• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphate balance

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Influence of Continuous Organic Amendments on Growth and Productivity of Red Pepper and Soil Properties

  • Seo, Young-Ho;Kim, Se-Won;Choi, Seung-Chul;Jeong, Byeong-Chan;Jung, Yeong-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.98-102
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    • 2012
  • Organic farming has rapidly increased in Gangwon province, but there is a concern about nutrient accumulation and nutrient imbalance in the soil of organic farming. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of continuous application of organic amendments on growth and yield of red pepper and soil characteristics compared with chemical fertilizers application for four years. Treatments of organic amendments including oil cake, rice straw compost, amino acid compost, rice bran compost, and mushroom media (spent substrate) compost resulted in comparable growth and yield of pepper to chemical fertilizers. Organic amendments improved soil physical and chemical characteristics. Especially, rice bran compost and oil cake significantly increased soil organic matter compared with chemical fertilizer application and mushroom media compost and rice straw compost significantly improved soil aggregate stability. On the other hand, available phosphate level in the soil amended with rice bran compost or mushroom media compost was relatively high compared with the other treatments due to relatively high phosphate levels in the composts. It is not easy to adjust nutrient composition in the organic materials. Therefore, the results obtained from the study imply that nutrient imbalance needs to be carefully considered in organic farming without use of chemical fertilizers.

Mechanisms on Struvite Production for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Recovery (질소/인 회수를 위한 Struvite 생성 메커니즘)

  • Lee, Sang-hun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2019
  • The recovery of struvite using nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewaters is useful for prevention of eutrophication and use as fertilizer, but there are theoretical and technical issues to be resolved. Through the detailed literature review, this study discusses the possible reasonable prediction of struvite formation reaction by setting a feasible reaction equation with some theoretical considerations. In a technical aspect, the purity of struvite in solid precipitates can be promoted by excluding Ca in an effective way. As for the struvite reaction prediction issue, selection of proper equilibrium reaction as well as its reaction equilibrium coefficient is significant in the neutral and basic pH regions. The equilibrium reaction agrees well with the experimental batch test results. Considering the charge balance of the ions, the pH drop along struvite formation in a diluted solution can be predicted. Also, improvement of struvite purity through elimination of Ca can be expected by providing a highly concentrated ${NH_4}^+-N$ relative to ${HPO_4}^{2-}-P$ because ${NH_4}^+$ can enhance the thermodynamic driving force toward favorable struvite formation. Even though the phosphate reacts rapidly with Ca to form a solid precipitate, the thermodynamic driving force due to the high ${NH_4}^+$ activity can dissociate the phosphate-calcium precipitates and produce struvite.

The Effect of Dietary Protein Source and Sulfur Amino acid Content on bone Metabolism in Growing Rats (식이 단백질의 종류와 함황아미노산 함량이 성장기 쥐의 골밀도에 미치는 영향)

  • 최미자;정소형
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary protein source and sulfur amino acid content on bone metabolism in ra. Thirty male rats (body weight 145$\pm$2g) were divided into three groups. The rats in the first group were fed on casein 20% diet as animal protein source and those in the second group were fed on soy 20% diet as plant protein source. Sulfur amino acid ratio of these group was 1.07:1. The rats in the third group were fed on soy 20% diet and the sulfur amino acid were supplemented with the amount contained as much in the soy 20% diet. All rats were fed on experimental diet and deionized water ad libitum for 9 weeks, The total body, spine, femur bone mineral density and bone mineral content were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Calcium, phosphate, pyridinoline, creatinine in urine and calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin in serum were measured. During the experimental period, plant protein (soy protein) group had a lower urinary Ca excretion, urine pyridinoline & crosslinks value and had a higher Ca efficiency in total bone and femur bone mineral density than animal protein (casein) group. There were no significant differences in serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin among the three groups of the rats. The findings from this study demonstrated that plant protein (soy protein) is beneficial of bone mineral density because it had a higher Ca efficiency in total bone and femur bone mineral density than animal protein (casein). However, the supplementation of sulfur amino acid on soy results were consistent with prior studies that dietary sulfur amino acid load had a negative effect on calcium balance. The rats fed sulfur amino acid supplementation diet increased urinary calcium excretion and decreased calcium efficiency for total and femur mineral density. Therefore, dietary protein source and sulfur amino acid content influence bone metabolism. (Korean J Nutrition 37(2): 100-107, 2004)

Formation and Physical Properties of Yogurt

  • Lee, W.J.;Lucey, J.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1127-1136
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    • 2010
  • Yogurt gels are a type of soft solid, and these networks are relatively dynamic systems that are prone to structural rearrangements. The physical properties of yogurt gels can be qualitatively explained using a model for casein interactions that emphasizes a balance between attractive (e.g., hydrophobic attractions, casein cross-links contributed by calcium phosphate nanoclusters and covalent disulfide cross-links between caseins and denatured whey proteins) and repulsive (e.g., electrostatic or charge repulsions, mostly negative at the start of fermentation) forces. Various methods are discussed to investigate the physical and structural attributes of yogurts. Various processing variables are discussed which influence the textural properties of yogurts, such as total solids content, heat treatment, and incubation temperatures. A better understanding of factors contributing to the physical and structural attributes may allow manufacturers to improve the quality of yogurt.

Assessment of Agricultural Nutrient Surplus in Pig-concentrated Region in Korea

  • Lee, Yejin;Yun, Hong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.482-486
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    • 2013
  • Assessment of nutrient balance in region unit is important to make a decision on nutrient management in agriculture. In this study, the nutrient demand in arable land and nutrient supply from livestock manure and chemical fertilizer were estimated from pig-concentrated areas. Three regions (H, I and J) were selected on the basis of pig numbers per unit area of arable land. In H and I regions, nitrogen amount from pig manure occupied about 50% of total livestock manure. Nutrient supply was three times higher compared to the nutrient demand in each of 3 regions. Soil available phosphate of higher pig-populated area in regional unit was higher than less populated livestock area. Therefore, livestock manure-derived regional management and monitoring of soil nutrient contents is necessary for the minimization and improvement of nutrient surplus.

Comparison of Farm Based Fertilizer Usage in 1992 and 1999 (1992년과 1999년의 농가 비료이용 실태 변화 비교)

  • Kim, Seok-Cheol;Park, Yang-Ho;Lee, Youn;Lee, Ju-Young;Kim, Chung-Su;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.344-355
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    • 2003
  • Korea is one of those countries that have very high usage rates of chemical fertilizers per unit area of cropland. To reduce the fertilizer application rate, a variety of agricultural polices has been introduced since the 1990s. In this study, fertilizer usage was surveyed on the farm base throughout the country in 1999, and the data were compared with those of 1992. Organic fertilizer application rates were decreased in most cereal crops with time pass, but maintained similar levels in vegetables grown in plastic-film houses and in upland soils. Chemical fertilizer application rates were decreased in most of the cereal crops and vegetables surveyed; however, this reduction was concentrated in phosphate and potassium usage, but not in nitrogen. In spite of this decrease, the fertilizer application levels to most crops were maintained at levels much higher than recommended. In the nutrient balance, which was calculated from the difference between input (chemical and organic fertilizers) and output (agricultural products), the nitrogen nutrient surplus did not decrease; however, phosphate and potassium decreased by 21% and 13%, respectively, in 1999 compared with 1992. To reduce fertilizer utilization and to conserve environment, further reduction of fertilizer application is essential.

Cell Biological Studies of the Effect of Aromatic Amino Acids on Early Development of Chick Embryo (방향족 아미노산이 초기계배에 미치는 영향에 관한 세포생물학적 연구)

  • 최임순;주충노;최춘근;김재원
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.257-278
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    • 1985
  • The effect of aromatic amino acids such as phenylalaine, tryptophan and tyrosine on somitogenesis at the early stage of chick embryo has been investigated morphologically using light and electron microscopy. Micrographs of aromatic amino acid injected chick embryo showed that an incomplete somite segmentation occurred and some decremental effect on the nervous system were observed. Somites were poorly developed and their size were variable. Electron micrograph of somatic cells from aromatic amino acid injected chick embryo showed that chromatins were coagulated, some of mitochondria were damaged, and nucleus were transformed considerably in some cases. The protein and nucleic acid levels and some enzyme activities of 15-day chick embryo which received the injection of 1mg of aromatic amino acid in 0.05 ml of saline 24 hours after the incubation were analyzed. Protein, DNA and RNA levels of the test group were not lowered significantly but the activities of enzymes for basic metabolism, such as lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were considerably lowered as compared with those of control. From the present expeerimental results, it was tentatively suggested that the administration of amino acid might slow down the yolk granule degradation probably by feed back mechanism resulting in the disturbance of amino acid balance in the cell, which might give rise to impair normal metabolic pattern leading to abnormal somitogenesis to chick embryo at very early stage of development.

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Effects of Phytase Supplementation on Nutrient Balance and Production of Laying Hens (Phytase 첨가가 산란계의 체내 영양소 균형 및 생산성에 미치는 효과)

  • 홍종옥;김인호;김은주;권오석;이상환
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of adding phytase on nutrient availability and serum Ca and P level and to determine the effects of phytase on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In Exp. 1, twenty four laying hens(1.9kg average body weight and 78.4% egg production) were allotted to four treatments. Treatments included 1) corn-soybean meal based-control diet and 2), 3) and 4) control diet with phytase 200, 400 and 600 unit/kg, respectively. There were no significant effects of treatments on dry matter and nitrogen digestibility(P〉0.05). Ash, Ca and P digestibility in layer fed diet with phytase were greater than those in layer fed control diet(P〈0.05). Laying hens fed diets with phytase 200 and 400 unit retained more Ca than those fed other treatments (P〈0.05). No statistical difference was found for Ca exsretion(P〉0.05). P retention was greater for laying hens fed diet phytase 600 unit than other treaments(P〈0.05). P level in serum was higher for laying hens fed diets with phytase 400 and 600 unit than for laying hens fed other treatments. In Exp. 2, three hundred, IAS Brown layer, 40-week-old, divided into two treatment groups(control vs phytase supplementation without inorganic phosphate in the diets) with five replications per treatment and 30 layers per replication were fed the diets for 6 weeks. Egg production, egg weight and eggshell breaking strength and thickness were not different significantly(P〉0.05). In conclusion, phytase supplementation can be used to increase P utilization and retention in laying hens. Also, phytase supplementation was effective to spare inorganic phosphate in laying hen diets without any adverse effects on production performances.

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Oral Administration of Phosphorylated Dextran Regulates Immune Response in Ovalbumin-Immunized Mice

  • Nagasawa, Chiho;Nishimura-Uemura, Junko;Tohno, Masanori;Shimosato, Takeshi;Kawai, Yasushi;Ikegami, Shuji;Oda, Munehiro;Saito, Tadao;Kitazawa, Haruki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.106-115
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    • 2010
  • Phosphorylated dextran (P-Dex) is an acidic polysaccharide that functions as an immune adjuvant. P-Dex is known to regulate immune response by maintaining a balance between Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro, and thus may also be important in the control of allergic reactions. In the current study, we report the optimum conditions required for the efficient phosphorylation of dextran without toxicity. We found that when dextran was heated at 160${^{\circ}C}$ for 24 h in phosphate buffer (pH 5.0), the resulting P-Dex demonstrated the highest phosphorus content (6.8%). We also report that P-Dex enhances mitogenic activity in mouse splenocytes and induces expression of CD69 and CD86 on the surface of B cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro. Oral administration of P-Dex to ovalubmin (OVA)-immunized mice was found to reduce antigen-induced cell proliferation and suppress the expression of CD86 on Th2-inducing DC via exogenous OVA stimulation. P-Dex was also found to increase IL-10 expression in the splenocytes of treated mice. These findings suggest that oral administration of P-Dex increases immunological tolerance and improves the specificity of immunological response to specific antigens.

Effect of corn gluten and its hydrolysate consumptions on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet

  • Kim, Joo-Hee;Park, Ju-Yeon;Hong, So-Young;Kim, Mi-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2009
  • This study examined the effects of com gluten (CG) and its hydrolysate consumptions on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet. Eight-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were fed a high-fat diet (40% calorie as fat) for 4 weeks. They were then randomly divided into four groups and fed the isocaloric diets with different protein sources for 8 weeks. The protein sources were casein (control group), intact CG (CG group), CG hydrolysate A (CGHA group, 30% of protein as peptides and 70% as free amino acids) and CG hydrolysate P (CGHP group, 93% of protein as peptides and 7% as free amino acids). Body weight gain, adipose tissue weights, nitrogen balance, absorptions of energy, protein and fat, lipid profiles in plasma, liver and feces and hepatic activities of camitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were assessed. The CGHA diet had the highest amount of BCAAs, especially leucine, and most of them existed as free amino acid forms. The CGHA group showed significant weight reduction and negative nitrogen balance. Protein absorption and apparent protein digestibility in the CGHA group were significantly lower than those in other groups. Adipose tissue weights were the lowest in the CGHA group. Activity of CPT tended to be higher in the CGHA group than in other groups and those of FAS, ME and G6PDH were significantly lower in the CGHA group than in other groups. In conclusion, the CGHA diet which had relatively high amounts of free amino acids and BCAAs, especially leucine, had a weight reduction effect by lowering adipose tissue weight and the activities of FAS, ME and G6PDH in experimental animals, but it seemed to be a negative result induced by lowering protein absorption, increasing urinary nitrogen excretion and protein catabolism.