• Title, Summary, Keyword: Photosystem II activity($F_v/F_m$)

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Assessment of Heavy Metal Effects on the Freshwater Microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, by Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis (엽록소형광분석을 이용한 담수산 클로렐라(Chlorella vulgaris)에 미치는 중금속의 영향 평가)

  • Oh, Soon-Ja;Koh, Seok-Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.12
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    • pp.1591-1600
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    • 2015
  • The response of the freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, to heavy metal stress was examined based on chlorophyll fluorescence analysis to assess the toxic effects of heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems. When toxic effects were analyzed using regular chlorophyll fluorescence analysis, photosystem II activity($F_v/F_m$) decreased significantly when exposed to $Cu^{2+}$ and $Hg^{2+}$ for 12 h, and decreased in the order of $Hg^{2+}>Cu^{2+}>Cd^{2+}>Ni^{2+}$ when exposed for 24h. The effective photochemical quantum yield(${\phi}{\prime}_{PSII}$), chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio($R_{Fd}$), minimal fluorescence yield($F_o$), and non-photochemical quenching(NPQ), but not photochemical quenching(qP), responded sensitively to $Hg^{2+}$, $Cu^{2+}$, and $Cd^{2+}$. These results suggest that $F_v/F_m$, as well as ${\phi}{\prime}_{PSII}$, $R_{Fd}$, $F_o$, and NPQ could be used to assess the effects of heavy metal ions in freshwater ecosystems. However, because many types of heavy metal ions and toxic compounds co-occur under natural conditions, it is difficult to assess heavy metal toxicity in freshwater ecosystems. When Chlorella was exposed to heavy metal ions for 12 or 24h, $F_v/F_m$ and maximal fluorescence yield($F_m$) changed in response to $Hg^{2+}$ and $Cu^{2+}$ based on image analysis. However, assessing quantitatively the toxic effects of several heavy metal ions is challenging.

Photosynthesis and Growth Responses of Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) under Elevated CO2 Conditions (대기 중 CO2 상승 조건에서 재배되는 콩의 광합성과 생장 반응의 분석)

  • Oh, Soonja;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.601-608
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    • 2017
  • The effects of elevated atmospheric $CO_2$ on growth and photosynthesis of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) were investigated to predict its productivity under elevated $CO_2$ levels in the future. Soybean grown for 6 weeks showed significant increase in vegetative growth, based on plant height, leaf characteristics (area, length, and width), and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter value (SPAD value) under elevated $CO_2$ conditions ($800{\mu}mol/mol$) compared to ambient $CO_2$ conditions ($400{\mu}mol/mol$). Under elevated $CO_2$ conditions, the photosynthetic rate (A) increased although photosystem II (PS II) photochemical activity ($F_v/F_m$) decreased. The maximum photosynthetic rate ($A_{max}$) was higher under elevated $CO_2$ conditions than under ambient $CO_2$ conditions, whereas the maximum electron transport rate ($J_{max}$) was lower under elevated $CO_2$ conditions compared to ambient $CO_2$ conditions. The optimal temperature for photosynthesis shifted significantly by approximately $3^{\circ}C$ under the elevated $CO_2$ conditions. With the increase in temperature, the photosynthetic rate increased below the optimal temperature (approximately $30^{\circ}C$) and decreased above the optimal temperature, whereas the dark respiration rate ($R_d$) increased continuously regardless of the optimal temperature. The difference in photosynthetic rate between ambient and elevated $CO_2$ conditions was greatest near the optimal temperature. These results indicate that future increases in $CO_2$ will increase productivity by increasing the photosynthetic rate, although it may cause damage to the PS II reaction center as suggested by decreases in $F_v/F_m$, in soybean.

Assessment of High Temperature Impacts on Early Growth of Garlic Plant (Allium sativum L.) through Monitoring of Photosystem II Activities (광계II 활성 분석을 통한 마늘의 생육초기 고온 스트레스의 영향 평가)

  • Oh, Soonja;Moon, Kyung Hwan;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.829-838
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    • 2015
  • Garlic (Allium sativum L.), one of the oldest cultivated crops, is the most widely used Allium species belonging to the family Lilliaceae. In this study, growth characteristics, photosystem II activity, and antioxidative enzyme activity were investigated in five temperatures ($10-30^{\circ}C$) during early growth stage of garlic to determine the optimum temperature for cultivation and assess the effects of high temperature on early growth of garlic. Vegetative growth (e.g., shoot height, number of leaves) of garlic plants was greater in the temperature ranges of $15-25^{\circ}C$. However, dry weight (of shoot, bulb, and total plant) of garlic was significantly greater at $20^{\circ}C$, compared to either below or above $20^{\circ}C$. $F_v/F_o$ and $F_v/F_m$ values were highest at $15-20^{\circ}C$, and decreased above $25^{\circ}C$. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction OKJIP transient was also considerably affected by high temperature; the fluorescence yields $F_i$ and $F_P$ decreased considerably above $25^{\circ}C$, with the increase of $F_k$ and $W_k$. Activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in leaves and peroxidase in roots were high in $20-25^{\circ}C$, and decreased significantly in $30^{\circ}C$. These results indicate that a growth temperature of $30^{\circ}C$ inhibits early growth of garlic and that it is desirable to culture garlic plants near $20^{\circ}C$. Fluorescence parameters such a $F_v/F_o$, $F_v/F_m$, $F_k$, $ET_o/CS_m$, and $PI_{abs}$ were significantly correlated with dry weight of whole garlic plants (p < 0.01), indicating that these fluorescence parameters can be used for early assessment of high temperature effects even though the damage to the plant is not very severe.

Growth, Photosynthesis and Zinc Elimination Capacity of a Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrid under Zinc Stress (고농도 아연 조건에서 수수-수단그라스 교잡종의 생장, 광합성 및 아연 제거능)

  • Oh, Soonja;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1143-1153
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    • 2016
  • Plant biomass, photosystem II (PSII) photochemical activity, photosynthetic function, and zinc (Zn) accumulation were investigated in a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor ${\times}$ S. sudanense) exposed to various Zn concentrations to determine the elimination capacity of Zn from soils. Plant growth and biomass of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid decreased with increasing Zn concentration. Symptoms of Zn toxicity, i.e., withering and discoloration of old leaves, were found at Zn concentrations over 800 ppm. PSII photochemical activity, as indicated by the values of $F_v/F_m$ and $F_v/F_o$, decreased significantly three days after exposure to Zn concentrations of 800 ppm or more. Photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate (A) was high between Zn concentrations of 100-200 ppm ($22.5{\mu}mol$ $CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$), but it declined as Zn concentration increased. At Zn concentrations of 800 and 1600 ppm, A was 14.1 and $1.8{\mu}mol$ $CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$, respectively. The patterns of stomatal conductance ($g_s$), transpiration rate (E), and water use efficiency (WUE) were all similar to that of photosynthetic $CO_2$ fixation rate, except for dark respiration ($R_d$), which showed an opposite pattern. Zn was accumulated in both above- and below-ground parts of plants, but was more in the below-ground parts. Magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) concentrations were significantly low in the leaves of plants, and symptoms of Mg or Fe deficiency, such as a decrease in the SPAD value, were found when plants were treated with Zn concentrations above 800 ppm. These results suggest that the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid is able to accumulate Zn to high level in plant body and eliminate it with its rapid growth and high biomass yield.

Effects of Different Day / Night Temperature Regimes on Growth and Clove Development in Cool-type Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (한지형 마늘의 생육 및 인편 발달에 미치는 주야간 온도의 영향)

  • Oh, Soonja;Moon, Kyung Hwan;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2017
  • We investigated growth, clove development, and photosystem II activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.) grown under different day/night temperature regimes using Soil-Plant-Atmosphere - Research (SPAR) chambers to determine the optimum cultivation temperature and to assess the impact of temperature stress on garlic. In the early stages of growth, plant growth increased markedly with temperature. At harvest time, however, the pseudostem diameter decreased significantly under a relatively low day/night temperature range ($14/10-17/12^{\circ}C$), suggesting that these temperature conditions favor regular bulb growth. At harvest time, the bulb diameter and height were great at $14/10-23/18^{\circ}C$, whereas the bulb fresh weight and number of cloves per bulb were greatest at $17/12-20/15^{\circ}C$. However, the number of regularly developed cloves per bulb was highest at the relatively low temperature range of $14/10-17/12^{\circ}C$, as were the clove length and fresh weight. The photochemical efficiency ($F_v/F_m$) and potential photochemical efficiency ($F_v/F_o$) of photosystem II in the leaves of garlic plants were higher at $14/10-20/15^{\circ}C$ and lower at temperatures below $14/10^{\circ}C$ or above $20/15^{\circ}C$, implying that the $14/10-20/15^{\circ}C$ temperature range is favorable, whereas temperatures outside this range are stressful for garlic growth. Furthermore, at temperatures above $20/15^{\circ}C$, secondary growth of garlic, defined as lateral bud differentiation into secondary plants, continuous growth of the cloves of the primary plants, or the growth of bulbil buds into secondary plants, was enhanced. Therefore, to achieve commercial production of fresh scapes and bulbs of garlic, it may be better to grow garlic at relatively low temperature ranges of $14/10-17/12^{\circ}C$.

Use of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging for Photochemical Stress Assessment in Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaf under Hot Air Condition

  • Park, Jong Yong;Yoo, Sung Young;Kang, Hong Gyu;Kim, Tae Wan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to find a rapid determination of the hot air stress in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves using a portable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging instrument. To assess the photosynthetic activity of maize leaves, an imaging analysis of the photochemical responses of maize was performed with chlorophyll fluorescence camera. The observed chlorophyll imaging photos were numerically transformed to the photochemical parameters on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging (CFI) method showed that a rapid decrease in maximum fluorescence intensity ($F_m$) of leaf occurred under hot air stress. Although no change was observed in the maximum quantum yield ($F_v/F_m$) of the hot air stressed maize leaves, the other photochemical parameters such as maximum fluorescence intensity ($F_m$) and Maximum fluorescence value ($F_p$) were relatively lowered after hot air stress. In hot air stressed maize leaves, an increase was observed in the nonphotoquenching (NPQ) and decrease in the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (${\Phi}PSII$). Thus, NPQ and ${\Phi}PSII$ were available to be determined non-destructively in maize leaves under hot air stress. Our results clearly indicated that the hot air could be a source of stress in maize leaves. Thus, the CFI analysis along with its related parameters can be used as a rapid indicating technique for the determining hot air stress in plants.

The difference of photosynthetic efficiency and electron transport rate by control of the red tide organism using algicidal substance and yellow clay (살조물질과 황토를 이용한 적조생물 제어에 따른광합성 효율 및 전자전달율의 차이)

  • Son, Moonho;Baek, Seung Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.2951-2957
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    • 2015
  • The development of worldwide harmful algal blooms(HAB) is a serious problem for public health and fisheries industries. To evaluate the algicidal impact on the HAB species, algicide thiazolidinedione derivative (TD49) and yellow clay were examined, which is focus on assess the algicidal effects and inhibition to photosynthesis of HAB species. To obtain the detailed information, we analyzed the viability of target species related to activity Chl. a, photosynthetic efficiency($F_v/F_m$), and electron transport rate(ETR). Culture experiment was conducted to evaluate the algicidal effects of three harmful species(raphidophyceae Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella marina, and dinophyceae Heterocapsa circularisquama) and one non-harmful species (cryptophyceae Rhodomonas salina). Our experiments revealed that three HAB species were easily destroyed of the cell walls after TD49 dosing. Also, they had significantly reducing values of active Chl. a, $F_v/F_m$, and ETR, due to the damage of photosystem II by inter-cellular disturbance. As a result, the algicidal effect(%) for the three HABs were as follows, in the order of greatest to the least: H. circularisquama> C. marina> H. akashiwo. However, the algicidal effect for yellow clay remained to be <30% (p>0.01), implying that it may not have damaged the photosystem II. On the other hand, non-HAB R. salina was promoted at both TD49 and yellow clay treatments. Our results demonstrated that the TD49 is a good agent for the control of HABs H. akashiwo, C. marina, and H. circularisquama, whereas the yellow clay would not be suitable for the field application based on our experimental results.

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Impairs Photosynthesis in the Infected Nicotiana benthamiana with βC1 as an Aggravating Factor

  • Farooq, Tahir;Liu, Dandan;Zhou, Xueping;Yang, Qiuying
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.521-529
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    • 2019
  • Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus is a species of the widespread geminiviruses. The infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) causes a reduction in photosynthetic activity, which is part of the viral symptoms. ${\beta}C1$ is a viral factor encoded by the betasatellite DNA ($DNA{\beta}$) accompanying TYLCCNV. It is a major viral pathogenicity factor of TYLCCNV. To elucidate the effect of ${\beta}C1$ on plants' photosynthesis, we measured the relative chlorophyll (Chl) content and Chl fluorescence in TY-LCCNV-infected and ${\beta}C1$ transgenic N. benthamiana plants. The results showed that Chl content is reduced in TYLCCNV A-infected, TYLCCNV A plus $DNA{\beta}$ (TYLCCNV A + ${\beta}$)-infected and ${\beta}C1$ transgenic plants. Further, changes in Chl fluorescence parameters, such as electron transport rate, $F_v/F_m$, NPQ, and qP, revealed that photosynthetic efficiency is compromised in the aforementioned N. benthamiana plants. The presense of ${\beta}C1$ aggravated the decrease of Chl content and photosynthetic efficiency during viral infection. Additionally, the real-time quantitative PCR analysis of oxygen evolving complex genes in photosystem II, such as PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbR, showed a significant reduction of the relative expression of these genes at the late stage of TYLCCNV A + ${\beta}$ infection and at the vegetative stage of ${\beta}C1$ transgenic N. benthamiana plants. In summary, this study revealed the pathogenicity of TYLCCNV in photosynthesis and disclosed the effect of ${\beta}C1$ in exacerbating the damage in photosynthesis efficiency by TYLCCNV infection.

The responses of Growth and Physiological traits of Acer triflorum on Calcium Chloride ($CaCl_2$) Concentration (염화칼슘 농도에 따른 복자기의 생장 및 생리적 반응 특성)

  • Kwon, Min-Young;Kim, Sun-Hee;Sung, Joo-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.500-509
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    • 2014
  • To prevent freezing of the road by fallen snow, Calcium chloride($CaCl_2$) as a deicer is used to very often and it can be harmful to roadside trees. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Calcium chloride($CaCl_2$) as a deicer on growth and physiological traits of Acer triflorum according to different concentration of $CaCl_2$. We measured growth, chlorophyll contents, gas exchangement characteristics, chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral nutrition concentration in plant and soil. The experimental group was composed of four treatments including 0mM(control), 9mM(0.5 %), 18mM(1.0 %), 54mM(3.0 %). Before germinating new shoot, the dissolution of $CaCl_2$ was irrigated twice interval of a week. At 30 days after treatment, all treatments decreased total cholorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and photochemical efficiency($F_v/F_m$) with increasing concentration of $CaCl_2$ and especially, they significantly reduced in 3.0 % treatment. In contrast, chlorophyll a/b ratio increased with an increase of $CaCl_2$ concentration and water use efficiency increased in 1.0 % and 3.0 % treatments. At 50 days after treatment, all treatments were decreased in chl a, chl b, total chlorophyll content, carotenoid content, photosynthetic capacity, photochemical efficiency($F_v/F_m$) and quantum yield of photosystem II(${\Phi}_{PSII}$) compared with control and 3.0 % treatments were withered. $Ca^{2+}$ and $Cl^-$ were accumulated in leaves and soil, which inhibited water absorption and electron transport and it caused the reduction of height growth rate more than 50 %. Although there was a little difference according to time and $CaCl_2$ concentration, all treatments decreased in growth rate and physiological activity slowed down. As time passed, these results got worse. Therefore we need to take a measure earlier in order to minimize damage of trees.