• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenotype

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Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica Inhibits Migration of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells by Suppressing Macrophage Polarization toward an M2 Phenotype

  • Park, Shin-Hyung
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: It is reported that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to cancer progression by promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different fractions of Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (AT) on the polarization of macrophages into the M2 phenotype, a major phenotype of TAMs. Methods: We isolated hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions from crude ethanol extract of AT. The cytotoxicity of AT in RAW264.7 cells was examined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. RAW264.7 cells were polarized into the M2 phenotype by treatment with interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. The expression of M2 macrophage marker genes was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The phosphorylation level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) was investigated by western blot analysis. The migration of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was examined by transwell migration assay using conditioned media (CM) collected from RAW264.7 cells as a chemoattractant. Results: Among various fractions of AT, the ethyl acetate fraction of AT (EAT) showed the most significant suppressive effect on the mRNA expression of M2 macrophage markers, including arginase-1, interleukin (IL)-10 and mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC-1), up-regulated by treatment of IL-4 and IL-13. In addition, EAT suppressed the phosphorylation of STAT6, a critical regulator of IL-4 and IL-13-induced M2 macrophage polarization. Finally, the increased migration of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells by CM from M2-polarized RAW264.7 cells was reduced by CM from RAW264.7 cells co-treated with EAT and M2 polarization inducers. Conclusion: We demonstrated that EAT attenuated cancer cell migration through suppression of macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype. Additional preclinical or clinical researches are needed to evaluate its regulatory effects on macrophage polarization and anti-cancer activities.

Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of SMN1 and NAIP Deletions in Korean Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

  • Ahn, Eun-Ji;Yum, Mi-Sun;Kim, Eun-Hee;Yoo, Han-Wook;Lee, Beom Hee;Kim, Gu-Hwan;Ko, Tae-Sung
    • Journal of clinical neurology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 2017
  • Background and Purpose Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Most SMA patients have a homozygous deletion in survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is considered a phenotype modifier. We investigated the genotype-phenotype correlation of SMN1 and NAIP deletions in Korean SMA patients. Methods Thirty-three patients (12 males and 21 females) treated at the Asan Medical Center between 1999 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction-fragment-length polymorphism analysis, and multiplex PCR were used to detect deletions in SMN1 (exons 7 and 8) and NAIP (exons 4 and 5). We reviewed clinical presentations and outcomes and categorized the patients into three clinical types. NAIP deletion-driven differences between the two genotypes were analyzed. Results Deletion analysis identified homozygous deletions of SMN1 exons 7 and 8 in 30 patients (90.9%). Among these, compared with patients without an NAIP deletion, those with an NAIP deletion showed a significantly lower age at symptom onset ($1.9{\pm}1.7months$ vs. $18.4{\pm}20.4months$, $mean{\pm}SD$; p=0.007), more frequent type 1 phenotype (6/6 vs. 8/24, p=0.005), and worse outcomes, with early death or a requirement for ventilator support (4/4 vs. 2/12, p=0.008). Conclusions Homozygous deletion in SMN1 and a concurrent NAIP deletion were associated with an early onset, severe hypotonia, and worse outcome in SMA patients. Deletion analysis of NAIP and SMN1 can help to accurately predict prognostic outcomes in SMA.

Prediction and visualization of CYP2D6 genotype-based phenotype using clustering algorithms

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Shin, Sang-Goo;Shin, Jae-Gook
    • Translational and Clinical Pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2017
  • This study focused on the role of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotypes to predict phenotypes in the metabolism of dextromethorphan. CYP2D6 genotypes and metabolic ratios (MRs) of dextromethorphan were determined in 201 Koreans. Unsupervised clustering algorithms, hierarchical and k-means clustering analysis, and color visualizations of CYP2D6 activity were performed on a subset of 130 subjects. A total of 23 different genotypes were identified, five of which were observed in one subject. Phenotype classifications were based on the means, medians, and standard deviations of the log MR values for each genotype. Color visualization was used to display the mean and median of each genotype as different color intensities. Cutoff values were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves from the k-means analysis, and the data were validated in the remaining subset of 71 subjects. Using the two highest silhouette values, the selected numbers of clusters were three (the best) and four. The findings from the two clustering algorithms were similar to those of other studies, classifying $^*5/^*5$ as a lowest activity group and genotypes containing duplicated alleles (i.e., $CYP2D6^*1/^*2N$) as a highest activity group. The validation of the k-means clustering results with data from the 71 subjects revealed relatively high concordance rates: 92.8% and 73.9% in three and four clusters, respectively. Additionally, color visualization allowed for rapid interpretation of results. Although the clustering approach to predict CYP2D6 phenotype from CYP2D6 genotype is not fully complete, it provides general information about the genotype to phenotype relationship, including rare genotypes with only one subject.

A frameshift mutation in the TRPS1 gene showing a mild phenotype of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type 1

  • Park, Jin-Mo;Lee, Yun Jeong;Park, Jin-Sung
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 2018
  • Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a hereditary disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. A mutation of the TRPS1 gene leads to TRPS type I or type III. A 20-year-old male patient visited our neurologic department with chronic fatigue. He presented with short stature, sparse hair, pear-shaped nose, and brachydactyly. Radiologic study showed short metacarpals, metatarsals with cone-shaped epiphyses, hypoplastic femur and hip joint. Panel sequencing for OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) listed genes revealed a de novo heterozygous frameshift mutation of c.1801_1802delGA (p.Arg601Lysfs*3) of exon 4 of the TRPS1 gene. The diagnosis of TRPS can be challenging due to the rarity and variable phenotype of the disease, clinicians should be aware of its characteristic clinical features that will lead a higher rate of diagnosis.

Studies on the Hemoglobin Phenotype in Formosan Deer (Cervus nippon) (꽃사슴(Formosan deer)의 Hemoglobin형(型)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lim, Young-jae;Suzuki, Shozo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.31-35
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    • 1984
  • The hemoglobin phenotype and the gene frequencies of 44 Formosan deer(Cervus nippon) in Kyung-Gi area were examined by using cellulose acetate and starch gel electrophoresis. 1. The method of cellulose acetate electrophoresis was simplier, more clear and preserative than starch gel electrophoresis. 2. The hemoglobin phenotype was appeared 3 types as $Hb^F$ $Hb^{FS}$ and $Hb^S$. The frequencies of appearance were $Hb^F$ 47.7%, $Hb^{FS}$ 47.7% and $Hb^S$ 4.5%, respectively. 3. The genetic factors of hemoglobin were observed as $Hb^F$ and $Hb^S$ and the rates of gene frequencies were 71.6% and 28.4%, respectively.

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Genotypic Responses to Cytokinin Requirements in Callus Culture of Korean Varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (강남콩(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) 국내품종의 조직배양에서 유전자형에 따른 Cytokinin 요구성)

  • Kim, Sang-Gu
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 1984
  • Callus culture of Phaseolus vulgaris L. was carried out to examine the ability to grow on cytokinin-free medium. Of the sixteen cultivars of P. vulgaris, eight were classified as completely cytokinin-autonomous phenotype and five were found to be cytokinin-dependent phenotype. Intermediate phenotype was shown in three cultivars. Using cv. Palgong and ca 21 as cytokinin-dependent genotypes, the genotype responses to the cytokinin requirements of callus tissue were studied in detail. The callus tissue of cv. Palgong and ca 21 were never habituated in cytokinin-free medium, regardless tissue origin and cytokinin concentration in previous passages. The result suggests that cytokinin dependency of callus tissue of P. vulgaris cv. Palgong and ca 21 may be due to inactivation of cytokinin biosynthetic pathway.

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Novel recessive mutations of COL6A1 identified in the early severe phenotype of ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy

  • Park, Young-Eun;Shin, Jin-Hong;Kim, Hyang-Sook;Kim, Dae-Seong
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.89-92
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    • 2018
  • Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) is caused by mutations in one of three genes encoding collagen VI. Although UCMD usually shows an early onset, progressive weakness, contractures and hyperlaxity of the joints, and respiratory failure, it is well known to exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical severities. The severities of the phenotypic subtypes are mainly divided according to the ambulation status. We report a patient with the early-severe phenotype of UCMD who was diagnosed by the detection of novel recessive mutations in COL6A1.

Role of glutaredoxinl in culmination of Dictyostelium discoideum

  • Park, Chang-Hoon;Yim, Hyung-Soon;Kang, Sa-Ouk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.60-60
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    • 2003
  • GSH-dependent glutaredoxinl (Grxl) was characterized in Dictyostelium discoideum. After starvation, the mRNA levels of grx1 gene increased during aggregation, thereafter decreased up to tip formation and increased again during culmination. To investigate the function of Grxl, the protein was overexpressed in D. discoideum using actinl5 promoter, The phenotype analysis on Grxl-overexpressed cells showed the maintenance of slug stage for a long period and delayed culmination under dark condition. To corroborate these phenotype by the enzyme, the two mutant forms of Grxl (C21S and C24S) were overexpressed in D. discoideum. The phenotype of two mutant cells represented no slug formation and the early culmination on dark condition. These results indicate that Grxl might regulate the transition from slug to culminant in darkness.

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Caffeine-induced food-avoidance behavior is mediated by neuroendocrine signals in Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Min, Hyemin;Youn, Esther;Kawasaki, Ichiro;Shim, Yhong-Hee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2017
  • High-dose caffeine uptake is a developmental stressor and causes food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype) in C. elegans, but its mode of action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of the caffeine-induced aversion behavior in C. elegans. We found that aversion phenotype induced by 30 mM caffeine was mediated by JNK/MAPK pathway, serotonergic and dopaminergic neuroendocrine signals. In this process, the dopaminergic signaling appears to be the major pathway because the reduced aversion behavior in cat-2 mutants and mutants of JNK/MAPK pathway genes was significantly recovered by pretreatment with dopamine. RNAi depletion of hsp-16.2, a cytosolic chaperone, and cyp-35A family reduced the aversion phenotype, which was further reduced in cat-2 mutants, suggesting that dopaminergic signal is indeed dominantly required for the caffeine-induced food aversion. Our findings suggest that aversion behavior is a defense mechanism for worms to survive under the high-dose caffeine conditions.

Arabidopsis AMY1 expressions and early flowering mutant phenotype

  • Jie, Wang;Dashi, Yu;XinHong, Guo;Xuanming, Liu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 2009
  • The homozygous T-DNA mutant of the AMY1 gene in Arabidopsis was identified and importantly, shown to cause an early flowering phenotype. We found that the disruption of AMY1 enhanced expression of CO and FT. The expression analyses of genes related to starch metabolism revealed that expression of the AGPase small subunit APS1 in the wild type was higher than in the amy1 mutant. However, there were no significant differences in expression levels of the AGPase large subunit genes ApL1, AMY2, or AMY3 between wild type and the amy1 mutant. Expression profiling showed that AMY1 was highly expressed in leaves, stems, and flowers, and expressed less in leafstalks and roots. Furthermore, the level of AMY1 mRNA was highly elevated with age and in senescing leaves. RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of AMY1 was induced by heat shock, GA, and ABA, while salt stress had no apparent effect on its expression.