• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phosphate balance

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Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance in Green Manure-Rice Cropping Systems without Incorporation of Green Manure Crops (녹비작물 무 환원-벼 작부체계에서 질소와 인산수지 평가)

  • Kim, TaeYoung;Daquiado, Aileen Rose;Alam, Faridul;Lee, YongBok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.308-312
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: The nutrient balance in Korea during 1985-2006 had continually increased and maintained the highest levels among OECD countries. The use of green manure crops such as barley and hairy vetch is common practice for reducing chemical fertilizer application and maintaining soil fertility. However, green manure crops can also be used as a livestock feeding material which may reduce nutrient balance in the national scale. We calculated nitrogen and phosphate balance under green manure-rice cultivating system where all green manure was removed and used for feeding livestock. METHODS AND RESULTS: The barley and hairy vetch grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing rates were tested for rice cultivation without chemical fertilization. The conventional fertilization (NPK) for rice cultivation was selected to compare nutrient balance with green manure-rice cultivation. Nitrogen and phosphate balance were calculated according to the surface balance method of the PARCOM guidelines. Total aboveground biomass of mixture (barley and hairy vetch) was higher compared to that of pure barley or hairy vetch. Among the mixture with barley and hairy vetch, the highest aboveground biomass was observed in B75H25 (barley 75%+hairy vetch 25%). The nitrogen and phosphate balance in the B75H25 mixture was-104 kg N/ha and-50.3 kg P/ha, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The barley and hairy vetch mixture proved to be a very effective strategy for biomass production of green manure. The amount of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer to be applied is estimated to be 104 kg N/ha and 50.3 kg P/ha in order to maintain soil fertility if all green manure and rice straw were removed from rice field for livestock feeding.

Evaluation of Phosphorus Balance in Green Manure-Rice Cropping Systems with Different Incorporation Rate of Green Manure Crops (녹비작물 환원에 따른 벼 재배지 인산수지 평가)

  • Kim, TaeYoung;Daquiado, Aileen Rose;Alam, Faridul;Kim, Pil-Joo;Lee, YongBok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.378-380
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: In Korea, green manure has been cultivated for reducing chemical fertilizer application, maintaining soil fertility, and feeding livestock in winter season. We evaluated the phosphate balance under green manure-rice cultivating system with different removal rates of green manure for maintaining soil fertility. METHODS AND RESULTS: The barley and hairy vetch mixture was selected as the green manure in this study. The barley and hairy vetch was sowed at a rate of 135 and 23 kg/ha, respectively, without fertilizer application. Total aboveground biomass was 12000 (barley: 5400 kg/ha, hairy vetch: 6600 kg/ha) kg/ha, and these green manure were incorporated with different input rates before rice planting. The input rates of green manure in this study were 0 (NPK+0%), 25 (NPK+25%), 50 (NPK+50%), 75 (NPK+75%) and 100 % (NPK+100) and the standard fertilization (NPK) without green manure cultivation. All treatments were applied with standard fertilizer (N-P-K: 90-19.6-48.3 kg/ha) before rice planting. The highest rice yield was observed in NPK+50% which was 20% higher compared with NPK. The phosphate balance with different incorporation rates of green manure was-104.0,-76.8,-52.9,-27.4, and 6.0 kg/ha for NPK+0%, NPK+25%, NPK+50%, NPK+75%, and NPK+100%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): The use of green manure for livestock feeding in green manure-rice cropping systems could remove a huge amount of phosphate. This cropping system strongly requires phosphate application before green manure seeding for maintaining soil fertility.

The Effects of Phosphorus Fertilization After Incorporation of Green Manure Crops to Jeju Volcanic Ash Soils on Potato Yields, Available Phosphate Contents in Soil, and Phosphorus Balances

  • Kang, Ho-Jun;Yang, Sang-Ho;Kim, Yu-Kyoung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 2017
  • The volcanic ash soils from the Jeju province have low available phosphate because of the high phosphate fixing power of the soils. Phosphorus fertilizerwas dressed after cultivating green manure crops and before cultivating potatoes in order to investigate potato yields, the available phosphate contents, and phosphorus balance in the soils. Green manure crops cultivated in this study were hairy vetch alone and hairy vetch and rye. During potato cultivation, four treatments were conducted in the experiments; NF (non fertilizer), P fertilizer ($N-P-K=0-25-0kg\;10a^{-1}$), NK fertilizer ($N-P-K=18-0-19kg\;10a^{-1}$), and NPK fertilizer ($N-P-K=18-25-19kg\;10a^{-1}$). There were no differences in the yields of potato stem and tuber from the cultivation plots of different green manure crops. However, in the plots with single-sown hairy vetch and mixed-sown hairy vetch and rye, the yields of potato stem and tuber were higher in the P fertilizer plot than in NF plot. The yield of tuber among the treatments with mixed-sown hairy vetch and rye was the highest in the NPK fertilizer plot. The available phosphate content in soils initially increased with time in all plots, but began to decrease gradually after Oct. 18. The available phosphate contents were high in the plots for phosphate fertilization, and the difference in available phosphate content between non-phosphorus fertilizer plots and phosphorus fertilizer plots increased with time. In the single-sown hairy vetch and mixed-sown hairy vetch and rye plot, the phosphorus balances in NF plot and NK fertilizer plot were very low, while those in the P fertilizer plot and NPK fertilizer plot were high. In conclusion, available phosphate contents in soil and the potato yields were increased by phosphorus fertilization when potatoes planted after cultivating hairy vetch and rye together, compared to hairy vetch alone.

Change in Available Phosphate by Application of Phosphate Fertilizer in Long-term Fertilization Experiment for Paddy Soil (인산질비료 장기연용 논토양에서 유효인산 변동)

  • Kim, Myung-Sook;Kim, Seok-Cheol;Yun, Sun-Gang;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND: Phosphorus(P) is a vital factor for rice but excess input of phosphorus fertilizer can cause environmental risk and waste of fertilizer resources. We studied to assess the change of available phosphate, P balance, critical concentration of available phosphate under a rice single system. METHODS AND RESULTS: The changes of available phosphate of paddy soil were examined from long-term fertilization experiment which was started in 1954 at the National Academy of Agricultural Science. The treatments were no phosphate fertilization(No fert., and N), phosphate fertilization(NPK, NPKC, and NPKCLS). The available phosphorus concentrations in treatments without phosphate fertilizer (No fert. and N) were decreased continuously. But, after 47 years, available phosphate content in phosphate fertilizer treatment (NPK, NPKC, and NPKCLS) reached at the highest ($245{\sim}331mg\;kg^{-1}$), showing a tendency to decrease afterward. The mean annual P field balance in these treatments (NPK, NPKC, and NPKCLS) had positive values that varied from 16.6 to $17.5kg\;ha^{-1}year^{-1}$, and ratio of residual P were increased. These showed that phosphate fertilizer in soil were converted into the form of residual phosphorus which was not easily extracted by available phosphate extractant. Also, It was estimated that the critical value of available phosphate for rice cultivation was $120mg\;kg^{-1}$ using Cate-Nelson equation. CONCLUSION: We concluded that no more phosphate fertilizer should be applied in rice single system if soil available phosphate is higher than the critical P value.

Study on Nutrient Balance in Paddy Field of Fluvio-Marine Deposit (하해혼성(河海混成) 논토양(土壤)의 양분수지(養分收支)에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Chul-Hyun;Yang, Chang-Hyu;Kang, Seung-Weon;Han, Sang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.253-263
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    • 2002
  • To test for the effect of applied fertilizer and nutrients on uptake and transport for paddy rice, two paddy field trials were conducted with Dongjinbyeo in degenerated salt paddy field of Jeonbuk series from 1999 to 2000. After experiment, soil acidity, content of organic matter phosphate, silicate, potassium, calcium, and total nitrogen was increased by application of fresh cattle manure(FCM). Content of Nitrogen in soil layer leached inorganic nitrogen $NO_3$ was higher that that of $NH_4$ and was high in treatment of FCM. Content of $PO_4$ was higher in FCM than other treatments. But content of potassium was in high control. During the growth of rice plant, the amount of water consumption was 477mm. The amount of supplied nitrogen was high in treatment of no nitrogen(NN), 20% reduced application of LCU(LCU-20%), and no fertilizer. In case of phosphate, the supplied amount was more than the consumed amount with the exception of treatment "no phosphate(NP) and no fertilizer(NF)". In case of potassium, the consumed amount was more than the supplied amount in all treatments. The amount of applied nitrogen in the nutrient infiltrated water was high in treatment soil test(ST), C+FCM+Si(Silicate) and the ratio of recovered nitrogen was high in 20% reduced application of LCU. The amount of applied phosphate in the nutrient infiltrated water was high in FCM and that of applied potassium was high in 20% reduced application of LCU. Nitrogen use efficiency of paddy rice was high in 20% reduced application of LCU and use efficiency of phosphate and potassium was high in C+Si(Silicate). Grain yield of rice was high in order of 20% reduced application of LCU>C+Si=C+FCM+Si>C+FCM.

Sphingosine Kinase: Biochemical and Cellular Regulation and Role in Disease

  • Taha, Tarek Assad;Hannun, Yusuf Awni;Obeid, Lina Marie
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.113-131
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    • 2006
  • Sphingolipids have emerged as molecules whose metabolism is regulated leading to generation of bioactive products including ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate. The balance between cellular levels of these bioactive products is increasingly recognized to be critical to cell regulation; whereby, ceramide and sphingosine cause apoptosis and growth arrest phenotypes, and sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates proliferative and angiogenic responses. Sphingosine kinase is a key enzyme in modulating the levels of these lipids and is emerging as an important and regulated enzyme. This review is geared at mechanisms of regulation of sphingosine kinase and the coming to light of its role in disease.

Increased Available Phosphate by Shell Meal Fertilizer Application in Upland Soil (밭 토양에서 패화석비료 시용에 따른 유효인산의 증대)

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Ju-Young;Ha, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2005
  • Previous studies showed that shell meal fertilizer from the oyster farming industry could be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase Chinese cabbage productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in upland soil (Lee et al., 2004). Herein, shell meal fertilizer was applied at rates of 0, 4, 8, 12, and $16Mg\;ha^{-1}$ to upland soil (Pyeontaeg series, Fine silty, Typic Endoaquepts) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. We found available phosphate increased significantly with shell meal fertilizer application, due to high content of phosphate ($1.5g\;P_2O_5\;kg^{-1}$) in the applied shell meal fertilizer. In addition, high pH of shell meal fertilizer contributed to increase available phosphate content by neutralization of acidic soil. Total and residual P contents increased significantly with increasing shell meal fertilizer application, but we could not find any tendency in organic and inorganic P fraction. Of extractable P fraction, water-soluble phosphorus (W-P) and calcium-bound P (Ca-P) contents increased significantly with increasing application level. By contrast, aluminum and iron-bound P (Al-P and Fe-P) decreased slightly with shell meal application. The present experiment indicated that shell meal fertilizer had a positive benefit on increasing available phosphate content in arable soil. And so the increased available phosphate by shell meal fertilizer may decrease phosphate application level and then reduce phosphorus loss in arable soil.

pH Variance Model Depending on Phosphate Ion Form (인산염 이온 형태에 의한 pH 변량 모형)

  • Soh, Jae-Woo;Soh, Soon-Yil;Nam, Sang-Yong
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.854-859
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    • 2015
  • This experiment was performed to develop a model for nutrition ion concentration and EC in regard to change in pH from 4.0 to 8.0 in nutrient solution. The pH changes according to the variation of $HPO_4{^{-2}}$ and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ in the nutrient solution while variation of EC increased from pH 4.0 to 5.0, stabilized from pH 5.0 to 7.0 and increased again from pH 7.0 to 8.0. For the variance of major elements in the nutrient solution, K, Ca, N and P increased while pH was higher, especially the variables for K and P were increased largely. On the other hand, variables of Mg and S were stable. Based on analysis of the ion balance model of nutrient solution, the cation increased than anion over rising the variation of pH while balance point of ion moved from a-side to d-side. In addition, the imbalance increased while it moved away from the EC centerline as variance of pH increased. It was larger than effect of EC variance to correction values of equivalence ratios of K and Ca about variation of $HPO_4{^{-2}}$ and $H_2PO_4{^-}$ while as variance of pH increased, K decreased but Ca increased. These showed the result that variance of pH about correction values of equivalence ratios of K and Ca gave a second-degree polynomial model rating of 0.97. Through this research, it was identified the pH variable model about variance among pH, ion and EC according to gradient of phosphate.

Nutrient Balance during Rice Cultivation in Sandy Soil affected by the Fertilizer Management (사질논에서 벼 재배기간 중 시비방법별 양분수지)

  • Roh, Kee-An;Ha, Ho-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 1999
  • Nutrient balance during rice cultivation in the paddy of a local area under the environmental protection for drinking water supply was investigated. To compare nutrient balance in the paddy soil applied with different types of fertilization, 7 treatments were selected as followings : Recommended level of chemical fertilizers(R), Conventional fertilization(CF), Fresh cow manure(FCM), Cow manure compost(CMC), Straw compost+reduced chemical fertilizer(SCF), Fresh straw+recommended level of fertilizers(FSC), and no fertilization as control(C). Here, FCM, CMC and SCF were applied at the same level of total nitrogen as recommended in R. Rice yield was the highest in the recommendation(R) and fresh cow manure (FCM) treatments with $6,730kg\;ha^{-1}$(index 100), and followed by SCF (index 98), FSC (index 98), CMC(index 94), and CF(index 94). But statistically significant difference was not recognized among treatments except the control. Nitrogen infiltration loss was high in the simple chemical fertilizer treatments with $63kg\;ha^{-1}$ in CF and $58kg\;ha^{-1}$ in R during rice cultivation, respectively. Nitrogen infiltration loss was decreased below half level of chemical fertilizer treatments with cow manure treatments ($23kg\;ha^{-1}$ in FCM and $27kg\;ha^{-1}$ in CMC) and with reducing chemical fertilizer treatment by adding straw compost ($25kg\;ha^{-1}$). Phosphate was not leached during rice cultivation in paddy soil of a fluvial deposit type, in which oxidation horizon was developed broadly under around 15 cm depth of surface soil. Phosphate balance (A-B) was closed to 0 in all treatments except cow manure treatment (CMC), in which it was $+30kg\;ha^{-1}$ and show the possibility of over accumulation of phosphate by continuously replicated application of cow manure compost. Potassium balance was negative value in all but straw recycling treatment (FSC). It means that potassium was continuously supplied from soil minerals, uptaken by plants or eluted out of soil. In conclusion, by substituting inorganic fertilizer for organic fertilizer or reducing application rate of chemical fertilizer through mixing organic fertilizer, it would be possible to achieve the same rice yield as in the recommendation treatment and to decrease nutrient leaching below half level in rice paddy soil.

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Comparison of Nutrient Balance in a Reclaimed Tidal Upland between Chemical and Compost Fertilization for the Winter Green Barley Cultivation (간척농경지에서 비종에 따른 동계 청보리 재배 포장의 영양물질 수지 비교)

  • Song, In-Hong;Lee, Kyong-Do;Kim, Ji-Hye;Kang, Moon-Seong;Jang, Jeong-Ryeol
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.137-145
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: Along with the surplus rice production, introduction of upland crop cultivations into newly reclaimed tidal areas has gained public attentions in terms of farming diversification and farmers income increase. However, its impacts on the surroundings have not been well studied yet, especially associated with nutrient balance from reclaimed upland cultivation. The objective of this study was to investigate water and nutrient balance during winter barley cultivation as affected different fertilization methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: TN and TP balance for three different plots treated by livestock compost, chemical fertilizer, and no application were monitored during winter green barley cultivation (2010-2011) at the NICS Kyehwa experimental field in Jeonbuk, Korea. Nutrient content in soil and pore water near soil surface appeared to increase, while sub-soil layer remained similar with no fertilization plot. Livestock compost application appeared to increase organic matter content in surface soil compared to chemical fertilization. Crop yield was the greatest with livestock compost application (10.6 t/ha) followed by chemical fertilization (6.9 t/ha) and no application (1.8 t/ha). The nitrogen uptake rate was also greater with livestock compost (52.4%) than chemical fertilizer (48.1%). Phosphorus uptake rate was much smaller (about 7.0%) compared to nitrogen. Nutrient loss by surface and subsurface runoff seemed to be minimal primarily due to small rainfall amount during the winter season. Most of the remaining nutrients, particularly phosphate seemed to be stored in soil layer. Phosphate accumulation appeared to be more phenomenal in the plot applied by livestock compost with higher phosphorus content. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that livestock compost application to tidal upland may increase barley crop production and also improve soil fertility by supplying organic content. However, excessive phosphorus supply with livestock compost seems likely to cause a phosphate accumulation problem, unless the nitrogen-based fertilization practice is adjusted.