• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphorus Reduction

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Reduction of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Livestock Waste A Major Priority for Intensive Animal Production - Review -

  • Yano, F.;Nakajima, T.;Matsuda, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.651-656
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    • 1999
  • In current animal production in Japan, a large surplus of nitrogen and phosphorus is given to animals as their feed which are mostly imported from outside of our own country. Today, an excess of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure has been spread out of the area of animal production and the surroundings. These components have become the major reason for eutrophication of ground, surface and inland water. Nutritional studies for the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal waste has been done by many researchers. The reduction of excess protein in animal feed and the supplementation of deficient essential amino acids to feed have a possibility to increase the biological value of feed and to reduce nitrogen excretion, especially, via urine. The use of phytase activity to degrade phytate and to release utilizable inorganic phosphorus make it possible to cut an excess supply of feed additive inorganic phosphorus and to reduce phosphorus excretion from animal waste.

Thermodynamic Study for P Reduction from Slag to Molten Steel by using the Microwave Heating (마이크로웨이브 가열을 이용한 슬래그로부터 인의 용철로의 환원이동에 관한 열역학적 고찰)

  • Lee, Joon-Ho;Kim, Eun-Ju;Kim, Tae-Young;Kang, Youn-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2010
  • Phosphorus exhibits considerable segregation in steelmaking slag. In order to recover phosphorus from slag to $K_3PO_4$ via molten iron, a carbothermic reaction using microwave heating was suggested recently. The carbothermic reduction of phosphorus from slag to molten iron using microwave heating was carried out at 2073K. However, at this temperature the thermodynamic properties of both slag and molten iron cannot be determined experimentally. Therefore, the computational approach of the so-called CALPHAD method is very useful to understand the transfer of phosphorus from slag to metal and to enhance this reaction. In the present investigation, a theoretical study of the reduction behavior of phosphorus in slag was carried out at much lower temperatures using the recently developed thermodynamic database in the FactSage program. The calculated results showed reasonable accordance with the experimental data; namely, the thermodynamic database could be applied successfully to higher temperature reactions. The current study found that higher temperature and high $SiO_2$ concentration are favorable for the recovery of phosphorus from slag.

Effects of Water Circulation on the Phosphorus Release Rate from Sediments in the Lake (호수의 물 순환이 저니의 인 용출율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Geonha;Jeong, Woohyeok;Choi, Seunghee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.595-601
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    • 2005
  • In this research, effects of water circulation on phosphorus release from sediment into water body were studied. Sediments sampled at the Daechung Lake were used for the column experiments with circulation and non-circulation conditions. Deaeration coefficient, $K_1$ and reaeration coefficient, $K_2$ of non-circulation condition were 0.133 and 0, respectively, while $K_1$ and $K_2$ for circulation condition were 0.46 and 0.018, respectively. Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) showed a linear relationship with dissolved oxygen (DO) when DO is over 2 mg/L. Phosphorus concentration induced by phosphorus release from sediment was highly dependent upon DO, ORP, and pH. Under anaerobic condition, phosphorus release rate was higher for $Fe^{2+}$-bounded phosphorus compared to that of $Ca^{2+}$-bounded phosphorus.

The effect of phosphorus removal from sewage on the plankton community in a hypertrophic reservoir

  • Jung, Sungmin;Kim, Kiyong;Lee, Yunkyoung;Lee, Jaeyong;Cheong, Yukyong;Reza, Arif;Kim, Jaiku;Owen, Jeffrey S.;Kim, Bomchul
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.66-74
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    • 2016
  • Background: When developing water quality improvement strategies for eutrophic lakes, questions may arise about the relative importance of point sources and nonpoint sources of phosphorus. For example, there is some skepticism regarding the effectiveness of partial reductions in phosphorus loading; because phosphorus concentrations are too high in hypertrophic lakes, in-lake phosphorus concentrations might still remain within typical range for eutrophic lakes even after the reduction of phosphorus loading. For this study, water quality and the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities were monitored in a hypertrophic reservoir (Lake Wangsong) before and after the reduction of phosphorus loading from a point source (a sewage treatment plant) by the installation of a chemical phosphorus-removal process. Results: Before phosphorus removal, Lake Wangsong was classified as hypertrophic with a median phosphorus concentration of $0.232mg\;L^{-1}$ and a median chlorophyll-a concentration of $112mg\;L^{-1}$. The dominant phytoplankton were filamentous cyanobacteria for the most of the ice-free season. Following the installation of the advanced treatment process, phosphorus concentrations were reduced to $81mg\;L^{-1}$, and the N/P atomic ratio increased from 42 to 102. Chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased to $42{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, and the duration of cyanobacterial dominance was confined to the summer season. Cyanobacteria in spring and autumn were replaced by diatoms and cryptomonads. Filamentous cyanobacteria in summer were replaced by colony-forming unicellular Microcystis spp. It was remarkable that zooplankton biomass increased despite the decrease in phytoplankton biomass, and especially cladoceran zooplankton which increased drastically. These responses to the reduction of point source P loading to Lake Wangsong imply that reducing the point source P loading can have a big impact even when nonpoint sources account for a large fraction of the total annual phosphorus loading. Conclusions: Our results also show that the phytoplankton community can shift to decreased cyanobacterial dominance and the zooplankton community can shift to higher cladoceran dominance, even when phosphorus concentrations remain within the typical range for eutrophic lakes following the reduction of phosphorus loading.

Speciation of Phosphorus Dependent upon pH and Oxidation Reduction Potential in Overlying Water and Sediment (pH와 산화환원전위에 따른 상등수-퇴적물에서의 인 형태 변화)

  • Jung, Woo-Hyeok;Kim, Geon-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.472-479
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    • 2006
  • In this research, speciation of phosphorus in sediment and overlying water dependent upon pH and ORP(Oxidation Reduction Potential) was studied. Three possible conditions were simulated: open system with circulation, closed system with stratification and closed system with sand capping on the sediment. Phosphorus release rate from sediment was increased for both open system and closed system if pH was less than 6.0. Phosphorus concentration for closed system was increased from 0.9 mg/L to 0.51 mg/L, and stabilized at 0.34 mg/L if anaerobic conditions were maintained in the overlying water. When sand capping was implemented, phosphorus concentrations of overlying water were maintained less than those of closed system.

Electrochemical Reduction of Triphenylphosphine Phenylimide (Triphenylphosphine Phenylimide의 전기화학적인 환원)

  • Pak Chong Min;Wilson M. Gulick, Jr.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.341-353
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    • 1974
  • The electrochemical reduction of triphenylphosphine penylimide in nonaqueous media has been examined by polarography, cyclic voltammetry, controlled-potential coulometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The reduction of triphenylphosphine phenylimide proceeds by a one-electron transfer to form anion radical which undergoes both protonation and a second one-electron reduction followed by cleavage of the phosphorus-nitrogen double bond. Aniline is a major product. The cleavage of a phosphorus-phenyl bond was also observed after reduction of triphenylphosphine oxide which is one of the major products of the chemical reaction which follow the primary process.

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THE EFFECT OF A SYNTHETIC ANALOGUE OF PYROPHOSPHATE ON CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND PHOSPHORUS HOMEOSTASIS IN SHEEP

  • Matsui, T.;Kawabata, T.;Harumoto, T.;Yano, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 1992
  • Three female sheep were daily administered a pyrophosphate analogue, disodium 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) at the level of 4 mg/kg body weight. HEBP largely suppressed bone resorption, which was indicated by the reduction in plasma free hydroxyproline concentration and in calcium mobilization rate during the intravenous infusion of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). Contrary to the suppression of bone resorption, plasma total-calcium, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations were not changed by HEBP administration. These results suggest that bone mineral crystals play a meaningless role on calcium, magnesium and phosphorus homeostasis in ruminants if they are fed adequate amounts of these minerals. Plasma magnesium and phosphorus concentrations were not significantly changed after feeding. However, plasma total-calcium was decreased after feeding in both periods and the reduction seemed to be remarkable in the HEBP-treated period. Infusion of EDTA more remarkably reduced plasma ionized calcium concentration in the HEBP-treated that in the untreated period and the recovery of ionized calcium was retarded by HEBP administration. These results suggest that calcium release from bone is necessary for maintenance of plasma calcium when animals rapidly lose calcium.

Effect fo Saline and Alkaline Salts on the Phosphorous contant of Vegetable plants (재배 식물의 P함량에 미치는 무기감류의 영향)

  • 차종환
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.9 no.3_4
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    • pp.14-18
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    • 1966
  • 1. The effects of saline and alkaline salts on the content of phosphorus in the leaves of selected vegetable plants under soil and sand culture was investigated. 2. The reduction of growth was associated with increasing intensity of salts, although no significant differences was evident. 3. Phosphorus content in the leaves of two plants was depressed with increasing concentration of two typs of salts. 4. It was noticed that the phosphorus content increased with treated salts. That is, phosphorus content was higher in the leaves of treated salt plots than that of control plots and the difference was significant in the soil culture. 5. The values of the phosphorus content were higher in the leaves of two crops of NaCl plots than that of $Na_2CO_3$ plots and the difference was significant in Radish.

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Analysis on the Reduction of Phosphorus Release in River and Lake Sediments through Application of Capping Technology (Capping 기술을 이용한 하천 및 호소 퇴적토의 인 용출 저감 효과 분석)

  • Kim, Seog-Ku;Yun, Sang-Leen
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.11
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    • pp.781-790
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    • 2014
  • Contaminants such as organic matters, nutrients and toxic chemicals in rivers and lakes with a weak flow rate are first removed from the water and accumulated in the sediments. Subsequently, they are released into the water column again, posing direct/indirect adverse effects on the water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In particular, phosphorus is known to accelerate the eutrophication phenomenon when it is released into the water column via physical disturbance and biological/chemical actions as one of important materials that determine the primary production of aquatic ecosystems and an element that is stored mainly in the sediments in the process of material circulation in the body of water. In this study, the effect on reducing phosphorus release in sediments was analyzed by applying different capping materials to lake water, where the effect of aquatic microorganisms is taken into account, and to distilled water, where the effect of microorganisms is excluded. The experimental results showed that capping with chemical materials such as Fe-gypsum and $SiO_2$-gypsum further reduced the phosphorus release by at least 40% compared to the control case. Composite materials like granule gypsum+Sand showed over 50% phosphorus release reduction effect. Therefore, it is determined that capping with chemical materials such as granule-gypsum and eco-friendly materials such as sand is effective in reducing phosphorus release. The changes in phosphorus properties in the sediments before and after capping treatment showed that gypsum input helped to change the phosphorus that is present in lake sediments into apatite-P, a stable form that makes phosphorus release difficult. Based on the above results, it is expected that the application of capping technology will contribute to improving the efficiency of reducing phosphorus release that occurs in river and lake sediments.

The Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium and Calcium Application on Root Activity and Grain Yield of Paddy Rice on Different Soil Conditions (토양 조건별 인산, 가리 및 석회 시용이 수도의 근활력 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Si-Yung Ahn
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.110-134
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    • 1977
  • Effects of phosphorus, potassium and calcium applications on root activity and agronomic characters of paddy rice were studied in submerged paddy soil on which starch was applied to accelerate soil reduction and production of toxic substance during 1971~1973. Root activity at heading date was decreased in reduction accelerated soil by starch application. Effect of calcium application on root activity was differed along soil conditions, phosphorus or potassium levels. Single effects of phosphorus or potassium application were not significant on every observed characters. Calcium application when phosphorus or potassium was not used as basal but used as top dressing increased yield and yield components, especially filled grain ratio. Effect of calcium application along soil conditions was differed on agronomic characters, but calcium application with phosphorus or potassium was more effective to increase yield components and grain yield. Sufficient application of phosphorus, potassium and calcium could improve the nutritional situation of rice plant for panicle development and grain maturity in reduction accelerated paddy soil in which poor growing of rice plant after panicle formation is anticipated by the production of toxic substance from soil.

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