• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphate balance

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Nutrient Balance in the Paddy Fields Watershed with a Source of River Water (하천관개지역 광역논에서의 영양물질의 물질수지)

  • Lee, Jeong Beom;Lee, Jae Yong;Li, Si Hong;Jang, Jeong Ryeol;Jang, Ik Geun;Kim, Jin Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.56 no.5
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this research was to investigate concentration and load of nutrients such as total nitrogen (TN), nitrate nitrogen ($NO_3$-N) total phosphorous (TP), and phosphate phosphorous ($PO_4$-P) in a 23.4-ha paddy fields watershed with river water source. Water samples for irrigation water, drainage water, ponded water and groundwater were collected, and irrigation and drainage water were measured at 5~10 day intervals during normal days and at 2~6 hours intervals during three storm events. The amount of irrigation water in the study area was over 2,000 mm, which is almost identical to that in the area irrigated from a large reservoir but much more than that in the area irrigated from a pumping station. Mean flow-weighted concentrations of TN and TP in irrigation water were 2.8 and 0.15 mg/L, respectively, higher than those in the area irrigated from a large reservoir or a pumping station. The ratios of irrigation load to total inflow load for TN and TP were 88 %, and the ratios of surface outflow load to total outflow load for TN and TP were over 90 %, indicating that total nutrient load may be greatly affected by water management. The nutrient loads per area in the study area were estimated as TN 21.1 kg/ha and TP 1.1 kg/ha. Especially, the TP load per area in the study area was smaller than that in the area irrigated from a large reservoir or a pumping station. This may be because outflow load is not high likely due to sedimentation of particulate P and irrigation water load is high due to high TP concentration in irrigation water and high amount of irrigation water.

Effects of Rice Straw Compost Application on Exchangeable Potassium in Long-term Fertilization Experiments of Paddy Soils

  • Kim, Myung-Sook;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Ko, Byong-Gu;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2016
  • In an experiment conducted at the research field of the National Institute of Agricultural Science, we investigated the effects of mineral fertilizer and rice straw compost on exchangeable potassium and K balances, and rice grain yield under a rice single system. The treatments were no fertilization (No fert.), inorganic fertilization (N), inorganic fertilizer (N, P, K) plus rice straw compost at rates of 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and $30.0ton\;ha^{-1}$ (NPKC7.5, NPKC15.0, NPKC22.5, and NPKC30.0, respectively). The inorganic fertilizers(N, P, K) were added with standard fertilizer application rate in which nitrogen (N), phosphate ($P_2O_5$), and potassium ($K_2O$) were applied with $75{\sim}150kg\;ha^{-1}$, $70{\sim}86kg\;ha^{-1}$, $75{\sim}86kg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. Exchangeable potassium for NPKC15.0 NPKC22.5, and NPK30.0 treatments was higher by $0.05{\sim}0.19cmol_c\;kg^{-1}$ than that of NPKC7.5 treatment. Increasing levels of rice straw compost resulted in an increase in the K balance from - $19.9kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ (No fert.) to $41.9kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ at NPKC22.5 treatment and $62.9kg\;ha^{-1}$ at NPKC30.0 treatment. Continuous application of rice straw compost with NPK fertilizers affected significantly the rice grain yields. The result of the study imply that the application of more than $22.5ton\;ha^{-1}$ of rice straw compost with NPK fertilizers are recommended as the best fertilization practice for enhancement of crop production and K supplying power of soil in the continuous rice cropping system.

Chemical Mass Balance of Materials in the Keum River Estuary: 1. Seasonal Distribution of Nutrients (금강하구의 물질수지: 1. 영양염의 계절적 분포)

  • Yang, Jae-Sam;Jeong, Ju-Young;Heo, Jin-Young;Lee, Sang-Ho;Choi, Jin-Yong
    • The Sea
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 1999
  • As part of an on-going project investigating flux of materials in the Keum River Estuary, we have monitored seasonal variations of nutrients, suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll, and salinity since 1997. Meteorological data and freshwater discharge from the Keum River Dike were also used, Our goal was to answers for (1) what is the main factor for the seasonal fluctuation of nutrients in the Keum River Estuary? and (2) are there any differences in nutrient distributions before and after the Keum River Dike construction? Nitrate concentrations in the Keum River water were kept constant through the year. Whereas other nutrients varied with evident seasonality: high phosphate and ammonium concentrations during the dry season and enhanced silicate contents during the rainy season. SPM was found similar trend with silicate. During the rainy season, the freshwater discharged from the Keum River Dike seemed to dilute the phosphate and ammonium, but to elevate SPM concentration in the Keum Estuary. In addition, the corresponding variations of SPM contents in the estuarine water affected the seasonal fluctuations of nutrients in the Estuary. The most important source of the nutrients in the estuarine water is the fluvial water. Therefore, the distribution patterns of nutrients in the Estuary are conservative against salinity. Nitrate, nitrite and silicate are conservative through the year. The distribution of phosphate and ammonium on the other hand, display two distinct seasonal patterns: conservative behavior during the dry season and some additive processes during the rainy days. Mass destruction of freshwater phytoplankton in the riverine water is believed to be a major additive source of phosphate in the upper Estuary. Desorption processes of phosphate and ammonium from SPM and organic matter probably contribute extra source of addition. Benthic flux of phosphate and ammonium from the sediment into overlying estuarine water can not be excluded as another source. After the Keum River Dike construction, the concentrations of SPM decreased markedly and their role in controlling of nutrient concentrations in the Estuary has probably diminished. We found low salinity (5~15 psu) within 1 km away from the Dike during the dry season. Therefore we conclude that the only limited area of inner estuary function as a real estuary and the rest part rather be like a bay during the dry season. However, during the rainy season, the entire estuary as the mixing place of freshwater and seawater. Compared to the environmental conditions of the Estuary before the Dike construction, tidal current velocity and turbidity are decreased, but nutrient concentrations and chance of massive algal bloom such as red tide outbreak markedly increased.

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Nutritional Status of the Oldest-elderly Population in Sunchang County (순창군 장수인의 영양섭취 실태)

  • Lee, Mee-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 2009
  • This study was investigated nutrient intakes and dietary evaluation index of the healthy subjects over 85 of Sunchang County to explore the improved dietary pattern for healthy aging of the elderly. The survey was conducted by personal interview to 161 elderly subjects (59 males and 102 females over 85) in 2006, and their daily dietary intake was assessed by 24-hr recalls and weighing one meal. The daily energy intakes of males were 1,335 ${\pm}$ 67 kcal, and those of females were 1,095 ${\pm}$ 38 kcal comprised of 66.8% and 68.4% of the EER for the age group of 75. The proportions of energy from carbohydrate : protein : lipid were 70.7 : 14.6 : 14.6 for males and 68.6 : 14.0 : 17.4 for females. The average protein intakes were 95.4% for males and 85.0% for females of RI, and the average calcium intakes were 54.3% for males and 43.6% for females of RI. The daily vitamin intakes were below 70% except vitamin A, vitamin $B_6$, and vitamin E. The proportion of the relative risk groups of protein, phosphate, iron and vitamin A ranged 40-49% of RI over 75 year groups. The other nutrient intakes showed that there were over 50% risk groups. Especially for nutrients such as calcium, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, vitamin C, folate and niacin over 70% of the subjects were under risk. The median value of all nutrient intakes did not reach AI. The INQ of nutrients were over 0.8 except for folate and vitamin C. Calcium intakes were relatively low and needed attention. However, the ratio of calcium and phosphate showed 1 : 1.6, which appeared to be superior to the other districts. The DVS were higher as the dietary balance scores, KDDS were higher, and the groups with high KDDS had high intakes of nutrients compared to the groups with low KDDS. The high risk groups as judged by simple nutrition screening test had lower nutrient intakes than the groups of middle risk or low risk groups. The subjects in Sunchang area had relatively low intakes of several nutrients. However, judging from the desirable patterns of the energy proportion from three major nutrients, ratio of calcium and phosphate and INQ of nutrients there is a possibility that extended healthy aging might be related to the quality of nutrients and relative ratio between nutrients. To improve nutrient status of the elderly of the surveyed area further application involving KDDS and DVS appeared to be required.

The Effect of Various Types of Calcium Sources on Calcium and Bone Metabolism in Rats (칼슘 급원의 종류가 흰쥐의 체내 칼슘 및 골격대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 정혜경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.480-488
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of various types of calcium sources on calcium and bone metabolism. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing approximately 89.3g were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets containing 0.5% calcium for 5 weeks. Four different calcium salts were used for the study : calcium phosphate, calcium lactate, calcium gluconate, and calcium carbonate. Food intake showed no significant difference n accordance with the type of calcium salt, but bo요 weight gain and food efficiency were lower in calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate groups. There was significant differences in liver, thymus and epididymal fat pad weight with the of calcium salt ; the calcium gluconate group showed lower values compared to the other groups. Femur and scapular length were higher in calcium lactate and calcium carbonate groups. Wet weight, dry weight, and density of the femur tended to be lower in the calcium gluconate group than the other groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. The calcium content of the other groups. The calcium gluconate group showed higher urinary calcium and lower calcium absorption and balance. In conclusion, calcium and bone metabolism were different according to the type of calcium sources consumed.

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Succinic Acid Production by Continuous Fermentation Process Using Mannheimia succiniciproducens LPK7

  • Oh, In-Jae;Lee, Hye-Won;Park, Chul-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Yup;Lee, Jin-Won
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.908-912
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    • 2008
  • To achieve a higher succinic acid productivity and evaluate the industrial applicability, this study used Mannheimia succiniciproducens LPK7 (knock-out: ldhA, pflB, pta-ackA), which was recently designed to enhance the productivity of succinic acid and reduce by-product secretion. Anaerobic continuous fermentation of Mannheimia succiniciproducens LPK7 was carried out at different glucose feed concentrations and dilution rates. After extensive fermentation experiments, a succinic acid yield and productivity of 0.38 mol/mol and 1.77 g/l/h, respectively, were achieved with a glucose feed concentration of 18.0 g/l and $0.2\;h^{-1}$ dilution rate. A similar amount of succinic acid production was also produced in batch culture experiments. Therefore, these optimal conditions can be industrially applied for the continuous production of succinic acid. To examine the quantitative balance of the metabolism, a flux distribution analysis was also performed using the metabolic network model of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.

Effect of Nitrate-Ammonium Ratio on Ionic Balance in Mulberry(Morus alba L.) Leaves (질산태(窒酸態) 및 암모니아태(態) 질소비율(窒素比率)과 상엽중(桑葉中)이온의 균형(均衡))

  • Lee, Won-Chu;Yoo, Sun-Ho;Lim, Sun-Uk
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 1982
  • A water culture was conducted with 5 levels of nitrate-ammonium ratio (NAR: 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) to study the ionic balance, cation-anion (C-A) in mulberry leaves and to determine the optimum NAR for the greatest leaf yields. The results were as follows: 1. The growth rate of mulberry plants was the greatest at 7:3 NAR. 2. Magesium in the mulberry leaves was not affected by NAR. By lowering NAR, calcium content decreased more than potassium content increased, consequently lowering the sum of cation content (${\sum}C$). However, the sum of anion (${\sum}A$) increased because of increments of sulphate, chloride and especially phosphate. 3. Ionic balance in the mulberry leaves deceased from 727 to 116 me/Kg dry matter with increasing ammonium levels of 0 to 100% in the nutrient solution.

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Nutrient Recovery from Sludge Fermentation Effluent in Upflow Phosphate Crystallization Process (상향류 인 결정화공정을 이용한 슬러지 발효 유출수로 부터의 영양소 회수)

  • Ahn, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.866-871
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    • 2006
  • The nutrient recovery in phosphate crystallization process was investigated by using laboratory scale uptlow reactors, adopting sequencing batch type configuration. The industrial waste lime was used as potential cation source with magnesium salt($MgCl_2$) as control. The research was focused on its successful application in a novel integrated sludge treatment process, which is comprised of a high performance fermenter followed by a crystallization reactor. In the struvite precipitation test using synthetic wastewater first, which has the similar characteristics with the real fermentation effluent, the considerable nutrient removal(about 60%) in both ammonia and phosphate was observed within $0.5{\sim}1$ hr of retention time. The results also revealed that a minor amount(<5%) of ammonia stripping naturally occurred due to the alkaline(pH 9) characteristic in feed substrate. Stripping of $CO_2$ by air did not increase the struvite precipitation rate but it led to increased ammonia removal. In the second experiment using the fermentation effluent, the optimal dosage of magnesium salt for struvite precipitation was 0.86 g Mg $g^{-1}$ P, similar to the mass ratio of the struvite. The optimal dosage of waste lime was 0.3 g $L^{-1}$, resulting in 80% of $NH_4-N$ and 41% of $PO_4-P$ removal, at about 3 hrs of retention time. In the microscopic analysis, amorphous crystals were mainly observed in the settled solids with waste lime but prism-like crystals were observed with magnesium salt. Based on mass balance analysis for an integrated sludge treatment process(fermenter followed by crystallization reactor) for full-scale application(treatment capacity Q=158,880 $m^3\;d^{-1}$), nutrient recycle loading from the crystallization reactor effluent to the main liquid stream would be significantly reduced(0.13 g N and 0.19 g P per $m^3$ of wastewater, respectively). The results of the experiment reveal therefore that the reuse of waste lime, already an industrial waste, in a nutrient recovery system has various advantages such as higher economical benefits and sustainable treatment of the industrial waste.

A Charecteristics of Marine Environments in a Blood Cockle Farms of the Northwestern Yeoja Bay, Korea 2. Spatio-temporal Distribution of Water Quality and Phytoplankton Community (여자만 북서부 꼬막어장의 해양환경 특성. 2. 수질환경 및 식물플랑크톤 군집)

  • Yoon, Yang Ho;Lee, Hyun Ji
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.579-592
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    • 2020
  • This study was designed to assess the water quality and phytoplankton community including chlorophyll a in blood cockle (Tegillarca granosa) farms in May, August and November of 2017 in the northwestern Yeoja Bay, Korea. As a result, the seasonal characteristics of water types by water temperature and salinity were clear. Nutrients were abundant in silicate throughout the season, but phosphate was scarce in spring and summer, and nitrogen sources were scarce in autumn. The species composition of phytoplankton community was a very simple distribution, and the standing crop was also very low. The annual dominant species is dominated by the diatoms, with Skeletonema costatum-ls, Nitzschia longissima in spring, Pleurrosigma normanii, Coscinodiscus gigas in summer, and N. longissima, Pseudonitschia pungens, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Eucampia zodiacus in autumn. In summer the results were different from other coastal waters of Korea. The principal component analysis(PCA) and correlation analysis showed that the characteristics of water quality and biological environments differed according to the season. Furthermore, it was determined by the supply of materials through fresh water on land, seawater congestion caused by the refueling of surface sediments with lower depth, and the balance of biological production and mineralization of organic matters in blood cockle farms.

Self-purification Capacity of Eutrophic Buk Bay by DO mass Balance (부영양화된 북만의 용존산소 수지에 의한 자정능력)

  • CHOI Woo-Jeung;NA Gui-Hwan;CHUN Young-Yell;PARK Chung-Kil
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 1991
  • In Summer, oxygen-deficient water masses were developed extensively in the closed eutrophic bays such as Chinhae Bay which results in mass mortality of marine organisms and severe decrease the production of the bay every year. Under the circumstances, this study was performed to investigate the oxygen depletion relating to eutrophication, and also to evaluate self-purfication capacity of Buk Bay by dissolved oxygen mass balance in 1988. The mean concentration of total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus and chlorophyll-a were $11.06{\mu}g-at/l,\;0.80{\mu}g-at/l\;and\;1.11mg/m^3$ respectively, which were over eutrophication criteria. Oxygen-deficient water mass was formed in July with the minimum concentration of 2.08ml/l(mean) at the bottom of all stations and recovered slowly in August. The decay and reaeration coefficient calculated from dissloved oxygen sag curve were 0.222/day and 0.018ml/l/day, respectively. To maintain above 4ml/l of oxygen to prevent oxygen-deficient water mass, it is recommendable to supply as much as 0.856ml/l/day of dissolved oxygen or should be reduced the same mass loading of BOD from watershed by the construction of wastewater treatment plant.

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