• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenotype

Search Result 1,246, Processing Time 0.042 seconds

Effect of 2-D DBP/PLGA Hybrid Films on Attachment and Proliferation of Intervertebral Disc Cells (2차원적 DBP/PLGA 하이브리드 필름이 디스크 세포의 부착과 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Youn-Kyung;Jeong, Jae-Soo;Kim, Soon-Hee;Lim, Ji-Ye;Rhee, John-M.;Kim, Moon-Suk;Lee, Hai-Bang;Khang, Gil-Son
    • Polymer Korea
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.109-115
    • /
    • 2008
  • Because demineralized bone particle (DBP) contains various bioactive molecules such as cytokines, it is widely used biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering. In this study, we investigated the effect of 2-dimensional DBP/PLGA hybrid films on adhesion, proliferation and phenotype maintenance of intervertebral disc cells. PLGA films incorporated with different amount (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 wt%) of DBP were prepared by the solvent evaporation method and characterized by scanning election microscopy (SEM). PLGA film has a flat and smooth surface. According to the increase of content of DBP, the surface of DBP/PLGA film exhibited few agglomerates and increased the roughness of the surface. Annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on PLGA and DBP/PLGA film surface, and then examined the cell adhesion and proliferation by the cell count and SEM observation. The result of cell count and SEM observation revealed that 10 and 20% DBP in DBP/PLGA films were superior to adhesion and proliferation of both AF and NP cells. We confirmed that specific gene expression of disc cells on DBP/PLGA film based on the cell count result. Disc cells seeded on 20% DBP/PLGA film expressed the gene of type I and II collagen continuously. Therefore, pertinent content of biomaterials could provide more appropriate condition on adhesion and proliferation of cell. And this results may be used as a basic data for the intervertebral disc regeneration using tissue engineering.

The Effect of Uteroglobin on cPLA2, COX-2 Expression and ERK Activation in NSCLC Cells (비소세포 폐암세포에서 Uteroglobin의 이입에 의한 cPLA2와 COX-2 발현 및 ERK 활성의 변화)

  • Kim, Woo Jin;Yoon, Jung Min;Lee, Kyoung Hee;Han, Seon Jin;Shin, Won Hyuk;Yim, Jae-Joon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Lee, Choon Taek;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Kim, Young Whan
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.56 no.6
    • /
    • pp.638-645
    • /
    • 2004
  • Background : Uteroglobin is a protein produced by the normal bronchial epithelium and its expression level is lower in non-small cell lung cancer tissues and cell lines. It mainly functions as an anti-inflammatory, and when it is overexpressed in cancer cells, the neoplastic phenotype is antagonized. cPLA2 and COX-2, which are also associated with inflammation, were reported to be related to cancer. The relationship between cPLA2, COX-2 and uteroglobin is unclear. The relationship between uteroglobin and ERK, which is related to cell growth, is also not unclear. This study investigated the changes in the cPLA2 and COX-2 expression levels and the ERK activities after the overexpression of uteroglobin in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Methods : The A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines were infected by adenovirus-null and adenovirusuteroglobin. The cChange in the cPLA2, COX-2 expression level and ERK activity after uteroglobin overexpression was measured by Western blot. The change in MMP activity was measured by zymography. Results : Western blot revealed decreased expression levels of cPLA2, and COX-2, and increased pERK levels in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells after uteroglobin overexpression. Zymography revealed no changes in the MMP-2 activity and lower MMP-9 activity. U0126, which is a specific inhibitor of ERK-activating kinase MEK-1/-2, prevented the decrease in the MMP-9 activity Conclusions : A decrease in cPLA2 expression, COX-2 expression, MMP-9 activity and a increase in ERK activity may be related to the anticancer effects of uteroglobin in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells.

AGL gene mutation and clinical features in Korean patients with glycogen storage disease type III

  • Ko, Jung-Min;Kim, Gu-Hwan;Yoo, Han-Wook
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.72-79
    • /
    • 2007
  • Purpose : Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD-III) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism. The affected enzyme, amylo-1,6-glucosidase, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (AGL, glycogen debranching enzyme), is responsible for the debranching of the glycogen molecule during catabolism. The disease shows clinical and biochemical heterogeneity, reflecting genotype-phenotype heterogeneity among different patients. In this study, we aim at analyzing mutations of the AGL gene in three unrelated Korean GSD-III patients, and characterizing their clinical and laboratory findings. Methods : We characterized the clinical features of three unrelated Korean GSD-III patients by biochemical, histological and imaging studies. The 35 exons and part of exon-intron boundaries of AGL were analyzed by direct sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral leukocytes of patients. Results : Diverse clinical features were observed in these patients including hepatomegaly (all patients), seizures (patient 2), grow th failure (patients 1 and 2), hyperlipidemia (patients 1 and 3), raised transaminase and creatine kinase concentrations (all patients), and mild cardiomyopathy (patient 2). Liver transplantation w as performed in patient 2 due to progressive hepatic fibrosis. A dministration of uncooked corn starch maintained normoglycemia and improved biochemical and growth profiles. DNA sequence analysis revealed mutations in 5 out of 6 alleles. Patient 1 was a compound heterozygote of c.1282 G>A (p.R428K) and c.1306delA (p.S603PfsX6), patient 2 had c.1510_1511insT (p.Y 504L fsX 10), and patient 3 had c.3416 T >C (p.L 1139P) and c.1735+1 G>T (p.Y 538_R578delfsX 4) mutations. A part from the p.R428K mutation, the 4 other substitutions identified w ere nov el. Conclusion : GSD-III patients display variable phenotypic characteristics resembling those of GSD-Ia. Molecular defects in the AGL gene of Korean GSD-III patients are genetically heterogeneous.

  • PDF

Genetic analysis of seed characters in parents and F1 hybrid of rice (벼의 종자특성에 대한 유전분석)

  • Chung, Won-Bok;Oh, Ju-Sung;Hwang, Pil-Seong
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.493-497
    • /
    • 2007
  • The study were performed genetic analysis for seed characters of 6 parents of rice cultivar and 15 $F_1$ hybrids. In terms of heritability, The highest value was observed in the character of No. of grains/spike. Second values was showed 1,000 grains weight and head rice ratio was high value than grain length and width. In an analysis of correlation relation of parent, significant positive coefficients were observed in head rice ratio and No. of grains/spike, grain length and 1,000 grains weight, but the negative coefficients were significantly revealed between grain length and No. of grains/spike. Phenotype coefficient was lowly observed in the relation of grain length and 1,000 grains weight, grain width and 1,000 grain weight that highly positive genetic coefficient was showed in an analysis of correlation relation of $F_1$. In terms of heterosis, highest value was showed 1,000 grains weight and second value was No. of grains per spike and 1,000 grains weight and second value was No. of grains per spike in terms of heterobeltiosis. In an analysis heterosis of among crossing combination, high ratio was observed 1st combination at seed length, 12th combination at seed width, 3rd combination at head rice ratio, 5th combination at 1,000 grains weight and 11th combination at No. of grains per spike. In an analysis heterobeltiosis of among crossing combination, high ratio was observed 1st combination at seed length, 12th combination at seed width, 3rd combination at head rice ratio, th combination at 1,000 grains weight and 11th combination at No. of grains per spike.

Biochemical Characteristics for the Cofactor Free Mutant of Yeast Homocysteine Catalyzing Enzyme, Cystathionine ${\beta}$-Synthase (조효소를 함유하지 않는 효모의 Homocysteine 분해효소, Cystathionine ${\beta}$-Synthase의 생화학적 특성)

  • Jhee, Kwang-Hwan;Cho, Hyun-Nam;Yang, Seun-Ah;Lee, In-Seun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.35 no.3
    • /
    • pp.196-202
    • /
    • 2007
  • Mutations in the cystathionine ${\beta}$-synthase (CBS) gene cause homocystinuria, the most frequent inherited disorder in sulfur metabolism. CBS is the unique enzyme using both heme and pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) for activity. Among the reported 140 mutations, one of the most common disease-causing alterations in human CBS is G307S mutation. To investigate the pathogenic mechanism of G307S by spectroscopic methods, we engineered the full length and the truncated G247S mutation of yeast CBS that is corresponding mutation to human G307S. Yeast CBS does not contain heme and thus gives a merit to study the spectroscopic properties. The UV-visible spectra of the purified full length and the truncated G247S yeast CBSs showed the total absence of PLP in the protein. The absence of PLP in G247S mutation was also confirmed by the PLP-cyanide adduct formation experiment, which was conducted by the incubation of the purified enzyme with KCN. The adducts were detected using a circular dichroism (CD) and a spectrofluorimeter. Radio isotope activity assay of full length and truncated G247S proteins also gave no activity. Our yeast G247S mutation data suggested that G307S might make the distortion of the active site so that cofactor PLP and substrate can not fit inside the active site. Our yeast CBS study addressed the reason why the G307S mutation in human CBS makes the enzyme inactive that consequently leads to severe clinical phenotype.

Studies on Molecular Plasticity of Bergmann Glia following Purkinje Cell Degeneration (조롱박신경세포의 변성에 따른 버그만아교세포의 면역조직학적 연구)

  • Yoon, Chul-Jong;Cho, Sa-Sun;Lee, Ha-Kyu;Park, Min-Chul
    • Applied Microscopy
    • /
    • v.35 no.3
    • /
    • pp.165-176
    • /
    • 2005
  • Studies on molecular plasticity of Bermann glia (BG) after harmaline-induced Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration in the rat cerebellum. The intimate structural relationship between BG and PC, evidenced by the sheathing of the PC dendrites by veil-like process from the BG has been suggestive of the close functional relationship between these two cell types. However, little is known about metabolic couplings between these cells. This study designed to investigate molecular plasticity of BG in the rat cerebellum in which PCs were chemically ablated by harmaline treatment. Immunohistochemical examination reveals that harmaline induced PC degeneration causes a marked glial reaction in the cerebellum with activated BG and microglia aligned in parasagittal stripes within the vermis. In these strips, activated BG were associated with upregulaion of metallotheionein, while GLAST and was down regulated, as compared with nearby intact area where both BG are in contact with PCs. The data from this study demonstrate that BG can change their phenotypic expression when BG loose their contact with PCs. It is conceivable that activated BG may upregulate structural proteins, metallothionein expression to use for their proliferation and hypertrophy; metallothionein expression to cope with oxidative stress induced by PC degeneration and microglial activation. On the contrary, BG may down regulated expression of GLAST because sustained loss of contact with PCs would eliminate the necessity for the cellular machinery involved glutamate metabolism. In conclusion, BG might respond man to death of PCs by undergoing a change in metabolic state. It seems possible that signaling molecules released from PCs regulates the phenotype expression of BG. Also ultrastructures in the organelles of normal PC and BG are distinguished by mitochondrial appearance, and distributed vesicles at the synaptic area in the cytoplasm.

ASSOCIATION STUDY OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER(ADHD) AND THE DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER(DAT1) GENE - CASE CONTROL DESIGN STUDY - (주의력결핍과잉행동 장애와 도파민 운반체 유전자간 연합연구 - 환자-대조군 디자인 연구 -)

  • Kim Boong-Nyun;Cho Soo-Churl
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
    • /
    • v.16 no.2
    • /
    • pp.199-210
    • /
    • 2005
  • Objective : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) affects $5-10\%$ of children in Korea, with more boys and girls being diagnosed. Despite seriousness of ADHD, little is known about its causes. From the current genetic epidemiologic studies, ADHD is known as a heritable disorder. Till now, however, there have been very few genetic studies about ADHD in Korea. The aim of the this study is to examine the association between dopamine transporter gone type 1 and ADHD using case-control design in Korean ADHD probands and normal controls. Materials and Method : Child Psychiatric Genetic research team in Seoul National University Hospital, Clinical Research Institute recruited the ADHD probands using clinical interview/observation, diverse rating scales, and neuropsychological tests. For eliminating phenocopy or ADHD, diagnosis of ADHD was based upon clinical data, psychometric data, and parent/teacher reports. Total 85 ADHD-probands were recruited as final study subjects and independent 100 normal adults participated in this study as control group. For all the ADHD probands, and controls, the 3'-UTR-VNTR polymorphism of DAT1 was analyzed. Based on the DAT1 allele and genotype informations, Chi-square test based on case-control design was performed. Results : As for genetic study, total of 85 probands and 100 controls were included for the genetic analysis. Four different alleles, 350bp (7repeat), 440bp (9repeat), 480bp (10repeat) and 520bp (11repeat) were found in DAT1 gene of study subjects. In case-control analysis, ADHD probands and parents have significantly more 9 repeat allele and 9/10 genotype. Also, The probands with 9repeat allele have more commission errors in ADS. Conclusion : The positive association between ADHD and DAT1 gene was replicated in this report like other previous results for caucasian children and Korean children with ADHD. There are ongoing studies on other candidate genes such as DRD4 and DRD5 and it would be required to explore the association of these candidate genes in Korean children with ADHD. These ongoing genetic research will contribute to the understanding of heterogenous genetic and environmental etiologies of ADHD phenotype, which will lead to the development of more comprehensive treatment and preventive interventions for ADHD.

  • PDF

Selection of Virulent Isolates of Fusarium circinatum and Investigation of Pitch Canker Severity of Pinus rigida and P. rigida × P. taeda Seed Orchards in Jeju Island (제주도(濟州道) 리기다 및 리기테다 채종원(採種園)에서 푸사리움가지마름병 피해도(被害度) 조사(調査) 및 병원성(病原性) 균주선발(菌株選拔))

  • Woo, Kwan-Soo;Kim, Young-Joung;Kim, Tae-Su;Lee, Seong-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
    • /
    • v.94 no.6
    • /
    • pp.402-409
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was undertaken to compare and estimate the severity of pitch canker of individual trees of Pinus rigida and Pinus rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda in two seed orchards in Jeju island, in which the orchards have been damaged by the pitch canker for seven years. Wind-pollinated two-year-old seedlings of P. rigida and P. rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda, in which the seedlings of P. rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda were from seeds of phenotypically selected, uninfected(but untested) trees, were inoculated with the pathogenic fungus, Fusarium circinatum, isolated from P. rigida and P. thunbergii. The virulence of the isolates was also identified. Statistically significant difference was found in 'stem cankers'(SC; ${\chi}^2=7.76$, P=0.05) among 4 plantations of P. rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda of two seed orchards. P. rigida was higher in 'top kill' (TK) and 'branch tip symptoms' (BT) than those of P. rigida ${\times}$ P. taeda. In artificial inoculation tests, mortality of the seedlings from the resistant candidates was 14% higher than that of the seedlings from the susceptible candidates. This result may becaused by unknown pollen trees and/or candidate tree selection based only on phenotype. Two of five fungal isolates, C-6-L(9) and C-6-L(19), showed significantly higher mortality (68% and 60%, respectively) than others, suggesting that these isolates can be used as virulent isolates for a mass artificial inoculation. Resistance candidate seedlings that were selected from this study can be utilized as useful materials for fundamental studies of genetics and biochemistry to breed resistance varieties to pitch canker.

Clinical Evaluation of Nephrotic Syndrome Manifesting in the First Year of Life (1세 이하의 소아에서 발병한 신증후군의 임상적 고찰)

  • Cho, Sung-Hee;Lee, Joo-Hoon;Cho, Young-Mi;Park, Young-Seo;Cheong, Hae-Il
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.161-169
    • /
    • 2009
  • Purpose : This study was performed to report the diagnosis and treatment of nephrotic syndrome manifesting in the first year of life. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data with chart review in 7 patients who were diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome manifesting in the first year of life from 1996 to 2007. Results : Three patients had congenital nephrotic syndrome, the other 4 patients had infantile nephrotic syndrome. Their ages ranged from birth to 11 months and male to female ratio was 1 to 6. Renal biopsies were done in 6 patients. One patient had Finnish type congenital nephrotic syndrome, 2 patients had diffuse mesangial sclerosis, 2 patients had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and 1 patient had minimal change disease. Genetic analyses of NPHS2, PLCE1, and WT1 were done in 4 patients and 2 of them had WT1 mutation. Among 3 patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome, 1 patient was diagnosed as congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type and the other 2 patients were diagnosed as Denys-Drash syndrome. All of the patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome died due to sepsis. Among 4 patients with infantile nephrotic syndrome, 2 patients died and 1 had remission, another patient progressed to end stage renal disease. Conclusion : Most of nephrotic syndrome manifesting in the first year was hereditary renal disease. Patients with nephrotic syndrome manifesting in the 3 month of life had poorer prognosis and needed more aggressive management including early dialysis and renal transplantation might be considered compared with infantile nephrotic syndrome. Further genotype-phenotype correlation studies are needed.

The Proteasome Inhibitor MG132 Sensitizes Lung Cancer Cells to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis by Inhibiting NF-κ Activation (폐암세포주에서 NFκ 활성 억제를 통한 Proteasome 억제제 MG132의 TRAIL-유도성 Apoptosis 감작 효과)

  • Seo, Pil Won;Lee, Kye Young
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.65 no.6
    • /
    • pp.476-486
    • /
    • 2008
  • Background: TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a newly identified member of the TNF gene family which appears to have tumor-selective cytotoxicity due to the distinct decoy receptor system. TRAIL has direct access to caspase machinery and induces apoptosis regardless of p53 phenotype. Therefore, TRAIL has a therapeutic potential in lung cancer which frequently harbors p53 mutation in more than 50% of cases. However, it was shown that TRAIL also could activates $NF-{\kappa}B$ in some cell lines which might inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This study was designed to investigate whether TRAIL can activate $NF-{\kappa}B$ in lung cancer cell lines relatively resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and inhibition of $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation using proteasome inhibitor MG132 which blocks $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation can sensitize lung cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods: A549 (wt p53) and NCI-H1299 (null p53) lung cancer cells were used and cell viability test was done by MTT assay. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V assay followed by FACS analysis. To study $NF-{\kappa}B$-dependent transcriptional activation, a luciferase reporter gene assay was used after making A549 and NCI-H1299 cells stably transfected with IgG ${\kappa}-NF-{\kappa}B$ luciferase construct. To investigate DNA binding of $NF-{\kappa}B$ activated by TRAIL, electromobility shift assay was used and supershift assay was done using anti-p65 antibody. Western blot was done for the study of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation. Results: A549 and NCI-H1299 cells were relatively resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis showing only 20~30% cell death even at the concentration 100 ng/ml, but MG132 ($3{\mu}M$) pre-treatment 1 hour prior to TRAIL addition greatly increased cell death more than 80%. Luciferase assay showed TRAIL-induced $NF-{\kappa}B$ transcriptional activity in both cell lines. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated DNA binding complex of $NF-{\kappa}B$ activated by TRAIL and supershift with p65 antibody. $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was proven by western blot. MG132 completely blocked both TRAIL-induced $NF-{\kappa}B$ dependent luciferase activity and DNA binding of $NF-{\kappa}B$. Conclusion: This results suggest that inhibition of $NF-{\kappa}B$ can be a potentially useful strategy to enhance TRAIL-induced tumor cell killing in lung cancer.