• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphate balance

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Relationship between the Incidence of Bitter pit and the Application Level of Crushed Oyster Shell in Apple Orchard (굴껍질 시비수준이 사과 고두병 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Heo, Jae-Young;Lee, Seong-Tae;Kim, Min-Geun;Hong, Kang-Pyo;Song, Won-Doo;Rho, Chi-Woong;Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.637-643
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    • 2010
  • For enhancement of apple productivity, the calcium fertilizers to increase the calcium content of fruit, and reduce the incidence of bitter pit in apples are applied. Crushed oyster shell contains a plenty of calcium carbonate, and a very small amount of boron, ferrous, and manganese. A field study was conducted to determine the optimum level of crushed oyster shell for soil nutrient management, and its effect on the induction of bitter pit in cultivar 'Gamhong' apple. The application of crushed oyster shell increased organic matter, available phosphate, and exchangeable cation concentration in soil. We found a significant positive correlation between soil pH, and application level of crushed oyster shell in both top, and subsoils. The incidence of bitter pit in apple fruit at the harvest stage was significantly higher in non treatment and calciummagnesium carbonate treatment than on over applications 4 Mg $ha^{-1}$ for crushed oyster shell. However, the optimum level of crushed oyster shell was 2 Mg $ha^{-1}$, especially considering the soil Ca content, soil pH, fruits weight, and yield. Our results show that the crushed oyster shell can be effective in restoring the soil nutrient balance, and inducing the bitter pit in apple fruit.

The Environmental Impacts of Seasonal Variation on Characteristics of Geochemical Parameters in Lake Shihwa, Korea (시화호의 계절변화에 따른 지화학적 환경요인 특성 연구)

  • Kim Tae-Ha;Park Yong-Chul;Lee Hyo-Jin;Kim Dong-Hwa;Park Jun-Kun;Kim Sung-Jun;Lee Mi-Yeon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1089-1102
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    • 2004
  • Seasonal variation of biogeochemical characteristics was determined in Lake Shihwa from October 2002 to August 2003. When the lake was artificially constructed for the freshwater reservoir in 1988, the development of the strong haline density stratification resulted in two-layered system in water column and hypoxic/anoxic environment prevailed in the bottom layer due to oxidation of accumulated organic matters in the lake. Recently, seawater flux to the lake through the sluice has been increased to improve water quality in the lake since 2000, but seasonal stratification and hypoxic bottom layer of the lake still developed in the summer due to the nature of artificially enclosed lake system. As the lake is still receiving tremendous amount of organic matters and other pollutants from neighboring streams during the rainy summer season, limited seawater flux sluicing into the lake may not be enough for the physical and biogeochemical mass balance especially in the summer. The excess of accumulated organic matters in the bottom layer apparently exhausted dissolved oxygen and affected biogeochemical distributions and processes of organic and inorganic compounds in the stratified two-layered environment in the summer. During the summer, ammonia and dissolved organic carbon remarkably increased in the bottom layer due to the hypoxic/anoxic condition in the bottom layer. Phosphate also increased as the result of benthic flux from the bottom sediment. Meanwhile, dissolved organic carbon showed the highest value at the upstream area and decreased along the salinity gradient in the lake. In addition to the sources from the upstream, autochthonous origin of particulate organic carbon from algal bloom in the lake might be more important for sustaining aggravated water quality and development of deteriorated bottom environment in the summer. The removal of trace metals could be attributed to scavenging by strong insoluble metal-sulfide compounds in the hypoxic/anoxic bottom layer in the summer.

Reducing Nitrogen Fertilization Level of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Silicate Application in Korean Paddy Soil (논토양에서 규산질 비료 시용에 의한 질소 시비 저감수준 평가)

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yang, Min-Suk;Chang, Ki-Woon;Lee, Yong-Bok;Chung, Ki-Yeol;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2005
  • Silicate (Si) fertilizers are well-known for soil amendment and to improve rice productivity as well as nitrogen efficiency. In this study, we investigated the possible reduction level of nitrogen fertilization for rice cultivation by amending Si fertilizer application. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) on a silt loam soil, where three levels of nitrogen (0, 110 and $165kg\;ha^{-1}$) were selected and Si fertilizer as a slag type was applied at 0, 1 and 2 times of the recommendation level (available $SiO_2\;130mg\;kg^{-1}$). Application of Si fertilizer increased significantly the rice yield and nitrogen efficiency. With increasing N uptake of rice, 1 and 2 times of recommended levels of Si fertilization could decrease nitrogen application level to about 76 and $102kg\;N\;ha^{-1}$ to produce the target yield, the maximum yield in the non-Si amended treatment. Silicate fertilizer improved soil pH and significantly increased available phosphate and Si contents. Conclusively, the Si fertilizer could be a good alternative source for soil amendment, restoring the soil nutrient balance and to reduce the nitrogen application level in rice cultivation.

Improving Rice Productivity and Soil Quality by Coal Ash-Phosphogypsum Mixture Application (석탄회와 폐석고 혼합제재에 의한 벼 수량 증대 및 토양의 이화학성 개선)

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Ha, Ho-Sung;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Hyub;Ha, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2005
  • As a silicate source to rice, a coal ash (50%) was mixed with a phosphogypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%). Field experiments were carried out to evaluate rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) to which 0, 20, 40 and $60Mg\;ha^{-1}$ of the mixture were added. The mixture increased rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of $30Mg\;ha^{-1}$. The mixture did not result in an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The mixture improved available silicate and phosphate and exchangeable calcium contents in soil. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to $1.42mg\;kg^{-1}$ following the application of $60Mg\;ha^{-1}$, but boron toxicity in rice was not found. It is concluded that the coal ash and gypsum mixture could be a good alternative to inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil.

A Study for Crystal Growth Inhibition of Ettringite by Solution Synthesis Experiment (용액합성실험에 의한 에트린자이트 결정성장억제 연구)

  • Lee, Hyo-Min;Hwang, Jin-Yeon;Oh, Ji-Ho
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2010
  • Ettringite $(Ca_6[Al(OH)_6]_2(SO_4)_3{\cdot}26H_2O)$ is a sulfate mineral that shows a complicate property in concrete. It is often called as "a cancer of concrete" because secondary ettringite formation in hardened concrete often cause expansion and cracking of concrete due to its expansive crystal structure. In the present study, we tested the possibility for crystal growth inhibition of secondary ettringite by crystallization inhibitors that are commercially used for scaling inhibitors in Korea. For the test, we developed a method of ettringite solution synthesis. Three types of crystallization inhibitors were selected and examined the effects On ettringite growth inhibition. The experimental results of ettringite solution synthesis indicated that ettringite was successfully synthesized under condition that the mass balance between calcium hydroxide saturated solution and aluminum sulfate solution was attained. Monosulfate and semisulfate were synthesized when the ratio of $Ca^{2+}$ ions to ${SO_4}^{2+}$ ions was increased. The induction time of ettringite crystallization was less than 2 min. and crystallization was almost completed within an hour. The experimental results of ettringite crystallization inhibition showed that organic PBCT (2-Phosphonobutane-1,2,4-Tricarboxylic Acid) and inorganic SHMP (Sodium Hexametaphosphate) were relatively less effective on ettringite crystallization inhibition under experimental conditions. However, organic HEDP (1-Hydoxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid) effectively prevented ettringite growth with producing amorphous gel phase materials up to inhibitor concentration 0.1 vol.% of aluminum sulfate solution.

Effects of Some Physico-Chemical Conditions of Sioil on Growth and Ionic Balance of the Tobacco Plant (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) I. Effect of Acidity(pH), Moisture(pF) and Anions (Cl-, SO4-) in Soil on Grwth and Ionic Balance of Tobacco (토양(土壤)의 몇가지 이화학적조건(理化學的條件)이 연초(煙草)의 생육(生育) 및 이온평형(平衡)에 미치는 영향(影響) I. 토양(土壤)의 pH, pF와 음(陰)이온(Cl-, SO4-)이 연초(煙草)의 생육(生育) 및 이온평형(平衡)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Jai-Jong;Cho, Seong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.117-129
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    • 1981
  • An experiment with the tobacco plant was conducted in the pots. A sandy humic soil was used with 2 levels of pH, 3.5 and 5.8 with 2 kinds of anions, Cl as $NH_4Cl$ and $SO_4$ as $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, and with 4 levels of pF, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.5. The pH-treatment created different N-forms; $NH_4$ at low pH(3.5) and $NO_3$ at high pH (5.8). The results are summarized as follows: 1. At low pH (3.5) with high concentration of $NH_4$ given as $NH_4Cl$, the high content of $NH_4$ and Cl in tobacco resulted in plants suffering from $NH_4$ and Cl toxicity as well as Mn toxicity. As a result of these toxicity, an extremly abnormal growth of tobacco was clearly appeared. In the tobacco grown at low pH with $NH_4$ given as $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, a large amount of the $NH_4$ uptake developed Mg and Ca deficiencies. $NH_4-N$, which had been applied to the soil of high pH (5.8), was almost completely transformed into $NO_3-N$ by nitrification and, on this low acidic soil, the plants were all healthy regardless of Cl or $SO_4$ added together with $NH_4-N$. However, dry matter production was higher and maturity faster when $SO_4$ was used as anion than when Cl was used. 2. High moisture content in soil, to some extent, is necessary for a good development and growth of the tobacco plant. Phosphate uptake seemed to be limited at higher moisture stress. The dry matter yield of tops and roots of tobacco were in the order of pF 1.8 > 2.1 > 2.6 > 3.6, respectively. 3. Data of chemical analysis and dry matter yields of tops and roots showed that the tobacco plant followed the normal (C-A) concept. In the normal growth of plants, the carboxylate content of tops was quite comparable to the estimated (C-A) values. If $NH_4$ content of plants remains in quite high quantities, it must be analysed and taken into consideration for the (C-A) calculation. Al is not transported toward tops in toxic amounts due to its high immobility, it mostly stay in or on the roots, probably due to precipitation as a aolt. When Al is present in high quantities, it has to be considered into the (C-A) calculation.

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Removal of Dissolved Organic Matter by Ozone-biological Activated Carbon process (오존처리와 생물활성탄 공정에 의한 상수원수 중의 용존유기물 제거)

  • 이상훈;문순식;신종철;최광근;심상준;박대원;이진원
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2003
  • The removal yield of dissolved organic matter in drinking water by biological activated carbon (BAC) process was investigated. The tested processes wer raw water-AC process (BAC1), raw water-ozonation-BAC process (BAC2), and raw water-ozonation-coagulation/sedimentation-BAC process (BAC3). The amounts of organic matter was measured as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ulta-violet radiation at 254 nm wavelength ($UV_{254}$), total nitrogen (T-N), ammonia nitrogen (NH_3$-N), and total phosphate (T-P). As a results, 30.7% DOC was removed by BAC2 process, which showed higher removal efficiency than BAC1 or BAC3 processes. The removal yield of $UV_{254}$ in BAC1, BAC2, and BAC3 processes were observed as 45.3%, 44.6%, 58.4%, respectively. And the removal yield of ammonia nitrogen were 66%, 81%, 29% in each BAC processes. The optimal empty bed contact time (EBCT) of BAC processes was estimated as 10 minute. This study has shown that BAC process combined with ozone treatment was efficient for removing dissolved organic matter in water.

Evalution of Input and Output Amount of Silica in Sandy Paddy Soil during Growing Periods of Rice Plant (벼 재배과정중 사질답에서 규소의 유, 출입량 평가)

  • Seo, Young-Jin;Kim, Jong-Su;Kim, Chang-Bae;Park, Man;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Choi, Choong-Lyeal;Choi, Jung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.162-168
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    • 2002
  • The silica uptake of rice plant(Oryza sativa L.) and a potential capacity of paddy soil as a source of silica supply for rice plant was studied under field experimental condition. Amount of Si from irrigation water, rainfall, which was a source of silica supply, and percolating rate of water through paddy soil profile as a source of silica loss from paddy soil, was investigated. Rice plants were grown in three different conditions, which included Control as non-fertilized, RDA's recommandation(NPK, Urea-Fused phophate-Potassium chloride=$110-45-57kg\;ha^{-1}$) and RDA's recommandation with supplement of silicate fertilizer(NPK+Si, Urea-Fused phosphate-Potassium chloride+Si=$110\;N-45\;P_2O_5-57\;K_2O+267.2\;Si\;kg\;ha^{-1}$). An amount of silica supply from rainfall was $0.5kg\;ha^{-1}$ and average amount of silica supplied from irrigation water $42.5kg\;ha^{-1}$, ranging from $28.1kg\;ha^{-1}$ to $58.8kg\;ha^{-1}$. Silica amount percolated through the soil profile have uniform trend comparatively showing $62.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ in Control, $64.8kg\;ha^{-1}$ in NPK treatment and $62.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ in NPK+Si treatment. Silica uptaked by Rice plant was $335.6kg\;ha^{-1}$ in Control, $406.6kg\;ha^{-1}$ in NPK+Si treatment and $471.1kg\;ha^{-1}$ in NPK+Si treatment. The difference between an amount of Si input(from rainfall, irrigation water and silicate fertilizer) and an amount of Si output(percolated Si in soil, uptaked Si by rice plant) was $357.4kg\;ha^{-1}$ in control, $412.1kg\;ha^{-1}$ in NPK treatment and $238.2kg\;ha^{-1}$ in NPK+Si treatment. Results of our study imply that paddy soil is a potential pool as a source of Si supply during growing periods of rice plant.

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Increment on Forage Crops Cultivation in Saemangum Reclaimed Land (새만금간척지 사료작물 재배시 질소증비 효과)

  • Yang, Chang-Hyu;Kim, Sun;Lee, Jang-Hee;Baek, Nam-Hyun;Kim, Taek-Kyum;Choi, Weon-Young;Jeong, Jae-Hyuk;Lee, Sang-Bok;Lee, Gyeong-Bo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to find out the optimum cropping system for the stable production of forage crops in the newly reclaimed land located at Gwanghwal region of Saemangum reclaimed land in which the soil is sandy loam (Munpo series). There were two treatments of nitrogen fertilization 20% increment based on the standard fertilization of 150, $200kg\;ha^{-1}$. Whole crop barley as the winter crop sowed on 27 October. After the whole crop barley was harvested at the end of May. Corn and sorghum${\times}$sudangrass as the summer crop sowed at the early of June successively on the same field. Emergence rate the whole crop barley was high while the summer crops were low. Soil salinity was increased during cultivation of summer crops. However, corn and sorghum${\times}$sudangrass were not damaged by salt. Increase of nitrogen fertilization made the growth of cultivation crops good, stem and leaf tended to have a lot of the mineral nutrients at heading stage and silking stage. After experiment, among soil chemical properties pH, content of exchangeable sodium were decreased and content of organic matter, available phosphate were increased. Dry matter yield were showed whole crop barley $13,170kg\;ha^{-1}$ and sorghum${\times}$sudangrass $19,440kg\;ha^{-1}$ by increment of nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, to improve the product and nutrient balance of reclaimed saline land comprehensive soil management should be considered.

Effects of acid-treatment conditions on the surface properties of the RBM treated titanium implants (산-처리 조건이 RBM처리한 티타늄 임플란트의 표면 특성에 주는 영향)

  • Lee, Han-Ah;Seok, Soohwang;Lee, Sang-Hyeok;Lim, Bum-Soon
    • Korean Journal of Dental Materials
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.257-274
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acid-treatment conditions on the surface properties of the RBM (Resorbable Blast Media) treated titanium. Disk typed cp-titanium specimens were prepared and RBM treatments was performed with calcium phosphate ceramic powder. Acid solution was mixed using HCl, $H_2SO_4$ and deionized water with 4 different volume fraction. The RBM treated titanium was acid treated with different acid solutions at 3 different temperatures and for 3 different periods. After acid-treatments, samples were cleaned with 1 % Solujet solution for 30 min and deionized water for 30 min using ultrasonic cleanser, then dried in the electrical oven ($37^{\circ}C$). Weight of samples before and after acid-treatment were measured using electric balance. Surface roughness was estimated using a confocal laser scanning microscopy, crystal phase in the surface of sample was analyzed using X-ray diffractometer. Surface morphology and components were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS). Values of the weight changes and surface roughness were statistically analyzed using Tukey-multiple comparison test (p=0.05). Weight change after acid treatments were significantly increased with increasing the concentration of $H_2SO_4$ and temperature of acid-solution. Acid-treatment conditions (concentration of $H_2SO_4$, temperature and time) did not produce consistent effects on the surface roughness, it showed the scattered results. From XRD analysis, formation of titanium hydrides in the titanium surface were observed in all specimens treated with acid-solutions. From XPS analysis, thin titanium oxide layer in the acid-treated specimens could be evaluated. Acid solution with $90^{\circ}C$ showed the strong effect on the titanium surface, it should be treated with caution to avoid the over-etching process.