• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphate balance

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EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM OXIDE CONTENTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF EXPERIMENTAL ALGINATES (산화마그네슘 함량이 실험적 알지네이트 인상재의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae Ill-Hwan;Woo Yi-Hyung;Choi Dae-Gyun
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.551-564
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    • 2003
  • Statement of problem : Magnesium oxide may increase pH of alginate, and supply magnesium ions to the polymerization reaction of alginate. Purpose : This study was designed to evaluate the influence of incorporation of magnesium oxide to alginate composition. Material and Method : Seven kinds of experimental alginates were prepared and used for the experiments. Components with unchanging concentrations were sodium alginate 15%, calcium sulfate 14%, sodium phosphate 2%, and zinc fluoride 3%. Contents of magnesium oxide were varied as 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%. Diatomaceous earth were added to each experimental groups as balance to be 100%. Control group was a MgO 0% group. Working time, setting time, elastic recovery strain in compression, compressive strength and tear resistance were measured were measured. Sample size for each groups were 10. Arithmetic means were used as each groups representative values. Regression test between MgO contents and results, Duncan's multiple range test, and One-way ANOVA test were done between groups at level of 0.05. Results : 1 Magnesium oxide made the working time and setting time as longer(p<0.0001). 2 Magnesium oxide did not alter the elastic recovery(p>0.05). 3. Magnesium oxide contents between 2% and 4% exhibited the lowest strain in compression on alginates(p<0.0001). 4. Magnesium oxide made the compressive strength and the tear resistance stronger(p<0.0001). Conclusion : These results mean that setting time of alginate maybe controlled and that mechanical properties maybe improved by the incorporation of magnesium oxide into alginate, without any reduction of elasticity.

Substrate-Perfusion Studies on Coronary Circulation and Myocardial Energy Metabolism in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Hearts (발현성 고혈압쥐의 관상순환 기능과 심장근의 에너지 대사에 관한 생체외 에너지원의 관류 연구)

  • 김은지
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 1995
  • The effects of energy-yielding substrates on coronary circulation, myocardial oxygen metabolism, and intramyocytic adenylates of perfused Wistar control rat(WC) and spontaneously hypertensive rat(SHR) hearts were examined under basal and $\beta$-adrenergic stimulation conditions. The perfusion medium (1.0mM Ca2+) contained 5mM glucose (+5U/l insulin) in combination with 5mM pyruvate, 5mM lacate, 5mM acetate, or 5mM octanoate as energy substrates. Hearts were perfused with each substrate buffer for 20min under basal conditions. Coronary functinal hyperemia was induced by infusing for 20min isoproterenol (ISO, 1uM), a $\beta$-receptor agonist. Cardiac adenylates, glycolytic intermediates, and coronary venous lactate were measured by using an enzymatic analysis technique. Under basal conditions, acetate and octanoate significantly increased coronary flow(CF) of WC in parallel with myocardial oxygen consumption. However, CF of SHR was partly attenuated by coronary vasoconstriction despite metabolic acidosis. In addition, pyruvate and lactate depressd ISO-induced coronary functional hyperemia in SHR. It should be noted that octanoate exhibited coronary dysfunction under ISO conditions. On the other hand, fat substrates depleted myocardial high energy phosphate pool and accumulated breakdown intermediates. In SHR with coronary vasoconstriction under basal conditions, and with depressed coronary functional hyperemia, high energy phosphates were greatly depleted. These results suggest that energy substrates in the myocardium and coronary smooth muscle alter remarkably coronary circulation, and that coronary circulatory function is associated with a reserve of high energy phosphates and a balance between breakdown and nono synthesis of energy phosphates. These findings could be explained by alterations in the cytosolic redox state manipulated by LDH and hence in the cytosolic phosphorylation potential, which might be involved in hypertension of SHR.

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Effect of Nicotinamide on Proliferation, Differentiation, and Energy Metabolism in Bovine Preadipocytes

  • Liu, Xiaomu;Fu, Jinlian;Song, Enliang;Zang, Kun;Wan, Fachun;Wu, Naike;Wang, Aiguo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.1320-1327
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the effects of nicotinamide on proliferation, differentiation, and energy metabolism in a primary culture of bovine adipocytes. After treatment of cells with 100-500 $\mu{M}$ nicotinamide, cell growth was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and cellular lipid content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and a triglyceride (TG) assay. Several factors related to energy metabolism, namely adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, the number of mitochondria and the relative expression of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-$\gamma$ ($PPAR_{\gamma}$) and inducible NOS (iNOS), were also investigated. Results showed that nicotinamide induced both proliferation and differentiation in bovine preadipocytes. Nicotinamide decreased NO production by inhibiting NOS activity and iNOS mRNA expression, and controlled lipolytic activity by increasing ATPase activity and the number of mitochondria. The present study provides further evidence of the effects of nicotinamide on lipid and energy metabolism, and suggests that nicotinamide may play an important role in the development of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. This emphasizes the importance of investigating bovine adipose tissue to improve our understanding of dairy cow physiology.

Enhanced Effect of Gluten Hydorlysate on Solubility and Bioavailability of Calcium in Rats (글루템 가수분해물에 의한 칼슘의 가용화 및 체내이용성 증진 효과)

  • 이연숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 1997
  • Dietary peptides have recently received attention regarding their beneficial effects on nutrient metabolism since the caseinphosphoptides obtained from casein hydrolysate are generally believed to enhance the intestinal absorption of Ca. The two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of various hydrolyzed fractions of gluten on Ca bioavailability. The gluten hydrolysate of dietary components was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of gluten whereas gluten hydrolysate supernationt and its precipiate resulted from centrifugation. In experiment I, the rats were for 4 weeks fed the 4 kinds of diets containing same amount of nitrogen and calories and diffeing only in the forms of nitrogen sources. The diets were gluten (G), gluten hydrolysat(GH), gluten hydrolysate supernatant(GHS) and gluten hydrolysate precipitatie(GHP). Determination was made for the body weight gain, serum Ca concentration, Ca solubility in small intestinal contents, bone weight, length and stength, bone ash and Ca content, and Ca balance, respectively. No significant difference was noticed as regards growth, serum Ca, and bone dimension and Ca content among rat groups. More significant increase was observed with regard to Ca absorption and intestinal solubility in the rats receiving the GH or GHS diet which containe crude gluten peptides, than in those subjected to G or GHP diet. In experiment II, in vitro determination for Ca solubility was made to ascertain the mechanism responsible for the effects of gluten peptides on Ca absorption. The 10mM Ca in potassium phosphate buffer solution(pH 7.0) incubated for 3 hours at 37$^{\circ}C$ by the GHS fraction, was observed to be capable of increasing the Ca solubility at 5-25mg/ml concentration of gluten peptides. These observations suggest that the gluten peptides from gluten hydrolysate may enhance the Ca absorption efficiency by increasing the solubility of Ca in small intestine.

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Physico-Chemical Properties of Dredged Soils as Planting Soil (식재지반 용토로서 준설토의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Won-Tae;Yonn, Yong-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to find out the heavy metal contents and the physico-chemical properties for the improvement of dredged soils which widely exist in lowlands of Korea. At first all the average heavy metal contents were close to background level and were much lower than concern level of the Soil Environment Conservation Act of Korea. And the results of physical analyses of soils showed on the average $2.46\~2.74 Mg/m^3$ in Particle density, $0.45\~2.45 kg/kg$ in soil water contents, $0.34\~0.90 Mg/m^3$ in bulk density, $0.67\~0.87m^3/m^3$ in porosity, $2.18\times10^{-5}\~1.20\times10^{-8} m/s$ in saturated hydraulic conductivity, R0.12\~0.65 m^3/m^3$ in available water contents. Finally the results of chemical analyses of soils showed on the average $6.5\~8.2\;in\; pH,\;5\~48 g/kg\;in\; OM,\;0.48\~4.51g/kg\;in\;T-N,\;19\~25mg/kg$ in available phosphate, $0.28\~11.80 dS/m\;in\;EC,\;8.7\~38.1cmol/kg$ in CEC, respectively Accordingly, the physicochemical properties of soils ought to be analyzed accurately before dredging for effective using of dredged soils. And it will be more effective, if the dredged soils are used with proper balance among each content of components with consideration to the physicochemical properties of common soils.

Application of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetland for Treating the Agricultural Runoff (강우시 농업 비점오염원 처리를 위한 FWS 인공습지의 적용성 평가)

  • Kang, Chang-Guk;Lee, So-Young;Maniquiz, Marla C.;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2010
  • The areas for agricultural purposes in Korea are decreasing every year because of urbanization. However, it is still 17.6% of the total national boundary on 2008. Most of the rice paddy fields are located near the waterbodies which require lots of water during rainy season from May to September. Also lots of nitrate and phosphate chemical fertilizers are spread on the fields every year in order to supply the nutrients for vegetation. The excess nutrients is impairs the water quality of rivers and lakes when it is washed out from the fields. The Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) adapted the new water quality improvement program, which is the Total Daily Maximum Load, to improve the water quality and to protect the aquaecosystems. The constructed wetland is one of the possible ways to treat the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland on this study area was constructed by MOE in 2007 to evaluate the application of the constructed wetlands. Plant growth continues to increase during the summer until it reaches its highest biomass of 6,032 g/$m^2$ in August and September. More researches about sedimentation, vegetation, water balance, etc. were performed to evaluate the removal efficiency, to find the removal mechanisms and to make the guidelines for design and maintenance.

Zinc-chelated Vitamin C Stimulates Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells

  • Ghosh, Chiranjit;Yang, Seung Hak;Kim, Jong Geun;Jeon, Tae-Il;Yoon, Byung Hyun;Lee, Jai Young;Lee, Eun Young;Choi, Seok Geun;Hwang, Seong Gu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1189-1196
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    • 2013
  • Adipose tissue development and function play a critical role in the regulation of energy balance, lipid metabolism, and the pathophysiology of metabolic syndromes. Although the effect of zinc ascorbate supplementation in diabetes or glycemic control is known in humans, the underlying mechanism is not well described. Here, we investigated the effect of a zinc-chelated vitamin C (ZnC) compound on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Treatment with ZnC for 8 d significantly promoted adipogenesis, which was characterized by increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Meanwhile, ZnC induced a pronounced up-regulation of the expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and the adipocyte-specific gene adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). Analysis of mRNA and protein levels further showed that ZnC increased the sequential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ($PPAR{\gamma}$) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/$EBP{\alpha}$), the key transcription factors of adipogenesis. These results indicate that ZnC could promote adipogenesis through $PPAR{\gamma}$ and C/$EBP{\alpha}$, which act synergistically for the expression of aP2 and GLUT4, leading to the generation of insulin-responsive adipocytes and can thereby be useful as a novel therapeutic agent for the management of diabetes and related metabolic disorders.

Effects of green manures in organic vegetable production (유기농 채소생산을 위한 녹비작물 도입효과)

  • Lee, Sang-Min;Lee, Y.;Yun, H.B.;Sung, J.K.;Lee, Y.H.;Lee, S.B.;Choi, K.J.;Kim, K.H.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Organic Agriculture Conference
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    • pp.77-101
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    • 2009
  • Organic farming in Korea has mainly focused on producing vegetables in plastic film house and cereals in paddy field. For high productivity of vegetables and cereals, most Korean farmers have not applied crop rotation in the cropping system. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of crop rotation on the yield of red pepper and green onion, the changes in soil fertility and the potential as green manure of rye and hairy vetch. Rye and hairy vetch were cultivated for winter season every year, and directly incorporated into the soil. The yield of red pepper fruits in organic farming using crop rotation (OFCR) decreased 23 to 36% compared with conventional farming system (CFS). Whereas, green onion showed the increased yield of about 13%. In OFCR, total carbon content of soil was higher, however available phosphate content lower than conventional farming. As a result of measuring the bulk density of soil, OFCR and CFS were 1.26 to $1.35Mg/m^3$ and 1.37 to $1.42Mg/m^3$, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen contents of microbial biomass in OFCR were obviously higher compared with the CFS. In the plot cultivated rye for winter season, the weed germination was strongly reduced (about 52 %). Balance of macro nutrient elements, nitrogen and phosphate, in the application of rye and hairy vetch had a minus value. For potassium, the output value was higher than the input one, therefore organic farming under red pepper-rye or hairy vetch systems requires applying additional potassium input. Also, we selected two hairy vetch varieties of cv. Hungvillosa and Ostsaat which can be adapt at Korea climate. In order to estimate a yield of green manures, the weight of shoot and root was measured. The ratio of shoot and root between rye and hairy vetch showed 0.88 and 1.91, respectively. The potential levels of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium which could be supplied from rye were 7.7, 7.8 and 21.9 kg/10a and from hairy vetch were 17.0, 8.6 and 22.9 kg/10a, respectively. So we recommend that cultivating hairy vetch, as a nutrient supplier, and rye, as an amendment to enhance the soil physical property, for winter season be practical method in Korea organic farming system.

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Studies on Calcium Availability in Various Sources by Chicken (닭에 대(對)한 칼슘 공급원별(供給源別) 효율(?率)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Chiang, Yun-Hwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.145-166
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    • 1975
  • The calcium balance study was carried out to determine the availability of calcium in different sources for chicks and laying hens. The sources of calcium were calcium carbonate (CC), dicalcium phosphate-dihydrate (DCPH), and dicalcium phosphate-anhydride (DCPA) for chicks and calcium carbonate (CC) and oyster shell (OS) for laying hens. The radioisotope dilution method was employed to measure the endogenous excreta calcium during the period of balance study following preliminary feeding. A. Experimental results with chicks: No significant difference was found among feed consumption of chicks fed diets containing different sources of calcium. Body weight gain of chicks was dependent upon the source of calcium. The gain decreased in the order of DCPH, DCPA and CC (P<0.01). The feed conversion efficiency in chicks fed DCPH was better than those in chicks fed CC or DCPA. The average tibia ash contents for chicks fed different sources of calcium were similar. The DCPH was superior to CC or DCPA regarding the calcium content in tibia ash. There were no significant differences among the average calcium contents in plasma trichloracetic acid filtrate in chicks irrespective of calcium sources. The mean apparent retention of calcium by chicks fed DCPH, CC and DCPA were 65.9, 64.0 and 59.9% respectively. The calcium to phosphorus ratios in tibia ash and plasma trichloracetic acid filtrate for chicks fed different sources of calcium were similar. The chicks fed DCPH showed the partition of endogenous excreta calcium in total excreta calcium as 35.6% which was higher than 31.0 or 31.4% for chicks fed CC or DCPA. The endogenous excreta calcium per day per chick in group fed DCPH, DCPA or CC were 17.2, 16.1 and 14.6mg respectively. The true retained calcium per day per chick in group fed DCPH were 109.9 mg which was higher than those observed with CC or DCPA group (P<0.01). The true retention of calcium by the birds fed diets containing DCPH, CC or DCPA were 78.1, 75.1 or 72.6% respectively. B. Experimental results with laying hens: The feed consumption, egg production and feed converion efficiency of laying hens fed diets containing different sources of calcium were similar. Calcium concentration in plasma trichloracetic acid filtrate in laying birds fed CC was equivalent to the value obtained by feeding OS. The apparent calcium retention by laying birds fed CC was 61.6% and it was significantly more than that of hens fed OS of 51.6% (P<0.05). The partition of endogenous excreta calcium in total excreta calcium of laying hens fed CC was 23.5% and this was higher than that of birds fed OS of 15.6%. The laying hens fed CC showed 310 mg of endogenous excreta calcium per day per bird while birds fed OS showed 261mg. The true retention of calcium by layers fed CC was 70.7% against 59.2% for birds fed OS (P<0.05).

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Soil problems for developing grass land in Jeju (제주도(濟州道) 초지개발(草地開發)에 있어서 토양학적(土壤學的) 문제점(問題點))

  • Lee, Chong Ki;Lee, Keun Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 1975
  • Jeju island has high potential productivity of livestock in terms of climate, geography, and economic prospect. Grass-land is now widespread and increasing rapidly year after year. However, the productivity of grass land is very low compared with that of main land. It is supposed that the low productivity is due to improper chemical properties of volcanic ash soil which is mostly distributed in the island. Volcanic ash soil, which have high alumina ratio, is characterized by the lack of bases and avilable phosphorous while its phosphorous fixation capacity is very high. In addition to poor chemical properties, low level of fertilization technique appears to be another limitation to grass production. Farmers have not given care to improve their soil to be suitable for grass cultivation. In order to increase the productivity of grassland in Jeju, the proper amounts of N, P, and K fertilizer should be applied following the improvements of poor chemical properties such as liming and a great deal of phosphorous increment, using mainly fused phosphate, based upon the balance of bases, and the application of organic matter and micro-elements which can be easily deficient in soil.

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