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Lower Limbs Muscle Comparative Research for Verification Effect of Rehabilitation Training Program of Total Hip Arthroplasty (재활운동 프로그램에 참가한 엉덩인공관절 수술자의 하지근력 변화에 대한 비교연구)

  • Jin, Young-Wan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.543-548
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in kinetics between 6 months of rehabilitation training and 12 months of rehabilitation training after total hip arthroplasty. 10 unilateral THA participants performed kinetic tests. Three dimensional kinematics and hip flexors and abductors electromyography (EMG) were collected during each trial. T-test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in EMG data between the two groups, but the mean comparison EMG data was higher in the 12 months rehabilitation training group than the 6 months rehabilitation training group. The moment value was found with motion-dependent interaction analyzing method which was used by Feltner and Dapena. There was no significant difference between moment values of the two groups. There was no significant difference between ground reaction forces of the two groups; however, there were some differences shown in Fz (vertical reaction force) between the two groups ($892{\pm}104\;N$, $820{\pm}87\;N$). The first peak impact force was about 9% lower in the 12 months group compared to the 6 months group. The second peak active force was nearly equal between the two groups. More research is necessary to determine exactly what constitutes optimal rehabilitation training biomechanics for patients with total hip arthroplasty.

The Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Brain Mitochondrial Aβ-42, Cytochrome c, SOD-1, 2 and Sirt-3 Protein Expression in Mutant (N141I) Presenilin-2 Transgenic Mice of Alzheimer's Disease (트레드밀 운동이 mutant (N141I) presenilin-2 유전자를 이식한 알츠하이머질환 모델 생쥐 뇌의 Aβ-42, cytochrome c, SOD-1, 2와 Sirt-3 단백질 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Koo, Jung-Hoon;Eum, Hyun-Sub;Kang, Eun-Bum;Kwon, In-Su;Yeom, Dong-Cheol;An, Gil-Young;Oh, Yoo-Sung;Baik, Young-Soo;Cho, In-Ho;Cho, Joon-Yong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.444-452
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on $A{\beta}$-42, cytochrome c, SOD-1, 2 and Sirt-3 protein expressions in brain cytosol and mitochondria in mutant (N141I) presenilin-2 transgenic mice with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mice were divided into four groups (Non-Tg-sedentary, n=5; Non-Tg treadmill exercise, n=5; Tg-sedentary, n=5; Tg treadmill exercise, n=5). To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of treadmill exercise, Non-Tg and Tg mice were subjected to exercise training on a treadmill for 12 wk, after which their brain cytosol and mitochondria were evaluated to determine whether any changes in the cognitive performance, $A{\beta}$-42 protein, cytochrome c protein, anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-2) and Sirt-3 protein had occurred. The results indicated that treadmill exercise resulted in amelioration in cognitive deficits of Tg mice. In addition, the expressions of mitochondrial $A{\beta}$-42 and cytosolic cytochrome c protein were decreased in the brains of Tg mice after treadmill exercise, whereas antioxidant enzymes, SOD-l and SOD-2 were significantly increased in response to treadmill exercise. Furthermore, treadmill exercise significantly increased the expression of Sirt-3 protein in Non-Tg and Tg mice. Taken together, these results suggest that treadmill exercise is a simple behavioral intervention which can sufficiently improve cognitive performance and inhibit $A{\beta}$-induced oxidative stress in AD.

Neighborhood Park Design for Railroad Station in Uijeongbu City (의정부 역전 근린공원 설계)

  • Kwon, Jin-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.64-74
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    • 2010
  • The study is based on an urban park design that is designed in consideration of the characteristics of Uijeongbu City, applied with adequate functions for the environment and showcasing the unique scenery in relation to the relocation of the US Air Force Camp Falling Water. The bases of the design are: the reasonable convergence of the square and park in consideration of the site characteristics; the application of an urban context as the park is located near a station; and the realization of an eco-friendly space. This study is based on foundation research regarding a review of urban square patterns, particular items in planning in relation to modern urban parks and the adaptability of the park in the future. Regarding space usage, the design is applied with notable ideas that allow the space to make its own characteristics through voluntary user activity in conjunction with the environment that will allow the park to cope with changes in the future, as opposed to a space that users experience through pre-determined programs. Below are the focal points of the design. First, the park is designed as an empty space which may accommodate the urban structural context of and usage patterns for being a field of the city ecology that changes and develops, beyond a passively-created square pattern. Such open spaces have a continuity which allows it to adapt to the development of the city. In addition, the design facilitates spontaneous processes through changes in usage pattern and time. Second, the design includes the message that the park and the city, natural things and artificial things, must communicate and network with each other. Hence the park shall not be an isolated green island within the city, but is an open space accommodating the demands for open area from nearby commercial, public and residential facilities; the park shall include a field that can accommodate a variety of programs. Third, the park is designed to encourage the effect of direct and indirect practical education by reflecting a physical plan as well as interesting experience design methods to lower carbon emissions and to create and maintain an eco-friendly space, the basis of a zero-emissions city.

Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children (12주간의 학교 비만 관리 프로그램이 초등학교 비만 아동에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Han Gyu;Lim, Goh-woon;Kim, Hae Soon;Hong, Young Mi
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2010
  • Purpose : This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods : A total of 995 children (6-2 years old) in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI) ${\geq}95$ percentile) were enrolled for a study group. The schoo-lbased, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed before and after the program.Results : Height and weight increased significantly (P <0.05). The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P <0.01). Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P <0.01). BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR) increased significantly on the BIA (P <0.01). Fat decreased significantly (P <0.05). The total body water (TBW) and percent body fat (PBF) decreased significantly (P <0.01). The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P <0.05). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P <0.01). Conclusion : The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS IN STUDENTS AND PSYCHIATRIC CONSULTATIONS (학생들의 정신건강문제와 정신과 의뢰에 대한 교사의 인식도 조사)

  • Kwak, Young-Sook;Chun, Ja-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.82-90
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    • 1998
  • This study is attempted to examine Korean teachers’ perceptions of mental health problems in students and their attitudes towards psychiatric consultations through a questionnaire survey. The results of this study are as follows. 1) Teachers thought that 5.3% of their students had mental health problems, 1.9% of students required psychiatric evaluation, and 1.2% of students were referred or recommended psychiatric evaluation by their teachers. 2) The most frequent mental health problems in students discovered by teachers were distractibility and inattention, lack of academic skills, and language difficulties in elementary schools;distractibility and inattention, conduct problems, and lack of academic skills in middle schools;and conduct problems, distractibility and inattention, physical symptoms, and substance abuse in high schools. 3) Teachers thought the mental health problems in students were caused by the family environment, psychological factors, the educational system, and a lack of mental health services. 4) Teachers desired smaller classes, improvement of the school environment, more time, regular mental health education, a special program for students with mental health problems, and the counseling staffs or consultants for the school mental health. 5) Teachers consulted with other teachers, the parents of the students, the counseling teachers, the health care teachers, the counseling institutes, the psychiatric clinics, and the principals in descending order to handle the hard case problems. The frequent reasons for failing in psychiatric consultations were the prejudice of parents against psychiatric services, the teachers’ sense of superiority in dealing with the problems of students, the prejudice of teachers themselves against psychiatric practice, and inaccessible professional consultation. 6) About 20.4% of teachers reported they had proposed psychiatric consultations or had recommended their students to receive psychiatric evaluations.

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A Study on Fall Accident (1개 종합병원 환자의 낙상에 관한 조사)

  • Lee, Hyeon-Suk;Kim, Mae-Ja
    • The Korean Nurse
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.45-62
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    • 1998
  • The study was conducted from November 1995 to May 1996 at the one general hospital in Seoul. The total subjects of this study were 412 patients who have the experience of fall accident, among them 31 was who have fallen during hospitalization and 381 was who visited emergency room and out patient clinic. The purposes of this study were to determine the characteristics, risk factors and results of fall accident and to suggest the nursing strategies for prevention of fall. Data were collected by reviewing the medical records and interviewing with the fallers and their family members. For data analysis, spss/pc+ program was utilized for descriptive statistics, adjusted standardized $X^2$-test. The results of this study were as follows: 1) Total subjects were 412 fallers, of which 245(59.5%) were men and 167(40.5%) were women. Age were 0-14 years 79(19.2%), 15-44 years 125(30.4%), 45-64 years 104(25.2%), over 65 years 104(25.2%). 2) There was significant association between age and the sexes ($X^2$=39.17, P=0.00). 3) There was significant association between age and history of falls ($X^2$=44.41. P= .00). And history of falls in the elderly was significantly associated with falls. 4) There was significant association with age and medical diagnosis ($X^2$=140.66, P= .00), chief medical diagnosis were hypertension(34), diabetis mellitus(22), arthritis(11), stroke(8), fracture(7), pulmonary tuberculosis(6), dementia(5) and cataract(5), 5) There was significant association between age and intrinsic factors: cognitive impairment, mobility impairment, insomnia, emotional problems, urinary difficulty, visual impairments, hearing impairments, use of drugs (sedatives , antihypertensive drugs, diuretics, antidepressants) (P < 0.05). But there was no significant association between age and dizziness ($X^2$=2.87, P=.41). 6) 15.3% of total fallers were drunken state when they were fallen. 7) Environmental factors of fall accident were unusual posture (50.9%), slips(35.2%), trips (9.5%) and collision(4.4%). 8) Most of falls occurred during the day time, peak frequencies of falls occurred from 1pm to 6pm and 7am to 12am. 9) The places of fall accident were roads(22.6%), house-stairs 06.7%), rooms, floors, kitchen (11.2%), the roof-top, veranda, windows(10.9%), hospital(7.5%), ice or snowy ways(5.8%), bathroom(4.9%), playground, park(4.9%), subway-stairs(4.4%) and public-bathrooms (2.2%). 10) Activities at the time of fall accident were walking(37.6%), turning around or reaching for something(20.9%), going up or down stairs09.2%), exereise, working07.4%), up or down from a bed(2.7%), using wheelchair or walking aids, standing up or down from a chair(2.2%) and standing still(2.2%). 11) Anatomical locations of injuries by falls were head, face, neck(31.3%), lower extremities (29.9%). upper extremities(20.6%), spine, thorax, abdomen or pelvic contents(l1.4%) and unspecified(2.9%). 12) Types of injures were fracture(47.6%), bruises03.8%), laceration (13.3%), sprains(9.0%), headache(6.6%), abrasions(2.9%), intracranial hemorrage(2.4%) and burns(0.5%). 13) 41.5% of the fallers were hospitalized and average of hospitalization was 22.3 days. 14) The six fallers(1.46%) died from fall injuries. The two fallers died from intracranial hemorrage and the four fallers died of secondary infection; pneumonia(2), sepsis(1) and cell lulitis(1). It is suggested that 1) Further study is needed with larger sample size to identify the fall risk factors. 2) After the fall accident, comprehensive nursing care and regular physical exercise should be emphasized for the elderly person. 3) Safety education and safety facilities of the public place and home is necessary for fall prevention.

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A Study on the Regionality of Land-Lease Farming : A Comparative Analysis of the Case Study Areas (임차농(賃借農)의 지역성(地域性)에 관한 연구 -사례지역의 비교분석-)

  • Suh, Chan-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.121-150
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    • 1997
  • This Study puts the purpose to explicate the regionalities of land-lease farming by a comparative analisis of the five case study areas in Kungpook Province as the agricultural space system of Teagu metropolitan city. For the regional comparative analysis the province was divided into the three zones with the distance from the central city(Teagu): urban fringes, intermediate and remote zone, and then subdivided into the five regions by farming systems : horticulture, rice-farming, and dry-field farming. The data were collected from 77 land-leasing farmers by questionnaire and interview with farm managers in 5 sample villages representing the regionalities of the above five regions respectively. In spite of relatively restricted scope of the research areas, the analytical results appear remarkable regional differences in the characteristics of land-lease farming within a single agricultural space system. In the final analysis the regionalities of the five land-lease farming regions could be described respectively as follows. (1) Koryong-Gun in the inner urban fringe zone : The developing land-lease farming region of commercialized suburban horticulture with medium scale. (2) Songju-Gun in the outer urban fringe zone : The developing land-lease farming region of highly commercialized horticulture with large scale. (3) Uisong-Gun in the intermediate zone : The stagnated land-lease farming region of commercialized rice-farming with large scale. (4) Yongil-Gun in the intermediate zone : The stagnated land-lease farming region of commercializing dry-field farming with medium scale. (5) Ponghwa-Gun in the remote zone : The stagnated and delayed region in commercializing of intermountain dry-field land-lease farming with small scale. These varied regionalities resulted from the diverse spatiality as a complex of spatial orders and localities. The spatial orders in this study are frequently recognizable as a form of distance-decay, and the locality of a region is determined mostly by the its peculiarity of physical and population conditions. In the comparative analysis of the regionalities the degree of commercialization of a region is a most comprehensive and useful frame of reference because it reflects the degree of development of capitalist land-lease farming. Finally these apparent regional differentiations of land-lease farming within a agricultural space system raise the problem of impracticality of the existing uniform logic on the land-lease farming such as "large scale farms share larger part of leased farmland." This problem suggests the urgent need of reappraisal of many aspatial logics and theories on the land-lease farming.

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A study on Food Preference of Workers for Meal Served by Industry Foodservice (산업체 급식에 대한 근로자들의 기호도 조사 연구)

  • 조희숙
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to investigate the information of food preference of workers for meal served by industry foodservice. The subjects were composed of 212 office workers and 220 laborers. The results were obtained as follows : 50.7% of the subjects were 30∼39 years old ; 72.0% of them had high school education ; the type of favored food was Korean style cooked rice ; food taste was the most important point in food selection. Preference form main foods : Cooked rice was preferred the most by the subjects. Both office workers and laborers liked Kalkooksoo and vegetable bread and cooked rice covered with beef was preferred by office workers and cooked rice covered with raw fish pieces was preferred by laborers. Also they disliked Hash rice, Curry rice and rice-cake soup in the pattern. Preference for side-dish : The Acceptances for side-dishes were high in soybean paste soup(office workers : 37.5%, laborers : 31.5%), hot chowder of corvina(26.1%, 25.7%), kimchi stew(30.5%, 28.8%), beef broiled in soy(32.5%, 30.5%), baked fish(32.5%, 31.9%), pachon(20.7%, 25.9%), a meat inside a razor clam(25.1$, 29.2%) and Chinese cabbage kimchi(44.5%, 46.3%), in that order by both of them. But in office workers, seasoned bean sprouts and steamed beef-rib were shown to have high preference and in laborers seasoned spinach and steamed pork-rib were high. Preference of snacks : The preferences for snacks were high in milk(office workers : 50.3%, laborers : 48.5%), Songpean(28.9%, 30.1%), coffee(30.8%, 32.5%), Sikhye(18.8%, 17.5%), in that order by two groups.

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Effect of Brown Algae (Undasia pinnatisda)-Noodle on Inhibitory Action of Obesity in SD Rats (미역 (Undasia pinnatisda) 국수가 SD계 흰쥐의 비만 억제작용에 미치는 영향)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;KIM Dong-Woo;KIM Jung-Hwa;KIM Dae-Ik;LEE Jong-Soo;BAEK Yeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.46-49
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    • 1999
  • Our previous studies have demonstrated the biological effects of alginic acid as a brown algae (Undasia pinnatisda) component on inhibitory action of obesity using animal model. This study was designed to investigate the effect of brown algae (BA)-noodles ($10\%,\;20\%$ and $40\%$) on inhibitory action of obesity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats for 4 weeks. Body weight gain in SD rats for 4 weeks resulted in a marked inhibition ($7\%,\;17\%\;38\%$, respectively) by administration of $10\%,\;20\%$ and $40\%$ BA-noodles compared with control group. Total energy intake and feed efficiency in SD rats for 4 weeks resulted in a marked inhibition ($6\%,\;16\%\;37\%$ and $10\%\;20\%\;40\%$, respectively) by administration of $10\%\;20\%$ and $40\%$ BA-noodles compared with control group, but gross efficiency was not observed in these BA-noodle groups. Rohrer index and TM index as an obesity markers in SD rats for 4 weeks significantly decreased ($10\%\;15\%$ and $22\%$, respectively) by administration of $10\%,\;20\%$ and $40\%$ BA-noodles compared with control group. These results suggest that inhibitory effect of obesity in SD rats for 4 weeks may be due to decreases of body fat content resulted in a decrease of feed efficiency and energy intake by these BA-noodles.

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Improvement of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi(AMF) Propagule at the Preplanting Field for Ginseng Cultivation (인삼 재배 예정지의 Arbuscular 균근균(AMF) 번식체 밀도 향상)

  • Sohn, Bo-Kyoon;Jin, Seo-Young;Kim, Hong-Lim;Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Do-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.170-176
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to improve density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) propagule and physiochemical properties of soil by planting crops at the preplanning field for ginseng cultivation. Winter crops, such as barley and rye and summer crops, such as sudangrass and soybean were cultivated in combination to improve AMF propagation and soil aggregation at the fields. Yield of harvested crops by plating with winter or/and summer crops was $3,045kg\;10a^{-1}$ of the only rye cultivation, $2,757kg\;10a^{-1}$ of sudangrass cultivation in combination with rye growing (rye/sudangrass) and $1,628kg\;10a^{-1}$ of soybean cultivation in combination with barley growing (barley/soybean), respectively. Soil aggregation rate was improved by cultivation with barley (45.7%) and with rye/sudangrass (45.1%), respectively. The density of AMF spores in soil was increased slowly by cultivating with winter crops. In summer crops cultivation system, density of AMF spores at sudangrass cultivated field was $64.0spores\;g^{-1}$ dried soil and it was higher than that at soybean cultivated field. External hyphae length (EHL) was $1.5{\sim}2.0m\;g^{-1}$ air-dried soil at winter crops cultivated field. However, in summer crops cultivation systems, EHL was $2.6{\sim}2.9m\;g^{-1}$ airdried soil at sudangrass cultivated field and was $1.7{\sim}2.2m\;g^{-1}$ air-dried soil at soybean cultivated filed, showing these were higher than those in non-cultivated field (control). Glomalin content of soil cultivated with crops was higher than that of control soil. Especially, the highest glomalin content was shown to $1.7m\;g^{-1}$ air-dried soil in the barley/soybean cultivation systems. These results suggested that the most effective soil management to improve AMF propagule density and soil physical properties by planting crops system was cultivating sudangrass followed by barley at the preplanning fields for ginseng cultivation.