• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phospholipase $A_2$

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Isolation and structure elucidation of a catechin glycoside with phospholipase $A_2$ inhibiting activity from Ulmi cortex

  • Park, Sunghyouk;Goo, Yang-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.58-58
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    • 1995
  • 식물에서부터 새로운 소염작용제를 개발하기 위하여 여러식물을 대상으로 염증반응의 초기단계에서 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 알려진 Phospholipase $A_2$에 저해활성을 갖는 물질을 검색하였고 그 중 강한 억제활성을 보인 유근피에서 유효성분을 분리하였다. 유근피의 에칠 아세테이트 분획에 대하여 실리카겔 크로마토그래피, Sephadex LH-20 크로마토그래피, 분취 박막 크로마토그래피를 수행하여 phenol성 -OH기를 갖는 활성성분인 PSH-II-84-1를 분리하였다. $^1$H-NMR 신호의 양상과 짝지움 상수 값에서 분리된 물질은 (+)-catechin 의 당 유도체로 확인되었다. $^{13}$C-NMR 자료를 분석하여 치환된 당은 D-apiofuranose로 확인되었다. 방향족환의 $^{l3}$C-NMR 신호들은 extended Huekel theory를 응용하여 얻은 net charge 계산 값과 상관시켜 할당하였다. 이상의 구조연구 결과 이 물질은 (+)-catechin-7-0-$\beta$-D-apiofuranoside로 밝혀졌다. (+)-catechin-7-0-$\beta$-D-apiofuranoside의 효소억제활성은 Type II Phospholipase $A_2$에 대하여 $IC_{50}$/이 600$\mu$M이었다.다.

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Effects of Intravenous Infusion of Ethanol on Exocrine Pancreatic Secretion of Rats (정맥주입한 알콜이 흰쥐의 췌장 외분비에 미치는 영향)

  • 심상수;김창종
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.192-196
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    • 2002
  • To investigate the effect of intravenous ethanol administration on pancreatic exocrine secretion, we measured volume and protein amount in pancreatic juice and assayed amylase activity and phospholipase $A_2$ activity in pancreatic fragments and serum. Acute pancreatitis induced by obstruction of common bile-pancreatic duct (CBPD) and caerulein infusion (5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg/hr) showed typical characteristics, such as hyperamylasemia and pancreatic edema and increase of phospholipase $A_2$ activity in pancreatic fragments and serum. Intravenous ethanol infusion (50 mg/kg/hr) significantly stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion, but such a stimulatory effect of ethanol disappeared at dose of 100 mg/kg/hr without typical symptoms of acute pancreatitis. In microscopic examination, there were no typical changes of edematous pancreatitis in ethanol administrated rats. These results suggest that acute ethanol administration has dual effect on exocrine pancreatic secretion: low dose of ethanol (50 mg/kg/hr) stimulates pancreatic exocrine secretion, whereas high dose of ethanol (100 mg/kg/hr) does not without typical changes of edematous pancreatitis.

Purification and Biochemical Properties of Extracellular Phospholipase $A_1$ from Serratia sp. MK1

  • Kim, Myung-Kee;Rhee, Joon-Shick
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.407-413
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    • 1996
  • A novel type of extracellular phospholipase $A_1$ was isolated from Serratia sp. MK1 and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of about 43, 000 Da. This enzyme showed the highest lipolytic activity toward phosphatidylserine among the phosphoglycerides tested, and preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of the ester bond in phosphatidic acid to lyso-phosphatidic acid. Enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the addition of a chelating agent such as EDTA, and inhibited enzyme activity was fully recovered by the presence of $Ca^{2+}$. This implies that the enzyme requires $Ca^{2+}$ for activity. The enzyme was stable up to $70^{\circ}C$ when incubated for 1 h at pH 8.5, and the optimal pH and temperature were 8.5 and $50^{\circ}C$, respectively.

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Morinda citrifolia Inhibits Both Cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$-dependent Phospholipase $A_2$ and Secretory $Ca^{2+}$-dependent Phospholipase $A_2$

  • Song, Ho-Sun;Park, Sung-Hun;Ko, Myoung-Soo;Jeong, Jae-Min;Sohn, Uy-Dong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated the effects of the methanol extracts of Morinda citrifolia containing numerous anthraquinone and iridoid on phospholipase $A_2$ ($PLA_2$) isozyme. $PLA_2$ activity was measured using various $PLA_2$ substrates, including 10-pyrene phosphatidylcholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-[$^{14}C$]arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine ([$^{14}C$]AA-PC), and [$^3H$]arachidonic acid (AA). The methanol extracts suppressed melittin-induced [$_3H$]AA release in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells, and inhibited $cPLA_2/sPLA_2$-induced hydrolysis of [$^{14}C$]AA-PC in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. A Dixon plot showed that the inhibition by methanol extracts on $cPLA_2$ and $sPLA_2$ appeared to be competitive with inhibition constants ($K_i$) of $3.7{\mu}g/ml$ and $12.6{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. These data suggest that methanol extracts of Morinda citrifolia inhibits both $Ca^{2+}$-dependent $PLA_2$ such as, $cPLA_2$ and $sPLA_2$. Therefore, Morinda citrifolia may possess anti-inflammatory activity secondary to $Ca^{2+}$-dependent $PLA_2$ inhibition.

Mediation of Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ in the Phospholipase $A_2-induced$ Cell Proliferation in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.411-417
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    • 1998
  • The role of phospholipase ($A_2\;PLA_2$) in tumor cell growth was investigated using SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. 4-Bromophenacyl bromide (BPB) and mepacrine (Mep), known $PLA_2$ inhibitors, suppressed growth of the tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner without a significant cytotoxicity. Melittin (Mel), a $PLA_2$ activator, enhanced the cell growth in a concentration-dependent fashion. The growth-enhancing effects of Mel were significantly reversed by the co-treatment with $PLA_2$ inhibitors. In addition, Mel induced intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release from internal stores like as did serum, a known intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ agonist in the tumor cells. Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release induced by these agonists was significantly blocked by $PLA_2$ inhibitors at growth-inhibitory concentrations. Arachidonic acid (AA), a product of the $PLA_2-catalyzed$ reaction, induced cell growth enhancement and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release. These effects of AA were significantly blocked by BAPTA/AM, an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator. Taken together, these results suggest that the modulation of $PLA_2$ activity may be one of the regulatory mechanisms of cell growth in human neuroblastoma cells. Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ may act as a key mediator in the $PLA_2-induced$ growth regulation.

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Components According to Different Collecting Time and Location in Bee Venom (채취 시기 및 지역에 따른 봉독의 성분 분석)

  • Han, Sang-Mi;Yoon, Hyung-Joo;Baek, Ha-Ju
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.299-303
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    • 2012
  • This study aims to investigate whether geographical variation affects the antibacterial component properties of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom in Korea. Honeybee venom samples were collected from May to September, during 2010 and 2011, from 35 different sites, and were analyzed for major components, including melittin, apamin and phospholipase A2 were determined by a liquid chromatography using ammonium formate, acetonitrile, trifluoracetic acid. On average, melittin, apamin and phospholipase A2 were determined $55.2{\pm}2.07%$, $22.57{\pm}0.103%$, and $12.51{\pm}0.37%$, respectively. The ratio of the major components, including melittin, apamin and phospholipase A2 did not differ significantly according to flower or temperature during collections (One way-ANOVA, Duncan's test (${\alpha}$=0.05)).

Screening of Inflammatory Phospholipase $A_2$ Inhibitors from Natural Products (천연물로부터 염증성 포스포리파제 $A_2$ 저해제 검색)

  • Moon, Tae-Chul;Chung, Kwang-Won;Chung, Kyu-Charn;Son, Kun-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Pyo;Kang, Sam-Sik;Chang, Hyeun-Wook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.565-570
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    • 1997
  • High levels of extracellular phospholipase $A_2$ (Plase $A_2$) associated with inflammatory process in man and animal models have been extensively reported elsew here. Thus, a logical approach to the treatment of inflammatory diseases should involve the inhibitors of Plase $A_2$. To develop new Plase $A_2$ inhibitors from natural products, two hundred crude drugs were screened using group II PLA$A_2$ inhibitory activity. Among them, methanol extract of 5 medicinal plants such as, Raphani Semen, Moutan cortex radicis, Arecae semen, Caryophylli Cortex and Betulae Cortex inhibited more than 90% of PLase $A_2$ activity at a concentration 2.5${\mu}g/ml$. Then, 10 methanol extracts sample were transferred into organic solvents, PLase $A_2$ inhibitory effects were found mainly in CHCl3 and EtoAc fractions.

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Isolation of Streptomyces sp. YU100 Producing Extracellular Phospholipase D

  • Lim, Si-Kyu;Choi, Jae-Woong;Lee, Eun-Tag;Khang, Yong-Ho;Kim, Sang-Dal
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.71-76
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    • 2002
  • Soil samples were screened for actinomycete strains capable of producing phospholipase D, and a strain, Streptomyces sp. YU100, showing a high transphosphatidylation activity was isolated. This strain secreted phospholipase D in a culture broth after 12 h of cultivation, and its productivity continued to increase for 36 h of fermentation. In addition, its transphosphatidylation rate of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylserine was almost $68\%$ within 1 h. The morphological and chemotaxonomical characteristics showed that this strain could be classified as a number of the Streptomycetaceae family, particularly due to the spiral form of its spore chain consisting of 60-70 smooth spores $(0.75{\times}1.0{\mu}m$) on an aerial mycelium, FA-2c type of fatty acid profile in the cell wall, and LL-DAP component in the cell wall peptidoglycan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA provided a clue that the strain YU100 was actually a member of the genus Streptomyces, because the determined sequence exhibited a higher homology with Streptomyes sp. ASB27, S. peucetius JCM9920, and S. griseus ATCC10137. A dendrogram based on the 16S rDNA sequences also showed a phylogenetic relationship between the strain YU100 and these strains. However, the strain YU100 has not yet been assigned to a particular species, because of absence of any other classified species with a high matching score.

Activities of Phospholipase $A_2$ and Cyclooxygenase, and Syntheses of Thromboxane and Prostacyclin in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats (Streptozotocin 유도 당뇨쥐에서의 Phospholipase $A_2$, Cyclooxygenase 활성과 Thromboxane 및 Prostacyclin합성)

  • 이순재;양정아;김성옥;최정화;곽오계;장현욱
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.175-181
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    • 1998
  • The relation between lipid peroxidation and thrombotic reaction were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 100$\pm$10gm were randomly assigned to normal and STZ-induced diabetic group(DM). Diabetes was experimentally induced by intravenous injection of 55mg/kg of body weight of STZ in citrate buffer(pH 4.3) after 4 weeks feeding of basal diet. Animals were sacrificed at the 6th day of diabetic states. Body weight gains were lower in diabetic group after STZ injection. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances(TBARS) that were markedly increased in DM group compared with of normal group. TBARS levels of HDL and LDL were similar patterns to total TBARA of serum. Activities of platelet phospholipase A2(PLA2) were higher in diabetic group than those of normal group. Activities of platelet cyclooxygenase were 106% in DM group than normal group. Platelet thromboxane A2(TXA2) formation was increased in DM group than normal group. Production of aortic prostacyclin(PGI2) was lower in diabetic group than that of normal group. PGI2/TXA2 ratios were decreased by 55% in DM groups than those of normal group. The present results indicate that STZ-induced diabetic rats are more sensitive to oxidative stess which leads to acceleration of lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregability. In conclusion, accelerating effect of lipid peroxidation and thrombogenesis in diabetic state is regareded to be resulted from enhancement of PLA2 activity and arachidonic acid metabolism, inhibition of antiaggrgating agent and aortic PGI2 formation.

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An Efficient Synthesis of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Derived Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors from Acyl Cyanophosphoranes and Amine Derivatives (아실 시아노포스포레인과 아민 유도체로 부터 γ-아미노부틸산에서 유도된 포스포리파제 A2 저해제의 효과적인 합성)

  • Lee, Kie-Seung;Kim, Dae-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2004
  • A series of ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid-derived, potent human cytosolic phospholipase A$_2$ inhibitors have been prepared from acyl cyanophosphoranes and amine derivatives in a convergent manner. The ${\alpha}$-keto amide functionalities in the inhibitors have been introduced as electrophilic fragments via direct coupling reactions between the labile ${\alpha},{\beta}$-diketo nitriles and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid t-butyl ester derivatives at -78 $^{\circ}C$ in moderate to good yields.