive growth advantages of strains PAO1 and PA14 over some strains including PAK, which are sensitive to their bacteriocidal activities. These findings suggest that the factors governing the production of pyocins and the resistance to them play important roles in controlling P. aeruginosa populations in its local environments.

Geographic Distribution and Epidemiology of Lung Cancer During 2011 in Zhejiang Province of China

  • Lin, Xia-Lu;Chen, Yan;Gong, Wei-Wei;Wu, Zhao-Fan;Zou, Bao-Bo;Zhao, Jin-Shun;Gu, Hua;Jiang, Jian-Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5299-5303
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    • 2014
  • Background: To explore etiology for providing scientific clues for the prevention of lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Data for lung cancer incidence and meteorological geographic factors from 25 counties in Zhejiang province of China during 2011 were studied. Stepwise multiple regression and correlation analysis were performed to analyze the geographic distribution and epidemiology of lung cancer. Results: 8,291 new cases (5,998 in males and 2,293 females) of lung cancer during 2011 in Zhejiang province were reported in the 25 studied counties. Reported and standardized incidence rates for lung cancer were 58.0 and 47.0 per 100,000 population, respectively. The incidence of lung cancer increased with age. Geographic distribution analysis shows that the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer in northeastern Zhejiang province were higher than in the southwestern part, such as in Nanhu, Fuyang, Wuxing and Yuyao counties, where the rates were more than 50 per 100,000 population. In the southwestern Zhejiang province, for instance, in Yueqing, Xianju and Jiande counties, the standardized incidence rates of lung cancer were lower than 37 per 100,000 population. Spearman correlation tests showed that forest coverage rate, air quality index (AQI), and annual precipitation level are associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Conclusions: Lung cancer in Zhejiang province shows obvious regional differences. High incidence appears associated with low forest coverage rate, poor air quality and low annual precipitation. Therefore, increasing the forest coverage rate and controlling air pollution may play an important role in lung cancer prevention.

Effects of a Self-control Promotion Program on Self-efficacy, Self-care and Physiological Indicators of Patients with Diabetes Living in Local Communities (자기조절증진 프로그램이 지역사회 당뇨병환자의 자기효능과 자가간호행위 및 생리적 지표에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young-Sin;Jo, Yeon-Soon;Choo, Hyang-Im;Han, Eun-Hae;Kim, Chun-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Rural Health Nursing
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.5-15
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to examine the effects of a self-control promotion program on self-efficacy, self-care and physiological indicators of patients with diabetes who live in local communities. Method: This research was designed using a nonequivalent control group pre, posttest study. Data were collected from December, 2008 through March, 2009. The participants of the study consisted of 93 patients with diabetes who live in a local community. A self-control promotion program was provided for the experimental group for 12 weeks. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires and direct measurements, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, $X^2$-test, and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: There were significant differences in self-efficacy and self-care between the experimental and control groups. However, there were no significant differences in physiological indicators such as fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, BMI, and BP between the two groups. Conclusion: The results indicate that the self-control promotion program was effective in promoting self-efficacy and self-care, which are crucial factors in controlling diabetes mellitus. However, a longitudinal study needs to be done to confirm the effects of self-control promotion programs on long-term glucose control.