• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phospholipase $A_2$

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Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Alkaliphilic Phospholipase B (VFP58) from Vibrio fluvialis

  • AHN SUN HEE;JEONG SEUNG HA;KIM JIN MAN;KIM YOUNG OK;LEE SANG JUN;KONG IN SOO
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.354-361
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    • 2005
  • Vibrio fluvialis, an enteropathogenic bacterium, produces a phospholipase which is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of disease. In this study, the phospholipase gene (vfp) was identified from V fluvialis (KCTC 2473) and its sequence was determined. The entire open reading frame was composed of 1,689 nuc1eotides and 563 amino acids. The phospholipase gene (vfp) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a his-tag fused protein. This recombinant protein (rVFP58) was solubilized with 6 M urea and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The action mode of rVFP58 was determined by TLC and GC-MS, and it showed phospholipase B activity, which had both phospholipase A and lysophospholipase activities. The rVFP58 showed a maximum activity at pH around 9- 10 and temperature of about 40OC, and it was stable under alkaline condition over pH 9. The cytotoxicity of rVFP58 was evaluated, using a fish cell line, CHSE-2l4, and was found to cause significant cell death after 14 h of exposure to 250 $\mu$g of the protein.

Activation of formyl peptide receptor 2 by WKYMVm enhances emergency granulopoiesis through phospholipase C activity

  • Kim, Hyung Sik;Park, Min Young;Lee, Sung Kyun;Park, Joon Seong;Lee, Ha Young;Bae, Yoe-Sik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.418-423
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    • 2018
  • Emergency granulopoiesis is a very important strategy to supply efficient neutrophil number in response to infection. However, molecular mechanism involved in this process remains unclear. Here, we found that administration of WKYMVm, an immune modulating peptide, to septic mice strongly increased neutrophil number through augmented emergency granulopoiesis. WKYMVm-induced emergency granulopoiesis was blocked not only by a formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antagonist (WRW4), but also by FPR2 deficiency. As progenitors of neutrophils, $Lin^-c-kit^+Sca-1^-$ cells expressed FPR2. WKYMVm-induced emergency granulopoiesis was also blocked by a phospholipase C inhibitor (U-73122). These results suggest that WKYMVm can stimulate emergency granulopoiesis via FPR2 and phospholipase C enzymatic activity.

Phospholipase $A_2$ excreted from the cells of hyperthermophilic microbes (초호열성균이 생성하는 phospholipase $A_2$에 관한 연구)

  • Joh, Yong-Goe;Woo, Hyo-Kyeng;Kim, Yeon-Sim
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 1999
  • We checked the presence of phospholipase $A_2(PLA)_2$ which could split the ester bond at the position 2 in the glycerol backbone of glycerophospholipids, in the cells of hyperthermophiles of Pyrococcus horikoshii and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The results obtained are as follows; (1). Pyrococcus horikoshii cells were grown in obligate anaerobic conditions at $95^{\circ}C$ and they needed sulfur as energy source instead of oxygen, while Sulfolobus acidocaldarius species grew well in the aerobic medium (pH 2.5) containing yeast and sucrose at $75^{\circ}C$. (2). Pyrococcus horikoshii cells produced phospholipase $A_2$ in the cell culture media although this species did not show lipase activity at least in the pH range of 1.5 ${\sim}$ 3.5. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius cells produced lipase hydrolyzing triacylglycerols such as triolein, but did not split any kind of phospholipids used as substates. (3). The compound of 1-decanoyl-2-(p-nitrophenylglutaryl) phosphatidylcholine was not suitable for a substrate in this experiment, though frequently used as a subtrate for checking presence of phospholipase $A_2$, for its decomposi-tion in this experiment. The L-${\alpha}$-phosphatidylcholine-${\beta}$-[N-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol]aminohexanoyl-${\gamma}$-hexadecanoyl labelled with a fluorescent material, did not show any migration of acyl chains in the molecule during the reaction with phospholipase $A_2$ under a hot condition. (4). Phospholipase $A_2$ in the cells of Pyrococcus horikoshii, showed the optimum activity at $pH6.7{\sim}7.2$ and $95{\sim}105^{\circ}C$, respectively, and was activated by addition of calcium chloride solution. Andthe phospholipase $A_2$ specifically hydrolyzed glycero-phospholipids such as phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl inositol, but could not split phospholipid containing ether bonds in the molecule such as DL -${\alpha}$-phosphatidylcholine-${\beta}$-palmitoyl-${\gamma}$-O-hexadecyl, DL-${\alpha}$-phosphati- dylcholine-${\beta}$- oleoyl-${\gamma}$-O-hexadecyl, DL-phosphatidylcholine-dihexadecyl.

Silica Induced Phospholipase D (PLD) Activation in Rat2 Fibroblasts

  • Ahn Eun-Kyung;Lim Oh-Kyung;Nam Hae-Yun;Kim Hyung Jung;Chung Namhyun;Bae Gwi-Nam;Lim Young
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.291-295
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    • 2005
  • To define the effect of silica on the stimulator of signaling pathway, we studied the phospholipase D (PLD) activity in the Rat2 fibroblasts. Silica stimulated the accumulation of labeled $[^3H]$ phosphatidylethanol$([^3H]\;PEt)$ in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This Silicainduced PLD activity was partially attenuated by the pretreatment with U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), genistein (protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor), PD 98056 (MEK inhibitor) and mepacrine (phospholipase $A_2$ inhibitor). But, sphingosine (protein kinase C inhibitor) and DPI (NADPH reductase inhibitor) had not effect the PLD activity. Silica also increased the PLD activity about four fold, which imply that the PLD activity is more influenced by the mobilization of PLD than other signaling mediators. The PLD activity also partially inhibited calcium chelator EGTA or/and BAPTA/AM compared to silica. Finally, we concluded that a silica-stimulated phospholipase D activity is present in the Rat2 fibroblasts and is modulated by combination of various signaling mediators.

Activation of Phospholipase D in Rat Thymocytes by Sphingosine

  • Lee, Young-kyun;Choi, Myung-Un
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1451-1489
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    • 2002
  • Sphingosine is known to regulate a wide range of cell physiology including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we examined the effect of sphingosine on the phospholipase D (PLD) activity in rat thymocytes. Sphingosine potently stimulated PLD in the absence of extracellular calcium, while depletion of intracellular calcium by BAPTA/AM treatment completely blocked activation of PLD by sphingosine. Sphingosine-induced increase of the intracellular calcium concentration was confirmed using a fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-3/AM. A phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 partially inhibited the stimulation of PLD by sphingosine. When mouse PLD2 gene was transfected into mouse thymoma EL4 cells, which lack intrinsic PLD activity, sphingosine could stimulate PLD2 significantly while overexpression of human PLD1 had no effect. Taken together, the sphingosine-stimulated PLD activity in rat thymocytes is dependent on the mobilization of intracellular calcium and appears to be due to the PLD2 isoform.

Cromakalim Blocks Membrane Phosphoinositide Activated Signals in the Guinea Pig Lung Mast Cells Stimulated with Antigen-Antibody Reactions

  • Ro, Jai-Youl;Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Kyung-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.251-260
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    • 1998
  • Cromakalim (BRL 34915), known as an airway smooth muscle relaxant, inhibited the releases of mediators in the antigen-induced mast cell activation. It has been suggested that cromakalim, in part, inhibited mediator releases by inhibiting the initial increase of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) produced by the activation of the other phospholipase system which is different from phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D pathway. The aim of this study is to further examine the inhibitory mechanism of cromakalim on the mediator release in the mast cell activation. Guinea pig lung mast cells were purified by using enzyme digestion and percoll density gradient. In purified mast cells prelabeled with $[^3H]PIP_2$, phospholipase C (PLC) activity was assessed by the production of $[^3H]$insitol phosphates. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity was assessed by measuring the protein phosphorylated from mast cells prelabeled with $[{\gamma}-32P]ATP$, and Phospholipase $A_2\;(PLA_2)$ activity by measuring the lyso-phosphatidylcholine produced from mast cell prelabeled with 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl $phosphatidyl-[^{14}C]choline$. Histamine was assayed by fluorometric analyzer, and leukotrienes by radioimmunoassay. The PLC activity was increased by activation of the passively sensitized mast cells. This increased PLC activity was decreased by cromakalim pretreatment. The PKC activity increased by the activation of the passively sensitized mast cells was decreased by calphostin C, staurosporine and cromakalim, respectively. The $PLA_2$ activity was increased in the activated mast cells. The pretreatment of cromakalim did not significantly decrease $PLA_2$ activity. These data show that cromakalim inhibits histamine release by continuously inhibiting signal transduction processes which is mediated via PLC pathway during mast cell activation, but that cromakalim does not affect $PLA_2$ activity related to leukotriene release.

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Moxifloxacin Alleviates Oleic Acid-provoked Neutrophilic Respiratory Burst in the Rat Lung through the Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase $A_2$ (Moxifloxacin의 Cytosolic Phospholipase $A_2$ 억제효과가 흰 쥐 호중구의 Respiratory Burst에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Young-Man
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.4
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    • pp.256-264
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    • 2010
  • Background: According to the notion of the immunoregulatory functions of moxifloxacin (MFX), the effect of MFX on the neutrophilic respiratory burst in conjunction with the expression of cytosolic phospholipase $A_2$ ($cPLA_2$) was investigated. Methods: The effects and possible mechanisms of MFX on neutrophilic respiratory burst in oleic acid (OA)-induced acutely injured rats lung and OA-stimulated, isolated murine neutrophils were probed, associated with the expression of cytosolic phospholipase $A_2$ in vivo and in vitro. Results: In the OA-induced acutely-injured lungs, neutrophils were accumulated, which was attenuated by MFX. The parameters denoting a neutrophilic respiratory burst, such as nitro blue tetrazolium reaction, cytochrome-c reduction, neutrophil aggregation, $H_2O_2$ production in neutrophils revealed increased neutrophilic respiratory burst by OA, and MFX decreased all of these parameters. In addition, the enhanced expression of $cPLA_2$ in the lung and isolated murine neutrophils by OA were decreased by MFX. Conclusion: MFX suppresses the OA-induced neutrophilic respiratory burst by the suppression of $cPLA_2$ in neutrophils.

Properties of the Microinterface formed by Phosphatidylcholine and 1-Butanol as Reaction Media of Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylcholine

  • Yamazaki, Keiju;Imai, Masanao;Suzuki, Isao
    • Proceedings of the Membrane Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.82-85
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    • 2004
  • Microinterface of W/Omicroemulsion prepared by phosphatidylcholine was used as reaction media of hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipaseA$_2$. Phosphatidylcholine was used as an amphiphile and was acted as a substrate. Organic phase of W/Omicroemulsion in this study was prepared by mixed organic solvents i.e. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) as a main solvent and 1-butanol as a co-solvent. The effect of added 1-butanol was remarkable not only on reaction beginning but also on high reaction rate. The hydrolysis reaction was dramatically initiated when 1-butanol was injected into the running isooctane/PC system. The enhancement by 1-butanol addition into single organic solvent was our original finding compare with previous conventional organic solvent. The reaction rate was elevated by the added amount of 1-butanol. The enhanced reaction rate was about 150-folds. This enhancement was speculated as 1-butanol adsorption on the microinterface. The adsorbed 1-butanol improved the properties of microinterface, especially its mobility was increased by difference of the chain length between phosphatidylcholine and 1-butanol. PhospholipaseA$_2$ molecules were located on the microinterface due to modified mobility of microinterface. Located phospholipaseA$_2$ on the microinterface reacted easily with phosphatidylcholine molecule. As a result high reaction rate was obtained. Microinterfacial properties were successfully improved by adsorbed 1-butanol molecule, and were favorable to appear higher reactivity of phospholipaseA$_2$.

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Bacillus cereus에 의한 Phospholipase C (PLC) 생산

  • Seo, Guk-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Il;Bornscheuer, Uwe T.
    • 한국생물공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.232-234
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    • 2002
  • Bacillus cereus secretes a nonspecific phospholipase C (PLC) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to yield diacylglycerol and a phosphate monoester. This study focuses on the production of PLC by B. cereus and recombinant E. coli with fusion protein gene (plc::gfp). Fermentation processes have been monitored by a 2-dimensional fluorescence sensor.

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