• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphorus

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Behavioral characteristics of phosphorus in sediments according to the forms of phosphorus

  • Kim, Tae-hoon;Lee, Jongjun;Kim, Jungsoo;Oh, Jong-min
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2015
  • This study investigates the behavioral characteristics and forms of phosphorus in the sediment according to the oxygen condition (aerobic/anaerobic). In the behavioral characteristics analysis, Al-P and Fe-P concentrations were the highest among the forms of inorganic phosphorus, and therefore had the strongest impact on sorption and release corresponding to environmental condition changes. In the experimental investigation of the inorganic forms of phosphorus in the sediment according to the oxygen condition, we determined that the forms of inorganic phosphorus did not greatly affect the sorption or release reaction because the distribution ratios of the inorganic forms remained constant corresponding to changes of dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. In contrast, the forms of organic phosphorus in the sediments affected both sorption and release. Furthermore, labile-P and moderately labile-P forms were the major mechanisms of sorption in sediment. Moderately labile-P was the greatest contributor to phosphorus release action in sediment. As environmental changes are important for the behavioral characteristics of phosphorus in sediment, the forms of phosphorus should be considered to have a greater effect, especially in the organic phosphorus case. Therefore, based on the present study results, sediment evaluation aimed at controlling internal pollutants in reservoirs should include an examination of the forms of phosphorus present, as well as the release characteristics of environmental changes, which are influential factors of phosphorus control. Further research in this field is required.

Effect of supplementing phosphorus to Korean cow manure on the growth and cast production of earthworm (Eisenia foetida) (한우분내에 인의 첨가가 지렁이의 생육과 분립생산량에 미치는 영향)

  • 이주삼;이필원
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of supplementing phosphorus to Korean cow manure on the growth and cast production of earthworm(Eisenia Foetida), and to estimate the optimal phosphorus level for the growth and cast production of earthworm and ratios of available phosphorus and calcium content of cast in optimal phosphorus levels. Phosphorus supplementing ratios to Korean native cow were 0, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8A%, respectively. The volume of raising box was 3375cm$^3$(15$\times$15$\times$15cm), and 500g of cow manure filled up to 10cm layer. Raising density was 90㎤ per worm during the experimental period(60 days). The maximum fresh weight and cast production of earthworm were obtained at 2~4% and 1% levels of phosphorus supplementation to Korea native cow manure. The total phosphorus and available phosphorus contents of earthworm tissues were not significant among in all treatments. There was a positive significantly differences between total phosphorus and available phosphorus of cast and residual matters. Available phosphorus content of cast were ranged from 9.3mg/g to 17.3mg/g at 1~4% levels of phosphorus supplementation. Ratios of available phosphorus and calcium contents of cast were 1.94~3.15:1 and 0.87~1.33:1 at 2~4% and 0~1% levels of phosphorus supplementation.

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Influences of Aeration Rate and Manure Temperature on Phosphorus Transformation in Swine Liquid Manure Bioreactor (액상 돈분 발효조에서 폭기량과 돈분온도가 인의 형태 변환에 미치는 영향)

  • Park K. J.;Hong J. H.;Kim J. Y.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.508-514
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the influences of aeration rates and temperatures on phosphorus transformation in the manure during treatment of swine manure in 15.3L batch reactor. The total phosphorus of raw manure was composed of $91.5\%$ of inorganic phosphorus and $8.5\%$ of organic phosphorus. During the experiment, inorganic phosphorus decreased from $91.5\%\;(385.7\;mg/L)\;to\;25.8-42.7\%\;(108.8-179.8\;mg/L)$ while organic phosphorus increased from $8.5\%\;(35.6\;mg/L)\;to\;57.3-74.2\%\;(241.5-312.5\;mg/L)$. The organic phosphorus was increased by the possible transformation of soluble inorganic phosphorus to poly-phosphate by the microbial uptake. However, soluble inorganic phosphorus was not decreased much during the experiment because the insoluble inorganic phosphorus was transferred to soluble inorganic phosphorus offsetting the microbial uptake. There was no significant difference in soluble inorganic proportion variance during the experiment among treatments for three liquid temperatures and three aeration levels. In terms of phosphorus transformation in the manure and energy consumption required for aeration, lower aeration was desirable fur the manure treatment.

Variation of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics According to the Decrease of Influent Phosphorus Concentration in SBR and SBBR (SBR과 SBBR에서 유입 인 농도 감소에 따른 인과 질소의 제거 특성 변화)

  • Kim, Dong-Seog;Park, Young-Seek
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of influent phosphorus concentration on the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactor(SBR) and sequencing batch biofilm reactors(SBBRs) in order to recover the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) capacity at the sludge of the deterioration of EBPR capacity. In SBBRs, comparing to SBR, the organic removal was occurred actively at the 1 st non-aeration period because of the active phosphorus release at this period. However, the variation of TOC removal according to the decrease of influent phosphorus concentration was not clearly shown both in SBR and SBBRs. In case of SBR losing EBPR capacity, the EBPR capacity was not recovered by the decrease of the influent phosphorus concentration from 7.5 mg/L to 0.9 mg/L. The nitrogen removal increased by the decrease of influent phosphorus concentration both in SBR and SBBRs.

A Study on Phosphorus Removal Effects Per Iron Surface Area in FNR Process (철전기분해장치(FNR)에서 철판의 표면적이 인제거에 미친 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.568-574
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purpose of this experiment is to understand the phosphorus removal ratio effects of iron plates per unit of surface area through the iron electrolysis system, which consists of an anoxic basin, aerobic basin, and iron precipitation apparatus. Methods: Iron electrolysis, which uses an iron precipitation reactor in anoxic and oxic basins, consisted of iron plates with total areas of 400 $cm^2$, 300 $cm^2$ and 200 $cm^2$ respectively. The FNR process was operated with a hydraulic retention time and a sludge retention time of 12 hours and three days, respectively. Wastewater used in the experiments was prepared by dissolving $KH_2PO_4$ in influent water. Results: The iron plates 400 $cm^2$ (16.6 $mA/cm^2$), 300 $cm^2$ (13.3 $mA/cm^2$) and 200 $cm^2$ (7.3 $mA/cm^2$) in surface area in the phosphorus reactor had respective phosphorus of 2.4 mg/l, 2.7 mg/l and 3.2 mg/l in the effluent and phosphorus removal respective efficiencies of 90.3%, 89.1% and 87.1%. The effluent in the reactor, where the iron plate was not used, had relatively very low phosphorus removal efficiency showing phosphorus concentration of 15.3 mg/l and a phosphorus removal efficiency about 38.3%. Phosphorus removal per ferrous was 0.472 mgP/mgFe in the iron electrolysis system where the surface area of iron was low. Phosphorus pollution load per active surface area and the phosphorus removal efficiency had an interrelation of RE = -0.27LS + 89.0 (r = 0.85). Conclusion: With larger iron plate surface area, the elution of iron concentration and phosphorus removal efficiency was higher. The removal efficiency of phosphorus has decreased by increasing the initial phosphate concentration in the iron electrodes. This shows a tendency of decreasing phosphorus removal efficiency because of decreasing of iron deposition as the phosphorus pollution load per active surface area increases.

Substrate Effects on Biological Excess Phosphorus Removal (유기물질이 인제거 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jun, Hang-Bae;Lee, Eyung-Taek;Shin, Hang-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 1994
  • In this research, investigations were made on the effect of type and load of organic substrate on phosphorus release. Reactors of three different sizes were operated, being fed on five kinds of organic substrates. The quantitative analyses were made on phosphorus release and substrate utilization under anaerobic condition. The molar ratios of the uptaken organic substrate to the released phosphorus were 0.5 with acetate, 0.6 with glucose, 0.8 with glucose/acetate, and 1.2 with glucose/acids, respectively. The phosphorus release was inhibited at the higher organic load than the normal at stead state. Both acetate and acids/glucose enhanced phosphorus release- as well as uptake-rate, however, the complete phosphorus removal was achieved after the microbial adaptation to the new environment. In case with acetate, operation was hampered by the poor sludge settleability and phosphorus uptake was not enough although the phosphorus release was active. But with milk/starch, the phosphorus release and uptake was well developed even though phosphorus release was not comparatively high. From this study, it was concluded that organic substrates, such as glucose seemed to be converted fatty acids after fast bio-sorption, followed by concurrent uptake of these acids by excess phosphorus removing bacteria.

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Dietary Optimum Phosphorus Level of Juvenile Korean Rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli)

  • Lee Sang-Min;Park Sung-Real;Kim Jeong Dae
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.180-186
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    • 1998
  • A 10-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the phosphorus requirement of juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Three replicate groups of fish initially averaging 4.2g were fed the semipurified experimental diets containing graded levels of $NaH_2PO_4\;\cdot\;2H_2O$ to provide from $0.1\%$ to $1.32\%$ total phosphorus level in a flow-through seawater system. Korean rockfish muscle and casein were used as the protein sources of the basal diet. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein retention of fish fed the $0.35\%$ phosphorus were higher than those of fish fed the $0.1\%$ phosphorus, although no significant improvements $(P>0.01)$ were observed above the level. Determined phosphorus requirement using the broken line model was found to be $0.3\%$ for weight gain. Moisture, protein and lipid contents of whole body and muscle were not affected by dietary phosphorus levels $(P>0.01)$. Lipid contents of liver in fish fed the $0.1\%$ phosphorus were lower than those in fish fed the $0.35\%$ and $1.32\%$ phosphorus $(P<0.01)$. Dietary phosphorus increased ash and phosphorus contents of the whole body, while those of bone were not affected $(P>0.01)$. The data obtained in this study indicate that a $0.3\%$ dietaryphosphorus level could be recommended for the optimum growth and efficient nutrient utilization of juvenile Korean rockfish.

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Characteristics of phosphorus leaching from sewage sludge ash by acid and alkali (산과 알카리에 의한 슬러지 소각재의 인 침출 특성)

  • Battsooj, Munkhjargal;Lee, Minsu;Kim, Dong-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.571-577
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    • 2016
  • Phosphorus is an essential and irreplaceable element for all living organisms and its resource is limited. Significant amount of used phosphorus is collected in sewage treatment plant as sludge. Sludge ash after incineration contains about 10% of phosphorus in dry mass basis, which is comparable to phosphate rocks, and it is an important source of phosphorus recovery. Acid and alkali were used to leach phosphorus from sludge ash and compared for their leaching kinetics and performance. Phosphorus leaching by NaOH was fast and 0.2 N and 2 N NaOH leached 49% and 56% of the total phosphorus in the sludge ash at the L/S ratio of 100. Phosphorus leaching by sulphuric acid and hydrochloric were very fast and most of the phosphorus was leached in 5 minutes. In case of sulphuric acid 95% of the total phosphorus in the sludge ash was leached by 0.2 N at the L/S ratio of 100 and 93% was leached by 1 N at the L/S ratio of 10. 1 N hydrochloric acid leached 99% of the total phosphorus at the L/S ratio of 10. The results showed acids were more effective than alkali for phosphorus leaching from sludge ash and hydrochloric acid leached more phosphorus than sulphuric acid.

The Limiting Nutrient of Eutrophication in Reservoirs of Korea and the Suggestion of a Reinforced Phosphorus Standard for Sewage Treatment Effluent (국내 호수의 제한영양소와 하수처리장 방류수 인 기준 강화의 필요성)

  • Kim, Bomchul;Sa, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Moonsook;Lee, Yunkyoung;Kim, Jai-Ku
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.512-517
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    • 2007
  • The limiting nutrient of eutrophication in freshwater bodies in Korea was examined and the phosphorus concentration standard for sewage treatment effluent was discussed. The weight ratio of N/P in 13 major reservoirs showed the range of 18 to 163, which implies phosphorus is more limited than nitrogen for algal growth. In the correlation analysis phosphorus showed higher correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration than with nitrogen. In the algal bioassay phosphorus spike test enhanced algal growth in all 25 samples of five reservoirs, while nitrogen was found to co-limit only in four samples. It confirms that phosphorus is the only limiting nutrient for eutrophication in Korean reservoirs. As many reservoirs are eutrophic in Korea, phosphorus control is critical for the management of water quality. The phosphorus standard of sewage treatment effluent in Korea was compared with other countries, and it can be concluded that phosphorus standard is too high to be effective in eutrophication control and a lower phosphorus standard is essential for the water quality improvement.

Effect of the Total Organic Carbon(TOC) on phosphorus removal by Stapylococcus auricularis (Stapylococcus auricularis에 의한 인 제거에서 총유기탄소의 영향)

  • 최석순
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2000
  • Stapylococcus auricularis was used for the simultaneous removal of phosphorus and Total Organic Carbon(TOC) in the wastewater from sewage and various industries. In this study, the characteristics of phosphorus removal was investigated with initial ratio of TOC phosphorus in the synthetic wastewater. When the synthetic wastewater containing 15mg/L of phosphorus was treated under anaerobic and conditions, phosphorus was removed completely within 6 hours of operation. And when the initial ratio of TOC to phosphorus was 30, as high as 10 times the removal rate of phosphorus by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was achieved. These results implied that a long adaptation time, one of the chief problems in biological phosphorus removal process was overcome.

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