• Title, Summary, Keyword: Photosynthetic pigments

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The characteristic of photosynthetic pigments distribution of the sediment in the shellfish farm (패류 양식장 퇴적물의 광합성색소 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Sook-Yang;Choi, Minkyu;Hwang, Dong-Woon;Lee, In-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.291-301
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    • 2013
  • This study researched and compared the sedimentation environment and photosynthetic pigments at Gomso (GS) -bay, Yoja (YJ) -bay and KangJin (KJ) -bay in May, 2012. It was shown that KJ-bay consist of C (clay) and M (mud), and GS-bay consists of Zs (silty sand) and Sz (sandy silt). Averagely, IL of YJ-bay was 4.98%, KJ-bay 6.10%, and GS-bay 1.45%. As for COD concentration, there were no places that exceeded Japanese sediment contamination standard 20 mg/g-dry. As for AVS concentration, in case of KJ-bay, two places exceeded Japanese sediment contamination standard 0.2 mg/g-dry. If we look into the average C/N ratio of bays, YJ-bay showed 8.50, KJ-bay 6.60, and GS-bay 5.52, thus all of them showed the characteristic of oceanic origin. As for the plankton make-up classified by photosynthetic pigments, diatom was dominant, and both ratios of pigment and C/chlorophyll. a showed the relatively lower distribution at GS-bay than at KJ-bay and YJ-bay. It is judged that this is related to the characteristic of flow-in, and it implies that predation process and decomposition by organic matters actively occurs at YJ-bay and KJ-bay.

Characteristics of Photosynthetic Pigments during the Outbreak of Harmful Algal Bloom at the South Coastal Area in the Korean Sea Waters

  • Kim, Sook-Yang;Lim, Woel-Ae;Kang, Young-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2010
  • Cochlodinium polykrikoides has occurs regularly during the summer in the South Sea of Korea. To investigate photosynthetic pigments concerned with phytoplankton community structure as bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides, the experiment was sampled at 20 stations three times between July and September 2002 in the Southern Sea of Korea. The distribution of peridinin, the biomarker of dinoflagellate, was higher at the blooming time than it was before and it disappeared after bloom. The correlative coefficients between Chl. a and peridinin at the blooming time and out of bloom were 0.9253 and 0.1613, respectively. This result indicated that the bloom was caused by dinoflagellate. The correlative coefficients between Chl. a and fucoxanthin were 0.3282 and 0.9759, respectively, and the correlative coefficients showed the succession from dinoflagellate to diatom. This result means that the bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides can be detected by Chl. a information from satellite remote sensing. Therefore, if the algorithm to detect peridinin in addition to Chl. a were to be developed, dinoflagellate red tide could be monitored more effectively.

Photosynthetic Inhibition in Leaves of Ailanthus altissima under O3 Fumigation

  • Lee, Jae-Cheon;Oh, Chang-Young;Han, Sim-Hee;Kim, Pan-Gi
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the enect of $O_3$ on the photosynthetic characteristics of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) that is naturalized plant and used as restoration plant for contaminated area. Two-year-old seedlings were planted to pots and transferred into closed $O_3$ chamber. Photosynthetic pigments contents and photosynthetic characteristics were measured every three weeks under 100 pub $O_3$ fumigation. There was no visible foliar injury by $O_3$ exposure and contents of photosynthetic pigments did not show significant differences between control and $O_3$-treated seedlings. Also there were no significant differences in stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency. But photosynthetic rate and apparent quantum yield (AQY) of $O_3$ treated seedlings were reduced after nine weeks of ozone fumigation. In addition, the reduction of carboxylation efficiency and photorespiration were observed in the leave of $O_3$ treated seedlings after six weeks. In accordance with our result, carbon fixation system of A. altissima was most sensitive to $O_3$ stress to evaluate physiological damage induced by $O_3$.

Effect of $Cr^{6+}$ Stress on Photosynthetic Pigments and Certain Physiological Processes in the Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans and Its Chromium Resistant Strain

  • KHATTAR, J. I. S.,;SARMA, T. A.;ANURADHA SHARMA,
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.1211-1216
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    • 2004
  • A MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) induced chromium resistant strain ($Cr^{r}18$) of unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans has been isolated and characterized. The resistant strain could grow (although restricted to $50\%$ of control) in chromium concentration (180${\mu}M$) lethal to the wild-type. Sublethal ($160{\mu}M$) concentration of $Cr^{6+}$ significantly reduced (13-$37.5$) all the photosynthetic pigments of A. nidulans with maximum reduction in phycoerythrin followed by ChI $\alpha$. Pigments of A. nidulans were drastically decreased in lethal concentration of Cr^{6+} with maximum reduction in phycoerythrin ($75\%$) and allophycocyanin ($67.5\%$). Resistant strain $Cr^{r}18$ resisted toxic effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations of $Cr^{6+}$ on photosynthetic pigments as revealed by less decrease in pigments as compared to A. nidulans. Effect of $Cr^{6+}$ stress was also studied on nitrogen assimilation and phosphate uptake. Sublethal concentration of $Cr^{6+}$ drastically reduced ($71.5\%$) nitrate uptake by A. nidulans while a decrease of $29\%$ was observed in strain $Cr^{r}18$. Short (2 day) exposure of A. nidulans and its resistant strain $Cr^{r}18\;to\;Cr^{6+}$ did not affect nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase (transferase), whereas longer (10 day) exposure to $Cr^{6+}$ lowered activities of both enzymes in A. nidulans but not significantly in the strain $Cr^{r}18$. Ammonium uptake by both strains was not affected by $Cr^{6+}$. Thus, $Cr^{6+}$ affected photosynthetic pigments, nitrogen assimilation, and phosphate uptake of A. nidulans, while strain $Cr^{r}18$ was able to resist toxic effects of the metal. Advantages of using strain $Cr^{r}18$ for bioremediation purposes have been evaluated by studying $Cr^{6+}$ removal from the solution. Resistant strain $Cr^{r}18$ was able to remove $33\%$ more $Cr^{6+}$ than A. nidulans and thus it can prove to be a good candidate for bioremediation of $Cr^{6+}$ from polluted waters.

Evaluation of Grinding Effects on the Extraction of Photosynthetic Pigments for HPLC Analysis (광합성 색소의 HPLC 분석을 위한 여과지 분쇄 효과 평가)

  • Jang, Su Jin;Park, Mi Ok
    • The Sea
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2015
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is a widely used method for measuring the concentration of chlorophyll a as an indicator for estimating phytoplankton biomass and primary production and also for identifying carotenoids to determine phytoplankton composition. However, tissue grinding procedure requires a lot of time and experience in the analysis of multiple sample. Accordingly, we measured the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments before and after the grinding, in order to understand the grinding effects on the quantitative analysis of chlorophylls and carotenoids using samples from southwestern East Sea. When tissue grinding procedure was omitted, we found that Chl a concentrations were underestimated up to 45% in average. Also, concentrations of Zeaxanthin, 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, 19'-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, biomarkers of pico and nano-size phytoplankton, were underestimated up to maximum 77~85% without grinding. We found that the smaller the phytoplankton, the bigger underestimation of their biomarker pigments concentration is likely to happen due to the incomplete extraction. Thus, tissue grinding procedure should be included for HPLC analysis in all cases, to prevent the underestimation of not only Chl a but also carotenoids pigments.

Mercury-Specific Effects on Photosynthetic apparatus of Barley Chloroplasts Compared with Copper and Zinc Ions (구리${\cdot}$아연과 비교한 보리 엽록체의 광합성 기구에 미치는 수은 이온의 특이한 효과)

  • 문병용;전현식
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1.1-11
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    • 1992
  • To find heavy metal-specific effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants, we investigated effects of $CuCl_2$, HgCl_2$ and $ZnCl_2$ on electron transport activity and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics of chloroplasts isolated from barley seedlings. Effects on some related processes such as germination, growth and photosynthetic pigments of the test plants were also studied. Germination and growth rate were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by these metals. Mercury was shown to be the most potent inhibitor of germination, growth and biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments of barley plants. In the inhibition of electron transport activity, quantum yield of PS II, and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics of chloroplasts isolated from barley seedlings, mercury chloride showed more pronounced effects than other two metals. Contrary to the effects of other two metals, mercury chloride increased variable fluorescence significantly and abolished qE in the fluorescence induction kinetics from broken chloroplasts of barley seedlings. This increase in variable fluorescence is due to the inhibition of the electron transport chain after PS ll and the following dark reactions. The inhibition of qE could be attributed to the interruption of pH formation and do-epoxidation of violaxathin to zeaxanthin in thylakoids by mercury. This unique effect of mercury on chlorophyll fluorescence induction pattern could be used as a good indicator for testing the presence and/or the concentration of mercury in the samples contaminated with heavy metals.

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Analysis of Pigments and Thylakoid Membrane Proteins in Photosystem I - Mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (Synechocystis sp. PCC6803을 이용한 Photosystem I- mutants의 색소 및 틸라코이드막 단백질 분석)

  • 전은경;장남기
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 1997
  • Pigments and thylakoid membrane proteins were investigated in wild type and PS I- mutants from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Comparing morphological features, B2 was less fluorescent than the other strains. The contents of chlorophyll a were propotional to the FNR activity in thylakoid membrane. The FNR activity of mutants was lower than that of wild type. In the result of pigments analysis, mutants had smaller cholophyll a than that of wild type. The major carotenoid was found to he $\beta$-caroene, but aeaxanthin was barely detected in thylakoid membrane of mutants. The polypeptide, 14.8kD was detected by electrophoresis in mutants. It was considered to be the modification of 15.4kD in wild type. Membrane polypeptides of 17.6 and 19.7kD were not detected in mutants. In the result of western blotting, subunit I was detected in all strains, but subunit II was barely detected in mutants. Subunit II was not detected in B2 at all. In view of the results so far achieved, the changes of contents of chlorophyll and zeaxanthin were affected by the defficiency or modification of functional domain in subunit I. Also the modification in subunit I affected the subunit II- binding site in PS I. As the result, efficiency of photosynthesis was decreased. Key words: Synechoystis sp. PCC6803, PS I - mutant, Photosynthetic efficiency, Pigment,Thylakoid membrane proteins, Subunit I, II.

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Acclimation of maximum quantum yield of PSII and photosynthetic pigments of Panax quinquefolius L. to understory light

  • Fournier, Anick R.;T.A., John;Khanizadeh, Shahrokh;Gosselin, Andre;Dorais, Martine
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.347-356
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    • 2008
  • Forest-grown American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is exposed to daily and seasonal light variations. Our goal was to determine the effect of understory light changes on the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, expressed as $F_v/F_m$, and photosynthetic pigment composition of two-year-old plants. Understory light photon flux density and sunfleck durations were characterized using hemispherical canopy photography. Our results showed that understory light significantly affected the $F_v/F_m$ of American ginseng, especially during the initial development of the plants when light levels were the highest, averaging 28 mol $m^{-2}d^{-1}$. Associated with low $F_v/F_m$ during its initial development, American ginseng had the lowest levels of epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle of the season, suggesting an active dissipation of excess light energy absorbed by the chlorophyll pigments. As photon flux density decreased after the deployment of the forest canopy to less than 10 mol $m^{-2}d^{-1}$, chlorophyll a/b decreased suggesting a greater investment in light harvesting pigments to reaction centers in order to absorb the fleeting light energy.

Developmental Changes in Photosynthetic Pigments and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Etiolated Rice Seedlings During Greening

  • Chun, Hyun-Sik;Moon, Byoung-Yong;Suh, Kye-Hong;Lee, Chin-Bum
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1996
  • Developmental of photosynthetic pigments and changes in chlorophyll fluorescence of dark-grown rice seedlings were studied during greening. Light-illumination stimulated accumulations of total chlorophylls and carotenoids in leaves of etiolated seedlings, accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b. When the composition of carotenoids was analyzed, violaxanthin level was shown to increase up to 24 h after the beginning of light illumination, followed by a subsequent decline. In contrast to this, zeaxanthin level increased consistently with progress of deetiolatin. The role of zeaxanthin is discussed in relation to chlorophyll fluorescence quenching. A study on chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics of the rice seedlings being deetiolated showed a time-dependent increase in Fv/Fm (yield of variable fluorescence/maximum yield of fluoresecnece) ratios, indicating that greening is responsible for the activation of photochemical reaction centers of the photosystem. When chlorophyll fluorescence quenching was examined, qNP (nonphotochemical quenching) and qE (energy-dependent quenching) exhibited a time-dependent decline with progress of greening. The presented results indicate that greening-induced development of the photosynthetic machinery is associated the conversion of the carotenoid violaxanthin to zeaxanthin, suggesting that zeaxanthin synthesized in the illuminated leaves may provide the protection from the damage when etiolated plants are exposed to light.

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