• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenotype

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ACTIVATION OF PI3K IS NOT SUFFICIENT, BUT REQUIRED FOR H-Ras-INDUCED INVASIVE PHENOTYPE IN MCFIOA CELLS

  • Shin, Il-Chung;Aree Moon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.156-156
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    • 2001
  • We have previously shown that H-ras, but N-ras, induces an invasiveness and cell motility in human breast epithelial cells (MCFl0A), while both H-ras and N-ras induce transformed phenotype. It has been recently shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role on cell migration. In the present study, we wished to investigate the functional role of PI3K in H-ras-induced invasive phenotype in MCF10A cells.(omitted)

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Plasmid Linkage of Bacteriocin Production and Sucrose Fermentation Phenotypes in Pediococcus acidilactici M

  • Kim, Wang-June;Ha, Duk-Mo
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 1991
  • Pediococcus acidilactici strain M produced a bacteriocin which was proteinaceous, heat stable, and exhibited antimicrobial activity against lactic acid bacteria, variety of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was not caused by $H_2$$O_2$ and organic acid, and was remained between pHs of 4.0 to 9. Molecular weight of crude bacteriocin was approximately 2, 500. Phenotypic assignment after plasmid cruing experiment demonstrated that a 53.7 kilobase (kb) plasmid, designated as pSUC53, was responsible for the sucrose fermentation phenotype ($Suc^+$) and a 11.1 kb plasmid, designated as pBAC11, was associated with bacteriocin production phenotype ($Bac^+$). Neither of the two plasmids were linked to antibiotic resistance.

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Higher levels of serum triglyceride and dietary carbohydrate intake are associated with smaller LDL particle size in healthy Korean women

  • Kim, Oh-Yoen;Chung, Hye-Kyung;Shin, Min-Jeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors that characterize low density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and the levels of LDL particle size in healthy Korean women. In 57 healthy Korean women (mean age, $57.4{\pm}13.1$ yrs), anthropometric and biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles and LDL particle size were measured. Dietary intake was estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The study subjects were divided into two groups: LDL phenotype A (mean size: $269.7{\AA}$, n = 44) and LDL phenotype B (mean size: $248.2{\AA}$, n = 13). Basic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The phenotype B group had a higher body mass index, higher serum levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo)B, and apoCIII but lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL particle size than those of the phenotype A group. LDL particle size was negatively correlated with serum levels of triglyceride (r = -0.732, $P$ < 0.001), total-cholesterol, apoB, and apoCIII, as well as carbohydrate intake (%En) and positively correlated with serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 and fat intake (%En). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that carbohydrate intake (%En) and serum triglyceride levels were the primary factors influencing LDL particle size ($P$ < 0.001, $R^2$ = 0.577). This result confirmed that LDL particle size was closely correlated with circulating triglycerides and demonstrated that particle size is significantly associated with dietary carbohydrate in Korean women.

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Becker Muscular Dystrophy Confirmed by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in a Large Cohort

  • Vengalil, Seena;Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani;Polavarapu, Kiran;Mahadevappa, Manjunath;Sekar, Deepha;Purushottam, Meera;Thomas, Priya Treesa;Nashi, Saraswathi;Nalini, Atchayaram
    • Journal of clinical neurology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2017
  • Background and Purpose Studies of cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have determined the clinical characteristics, genotype, and relations between the reading frame and phenotype for different countries. This is the first such study from India. Methods A retrospective genotype-phenotype analysis of 317 MLPA-confirmed patients with DMD or BMD who visited the neuromuscular clinic of a quaternary referral center in southern India. Results The 317 patients comprised 279 cases of DMD (88%), 32 of BMD (10.1%), and 6 of intermediate phenotype (1.9%). Deletions accounted for 91.8% of cases, with duplications causing the remaining 8.2%. There were 254 cases of DMD (91%) with deletions and 25 (9%) due to duplications, and 31 cases (96.8%) of BMD with deletions and 1 (3.2%) due to duplication. All six cases of intermediate type were due to deletions. The most-common mutation was a single-exon deletion. Deletions of six or fewer exons constituted 68.8% of cases. The deletion of exon 50 was the most common. The reading-frame rule held in 90% of DMD and 94% of BMD cases. A tendency toward a lower IQ and earlier wheelchair dependence was observed with distal exon deletions, though a significant correlation was not found. Conclusions The reading-frame rule held in 90% to 94% of children, which is consistent with reports from other parts of the world. However, testing by MLPA is a limitation, and advanced sequencing methods including analysis of the structure of mutant dystrophin is needed for more-accurate assessments of the genotype-phenotype correlation.

Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 on the H-ras-Induced Invasive Phenotype in Human Breast Epithelial Cells and Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

  • Kim, Mi-Sung;Won, Ju-Hye;Aree Moon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.569-575
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    • 1998
  • One of the most frequent dejects in human cancer is the uncontrolled activation of the ms-signaling pathways. Significant evidence has accumulated to directly implicate members of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor invasion and metastasis formation. We have previously shown that MMP-9 expression was significantly enhanced in the ras-tranfected HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells at the mRNA level. In the present study, we investigated the roles of MMP-2 and -9 on the H-ras-induced invasive phenotypes of MCF 10A human breast epithelial cells and HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. We show that H-ras is able to induce or enhance a signaling pathway leading to the enhancement of an invasive phenotype in both MCF10A and HT1080 cells as determined by matrigel invasion assay. We then examined the effect of H-ras activation on the expression of MMP-2 and -9 by measuring enzymatic activities and mRNA levels. Our data clearly demonstrated that H-ras prominently induces expression of MMP-2 in MCF10A cells, while it efficiently up regulates MMP-9 in HT1080 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the correlation between ras-mediated invasiveness and enhanced expression of MMPs may be cell type-specific: MMP-9 is closely associated with the invasive phenotype induced by ras activation in fibrosarcoma cells, whereas MMP-2 is more likely associated with it in epithelial cells.

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Diversity of Macrophomina phaseolina Based on Morphological and Genotypic Characteristics in Iran

  • Mahdizadeh, Valiollah;Safaie, Naser;Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.128-137
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    • 2011
  • Fifty two Macrophomina phaseolina isolates were recovered from 24 host plant species through the 14 Iranian provinces. All isolates were confirmed to species using species-specific primers. The colony characteristics of each isolate were recorded, including chlorate phenotype, relative growth rate at $30^{\circ}C$ and $37^{\circ}C$, average size of microsclerotia, and time to microsclerotia formation. The feathery colony phenotype was the most common (63.7%) on the chlorate selective medium and represented the chlorate sensitive phenotype of the Iranian Macrophomina phaseolina population. Meantime, inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) Markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of the fungus. Unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic means (UPGMA) clustering of data showed that isolates did not clearly differentiate to the specific group according to the host or geographical origins, however, usually the isolates from the same host or the same geographic origin tend to group nearly. Our results did not show a correlation between the genetic diversity based on the ISSR and phenotypic characteristics. Similar to the M. phaseolina populations in the other countries, the Iranian isolates were highly diverse based on the phenotypic and the genotypic characteristics investigated and needs more studies using neutral molecular tools to get a deeper insight into this complex species.

Mouse phenogenomics, toolbox for functional annotation of human genome

  • Kim, Il-Yong;Shin, Jae-Hoon;Seong, Je-Kyung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.79-90
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    • 2010
  • Mouse models are crucial for the functional annotation of human genome. Gene modification techniques including gene targeting and gene trap in mouse have provided powerful tools in the form of genetically engineered mice (GEM) for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of human diseases. Several international consortium and programs are under way to deliver mutations in every gene in mouse genome. The information from studying these GEM can be shared through international collaboration. However, there are many limitations in utility because not all human genes are knocked out in mouse and they are not yet phenotypically characterized by standardized ways which is required for sharing and evaluating data from GEM. The recent improvement in mouse genetics has now moved the bottleneck in mouse functional genomics from the production of GEM to the systematic mouse phenotype analysis of GEM. Enhanced, reproducible and comprehensive mouse phenotype analysis has thus emerged as a prerequisite for effectively engaging the phenotyping bottleneck. In this review, current information on systematic mouse phenotype analysis and an issue-oriented perspective will be provided.

Effects of Red Ginseng on Neonatal Hypoxia-induced Hyperacitivity Phenotype in Rats

  • Kim, Hee-Jin;Joo, So-Hyun;Choi, In-Ha;Kim, Pitna;Kim, Min-Kyoung;Park, Seung-Hwa;Cheong, Jae-Hoon;Shin, Chan-Young
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2010
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 4-12% of chool-age children worldwide and is characterized by three core symptoms: hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Although standard pharmacological treatments, such as methylphenidate and atomoxetine, are available, concerns about drug-induced psychological and cardiovascular problems, as well as growth retardation and sleep disturbances, highlight the continuing need for new therapeutic interventions. Using a neonatal hypoxia-induced hyperactivity model in rats, the potential positive role that oral administration of red ginseng extract may have in relation to the hyperactive phenotype was investigated. Hypoxia was induced in 2-day-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat pups by placing them in a nitrogen chamber for 15 min. The neonatal hypoxia-induced rats showed a significant increase in hyperactivity phenotype, such as increased movement duration, movement distance, and rearing frequency, which was determined by monitoring their spontaneous locomotor activity using the Ethovision video tracking system. One week of oral treatment with red ginseng extract decreased the hyperactivity phenotype of the neonatal hypoxia-induced rats and increased the locomotor activity of the control rats. In the neonatal hypoxia-induced rats, expression of the norepinephrine transporter in the forebrain was increased, and red ginseng treatment partially prevented its up-regulation, while increasing its level in the control rats. Taken together, these results suggest that red ginseng extract decreased the neonatal hypoxia-induced hyperactivity phenotype, although it increased locomotor activity in normal animals.

Modified Binary Particle Swarm Optimization using Genotype-Phenotype Concept (Version 2) (유전자형-표현형 개념을 적용한 수정된 이진 입자군집최적화 (버전 2))

  • Lim, Seungkyun;Lee, Sangwook
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.541-548
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we introduce a second version of modified binary particle swarm optimization using a concept of genotype-phenotype in genetic algorithms. Particle swarm optimization uses an information of difference between a position of the best solution and one's own position in the process of searching optimum. To obtain this difference of positions, the first version of modified binary particle swarm optimization uses a phenotype but the proposed second version uses a genotype. We can represent the solution space in large search space by using a genotype which provides continuous whole space as search space compared to a phenotype which provides only binary information. Experimental results in 10 De Jong benchmark function show that the second version outperforms the first version in six functions which has a broad search space and many local optima.

The Estrogen Receptor Negative-Progesterone Receptor Positive Breast Carcinoma is a Biological Entity and not a Technical Artifact

  • Ng, Char Hong;Pathy, Nirmala Bhoo;Taib, Nur Aishah;Mun, Kein Seong;Rhodes, Anthony;Yip, Cheng Har
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1111-1113
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    • 2012
  • The ER-/PR+ breast tumor may be the result of a false ER negative result. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in patient and tumor characteristics of the ER-/PR+ phenotype in an Asian setting. A total of 2629 breast cancer patients were categorized on the basis of their age, ethnicity, tumor hormonal receptor phenotype, grade and histological type. There were 1230 (46.8%) ER+/PR+, 306 (11.6%) ER+/PR-, 122 (4.6%) ER-/PR+ and 972 (37%) ER-/PR-. ER-/PR+ tumors were 2.5 times more likely to be younger than 50 years at diagnosis (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.72-3.67). Compared to ER+/PR+ tumors, the ER-/PR+ phenotype was twice more likely to be associated with grade 3 tumors (OR:2.02; 95%CI: 1.00-4.10). In contrast, compared to ER-/PR- tumors, the ER-/PR+ phenotype was 90% less likely to be associated with a grade 3 tumor (OR: 0.12; 95%CI:0.05-0.26), and more likely to have invasive lobular than invasive ductal histology (OR: 3.66; 95%CI: 1.47-9.11). These results show that the ER-/PR+ phenotype occurs in a younger age group and is associated with intermediate histopathological characteristics compared to ER+/PR+ and ER-/PR- tumors. This may imply that it is a distinct entity and not a technical artifact.