• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenoloxidase

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Study on the Inoculation Augmentation of paecizomyces japonicus to the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Using Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone을 이용한 누에(Bombyx mori)에 대한 동충하초균 (Paecilomyces japonicus)의 접종율 제고에 관한 연구)

  • 김길호;박영진;김용균;이영인
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2001
  • Entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces japonicus, has been commercially used as medicinal purpose . The silkworm, Bombyx mori, as an optimal host for the fungi, has been selected and used for the production of the fungal fruit bodies. In current method, newly molted fifth instal larvae should be exposed to the adverse stress environment of high temperature (3$0^{\circ}C$), high relative humidity ( 90%), and starvation for 24h for better fungal inoculation to the host insects. In this study, an alternative method using chemical agent, dexamethasone (DEX: an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor), was tried to get the immunodepressive effect on the larvae to elevate the inoculation rate of the fungi to the silkworm without any harsh rearing environment. DEX (100$\mu\textrm{g}$) showed significantly synergistic effect on the hemocyte lethality of the fungus, and was effective to decrease cellular immune responses measured by the number of hemocyte microaggregation and phenoloxidase activity of the fifth instar larvae in response to the fungal injection. A detergent of 0.05% Triton-X was effective to increase the in- oculation rate of the fungi to the larvae and used in all fungal spraying solutions. Without any environ- mental stress treatment, only DEX (100$\mu\textrm{g}$) injection to the fifth instar larvae followed by the fungal spray was effective to get the inoculation rate equivalent to the current fungal spray method requiring harsh rearing environment. These results suggest that the inoculation of P. japonicus can be elevated by the help of DEX and that the silkworms use eicosanoids to elicit cellular immune response against fungal pathogen.

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Structure-activity Analysis of Benzylideneacetone for Effective Control of Plant Pests (벤질리덴아세톤 화학구조 변이에 따른 생리활성 변화 분석 및 식물 병해충 방제 효과)

  • Seo, Sam-Yeol;Jun, Mi-Hyun;Chun, Won-Su;Lee, Sung-Hong;Seo, Ji-Ae;Yi, Young-Keun;Hong, Yong-Pyo;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2011
  • Benzylideneacetone (BZA) is a compound derived from culture broth of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila (Xn). Its immunosuppressive activity is caused by its inhibitory activity against eicosanoid biosynthesis. This BZA is being developed as an additive to enhance control efficacy of other commercial microbial insecticides. This study was focused on the enhancement of the immunosuppressive activity of BZA by generating its chemical derivatives toward decrease of its hydrophobicity. Two hydroxylated BZA and one sugar-conjugated BZA were chemically synthesized. All derivatives had the inhibitory activities of BZA against phospholipase $A_2$ ($PLA_2$) and phenoloxidase (PO) of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, but BZA was the most potent. Mixtures of any BZA derivative with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) significantly increased pathogenicity of Bt. BZA also inhibited colony growth of four plant pathogenic fungi. However, BZA derivatives (especially the sugar-conjugated BZA) lost the antifungal activity. These results indicated that BZA and its derivatives inhibited catalytic activities of two immune-associated enzymes ($PLA_2$ and PO) of P. xylostella and enhanced Bt pathogenicity. We suggest its use to control plant pathogenic fungi.

Assessment of Environmental Pollution in Korean Stream Sediments by Chemical Analyses and Insect Immune Biomarkers

  • Ryoo, Keon-Sang;Byun, Sang-Hyuk;Hong, Yong-Pyo;Cho, Ki-Jong;Bae, Yeon-Jae;Kim, Yong-Gyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.330-342
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    • 2008
  • A comprehensive quality survey for PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs as well as heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediments has been investigated in August 2006, Korea. Monitoring was undertaken at five streams representing different surrounding environments throughout Juwang and Gapyeong streams (reference sites), Jungrang stream (dense population site), Ansan stream (mixed small population and industrial site), and Siheung stream (heavy industrial site). The levels of heavy metal in samples were found to be significantly higher in sediment from Siheung stream compared to those of other stream sites. The heavy metal concentrations (dry weight basis) in sediment from Siheung stream were as follows; Cd (3.7 ${\mu}g$/g), Pb (1,295 ${\mu}g$/g), Cu (713.4 ${\mu}g$/g) and Zn (358.1 ${\mu}g$/g). Among 12 coplanar PCBs and 17 PCDDs/PCDFs selected as target compounds in this study, PCB (IUPAC no. 118) and OCDD were the most abundant congeners found in all sediment samples, followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8HpCDF as well as PCB (IUPAC no. 105). These results were shown to be in the same trend as the sediment samples of other countries. The levels of PCDDs/PCDFs/coplanar PCBs in sediment samples were expressed as concentrations and WHO- TEQ values. The PCDDs/PCDFs/coplanar PCBs concentrations and their WHO-TEQ values in sediment from Siheung stream were remarkably high. The levels detected were 788.16 pg/g and 36.080 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry weight for PCDDs/ PCDFs and 314 pg/g and 0.4189 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry weight for coplanar PCBs, respectively, beyond the safety level of sediment value 20 pg WHO-TEQ/g. Sediment samples of the five streams were also monitored by sensitive biomarkers using insect immune responses: hemocyte-spreading behavior and immune-associated enzyme activities of phospholipase A$_2$ (PLA$_2$) and phenoloxidase. Organic extracts of Siheung and Jungrang sediments significantly interfered with the hemocytespreading behavior, whereas those of Ansan, Gapyeong, and Juwang did not. These organic extracts did not inhibit the PLA$_2$ and phenoloxidase activities. However, phenoloxidase was highly susceptible to exposure to aqueous extracts in all site sediments. In comparison, PLA$_2$ activities of the hemocytes were significantly inhibited only by aqueous extracts of Siheung, Jungrang, and Gapyeong sediments, but not by those of Ansan and Juwang. Despite some disparity between bioand chemical monitoring results, the biomarkers can be recommended as a device warning the contamination of biohazard environmental chemicals because of a fast and inexpensive detection method.

Morphological aspects of white-rot degraded oak wood by Trametes versicolor (Trametes versicolor에 의한 상수리나무의 분해형태)

  • Yoo, Tae-Bang;Yoon, Min-Ho;Choi, Woo-Young;Lee, Jong-Shin
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2001
  • Trametes versicolor(CV5) selected as a white-rot fungus with strong lignin degrading activity, in the previous paper, was investigated on a properties of degradation of wood lignin. Lignins of hardwoods, especially oak(Querous acutissima carruth) an paulownia (Paulownia coreana Uyeki) were considerably delignified by the CV5, however, softwoods used in this experiment were not delignified. Bavendamm's reaction was positive with several phenols on agar plates for the confirmation of a phenoloxidase secreted Through the morphologies of decayed wood chip observed with the aid of scanning electron microscopy, it was found that the hypha of CV5 penetrated the ray cells and vessels caused separation of the wood cellulose.

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Purification and characterization of a 1,3-β-D-glucan recognition protein from Antheraea pernyi larve that is regulated after a specific immune challenge

  • Youlei, Ma;Jinghai, Zhang;Yuntao, Zhang;Jiaoshu, Lin;Tianyi, Wang;Chunfu, Wu;Rong, Zhang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.264-269
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    • 2013
  • Pattern recognition receptors are known to participate in the activation of Prophenoloxidase system. In this study, a 1,3-${\beta}$-D-glucan recognition protein was detected for the first time in Antheraea pernyi larvae (Ap-${\beta}GRP$). Ap-${\beta}GRP$ was purified to 99.9% homogeneity from the hemolymph using traditional chromatographic methods. Ap-${\beta}GRP$ specifically bind 1,3-${\beta}$-D-glucan and yeast, but not E. coli or M. luteus. The 1,3-${\beta}$-D-glucan dependent phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the hemolymph inhibited by anti-Ap-${\beta}GRP$ antibody could be recovered by addition of purified Ap-${\beta}GRP$. These results demonstrate that Ap-${\beta}GRP$ acts as a biosensor of 1,3-${\beta}$-Dglucan to trigger the Prophenoloxidase system. A trace mount of 1,3-${\beta}$-D-glucan or Ap-${\beta}GRP$ alone was unable to trigger the proPO system, but they both did. Ap-${\beta}GRP$ was specifically degraded following the activation of proPO with 1,3-${\beta}$-Dglucan. These results indicate the variation in the amount of Ap-${\beta}GRP$ after specific immune challenge in A. pernyi hemolymph is an important regulation mechanism to immune response.

Catechin Dimer (Catechin 이합체)

  • Ahn, Byung-Zun
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.41-53
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    • 1979
  • A 6', 8a-bonded catechin dimer was synthesized by action of phenoloxidase on 2mol (+)-catechins. The same dimer and other two dimers which are also 6', 8a-bonded were isolated from the fresh cortex of Quercus robur. The 4, 8a-bonded and the etherified 4, 8a-bonded dimers were isolated from it. It was discussed about the meaning of the enzymatically produced 6', 8a-bonded dimers in plant cell. The isolated dimers are as following: 1. 6', 8a-bonded dimers: (+)-catechin-(+)-catechin-6', 8a-dimer(IX), (+)-catechin-(+)-gallocatechin-6', 8a-dimar (XIII), (+)-gallocatechin-(+)-catechin-6', 8a-dimer(XIV). 2. 4, 8a-bonded dimers: (+)-catechin-(+)-catechin-4, 8a-dimer(X), (-)-epicatechin-(+)-catechin-4, 8a-dimer (XI), (+) -galloatechin-(+)-catechin-4, 8a-dimer (XII). 3. 4,8a-bonded dimers with ether linkage: etherified(+)-catechin-(+)-catechin-4, 8a-dimer (XV), etherifid (+)-catechin-(+)-gallocatechin-4, 8a-dimer (XVI), etherified (+)-gallocatechin-(+)-catechin-4, 6a-dimer (XVII).

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Effects of spawning on immune functions in the surf clam Mactra veneriformis (Bivalvia: Mactridae)

  • Yu, Jin-Ha;Choi, Min-Chul;Jung, Eun-Bin;Park, Sung-Woo
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2011
  • The production of surf clam, Mactra veneriformis, an important fishery resource in Korea, has recently been decreasing. This study was carried out to examine effects of spawning on immune functions of this species. Total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, phagocytic activity, neutral red retention (NRR) time and antibacterial activity were assessed. Spawned clams showed reduction in THC, PO, phagocytic activity and NRR times compared with unspawned ones. While spawning event did not elicit any change of antibacterial activity in both spawned and unspawned ones. This study indicates that spawning process decreases immune functions in the surf clams which could cause mortality increment and yield reduction.

CLIP-domain serine proteases in Drosophila innate immunity

  • Jang, In-Hwan;Nam, Hyuck-Jin;Lee, Won-Jae
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2008
  • Extracellular proteases play an important role in a wide range of host physiological events, such as food digestion, extracellular matrix degradation, coagulation and immunity. Among the large extracellular protease family, serine proteases that contain a "paper clip"-like domain and are therefore referred to as CLIP-domain serine protease (clip-SP), have been found to be involved in unique biological processes, such as immunity and development. Despite the increasing amount of biochemical information available regarding the structure and function of clip-SPs, their in vivo physiological significance is not well known due to a lack of genetic studies. Recently, Drosophila has been shown to be a powerful genetic model system for the dissection of biological functions of the clip-SPs at the organism level. Here, the current knowledge regarding Drosophila clip-SPs has been summarized and future research directions to evaluate the role that clip-SPs play in Drosophila immunity are discussed.

Changes of enzyme activity in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas of the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai (Ino, 1953) exposed to cadmium (카드뮴 노출에 따른 북방전복, Haliotis discus hannai (Ino, 1953) 의 hemolymph 및 hepatopancreas의 효소활성의 변화)

  • Min, Eun-Young;Lee, Jung Sick;Kwak, Ihn-Sil;Kim, Jae Won;Kang, Ju-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on biochemical factors in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas of the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. The abalone were exposed to 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ${\mu}g/L$ Cd for 4 weeks. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity was decreased in hemolymph of abalone exposed to 40 Cd ${\mu}g/L$ for 4 weeks compared to the control (P < 0.05). The hemolymph enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were markedly elevated in 40 Cd ${\mu}g/L$ after 4 weeks. The hemolymph calcium concentrations were significantly decreased in 20 and 40 Cd ${\mu}g/L$ for 4 weeks. Hepatopancreas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly increased by Cd. SOD was increased in both 20 and 40 Cd ${\mu}g/L$ and CAT, in 40 Cd ${\mu}g/L$ after 2 weeks (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the abalone SOD and CAT including PO may serve as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress by Cd. We conclude that a Cd concentration, 40 ${\mu}g/L$ in water may curtail hemolymph homeostasis and anti-oxidative reactions in abalone hepatopancreas. From these results, these biochemical factors may represent a convenient method of monitoring heavy metal pollution in coastal areas.

Influence of Elevated Temperatures on the Physiological Response of Hemolymph from Two Species of the Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai and H. discus discus (수온 상승에 따른 북방전복, Haliotis discus hannai과 둥근전복, H. discus discus 체액의 생리학적 변화)

  • Min, Eun-Young;Lee, Jung Sick;Kim, Jae Won;Jeon, Mi Ae;Kang, Ju-Chan
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of elevated water temperature (WT) on biochemical and immunological factors in the hemolymph of the abalones, Haliotis discus hannai and H. discus discus. The abalone were exposed to various WT; 20, 22, 24, 26 and $28^{\circ}C$ for 4 days. In the control and $20^{\circ}C$, total-protein (TP), glucose and calcium (Ca) in hemolymph of H. discus discus were higher than the values in H. discus hannai. The values of magnesium (Mg), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lysozyme in H. discus hannai were similar to the H. discus discus in the control. There were no significant alterations in TP, glucose and Mg levels of hemolymph in H. discus hannai and H. discus discus by WT increases. The values of Ca, ALP and lysozyme were increased in H. discus hannai exposed to the high temperature (26 and $28^{\circ}C$) compared to control, while the values in H. discus discus were not significant difference between the WT groups. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity was increased in hemolymph of H. discus hannai exposed to high temperature (${\geq}24^{\circ}C$) compared to the control (P < 0.05). These physiological and immunological parameters were significantly changed in H. discus hannai. However, these parameters in H. discus discus were barely altered at the high WT (P < 0.05). These results suggested that H. discus hannai is considered to be more sensitive than H. discus discus at the high WT.