• Title, Summary, Keyword: Phenoloxidase

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Changes in activities of protease, phenoloxidase and cellulase during mycelium growth of Pleurotus ostreatus in sawdust cultures (톱밥배양한 느타리버섯 균사생장시 생산되는 각종 효소변화)

  • Chang, Hyun-You;Kim, Gwang-Po;Cha, Dong-Yeul
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 1996
  • Effects of various kinds of sawdusts, supplements and culture conditions on activities of several enzymes such as protease, phenoloxidase and cellulase produced from mycelium of P. ostreatus grown on sawdust medium were studied and the results are as follows; Higher specific activity of these enzymes was observed when oak tree sawdust and poplar tree sawdust were supplemented with rice bran or wheat bran at rate of 30%, 20% and 10% in total volume respectively. Higher total activities of protease, phenoloxidase and cellulase were observed at 70% of the moisture contents of culture media, while lower activity of these enzymes was observed with 40% moisture contents of sawdust culture medium. The pH 4 and 9 of the sawdust media appeared to be optimum pH for the. production of protease while pH 5 and 7 were optimal for the production of phenoloxidase. The pH 6 of the sawdust medium was optimal for the production of cellulase. The optimum incubating temperature for the production of protease, phenoloxidase and cellulase was $25^{\circ}C$. Higher total activities of protease and phenoloxidase were observed when culture medium was added with wood vinegar at the control, and 0.5% for cellulase.

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Coprinus congregatus의 빛에 의한 분화와 phenoloxidase의 역할

  • 최형태
    • The Microorganisms and Industry
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.12-14
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    • 1988
  • 빛에 의한 생물체의 분화는 작용파장별로 분류 할 때 고등식물에서 흔히 나타나는 붉은 빛에 의한 분화와 곰팡이류에서 볼 수 있는 푸른빛에 의한 것 두 종류가 있다. 곰팡이는 Chlorophyll이나 Phytochrome이 없어 붉은ㅅ개 파장을 흡수하는 phytochrome에 의한 분화는 없으나 푸른색은 곰팡이의 생활사에 중요한 요인이 된다. 예를 들면 Phycomyces와 Trichoderma의 photophorogenesis, Cyathus와 Coprinus의 fruiting body형성, Poycomyces와 Neurospora의 photocarotenogenesis, Phycomyces와 Pilobolus의 phototropism등 곰팡이의 metabolism과 development가 푸른 빛에 의하여 영향을 받는다. 한편 곰팡이의 포자및 포자생성기관은 녹색, 갈색, 흑색 등 phenoloxidase의 산물인 melanin 색소를 가지는 경우가 많으며 그 예로는 Podospora, Schizophyllum, Aspergillus 등과 같이 reproduction 할 때 phenoloxidase가 직접적 혹은 간접적으로 연관되어 있다. 버섯형성균류의 하나인 Coprinus congregatus는 버섯형성과정에서 빛을 필요로 하며 이때 phenoloxidase가 어떠한 역할을 하는지 실험하였다.

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Activated Phenoloxidase Interacts with A Novel Glycine-rich Protein on the Yeast Two-hybrid System

  • Lee, Sun-Woo;Lee, Hyun-Seong;Kim, Eun-Jun;Yoo, Mi-Ae;Lee, Bok-Luel
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2001
  • One of the innate immune reactions in invertebrates is the pro-phenoloxidase (pro-PO) activation system that is involved in the generation of superoxide, melanin synthesis, and the subsequent sequestration of foreign matter entering the hemocoel of the invertebrates. However, the molecular mechanism of this biological reaction is still obscure. To expand our understanding of the biological roles of the pro-PO activation system in invertebrates, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening by using three regions of pro-PO as bait and a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library from Tenebrio molitor larvae as prey We isolated a novel partial cDNA clone that encodes a glycine-rich protein that interacted with the active phenoloxidase (termed phenoloxidase interacting protein, POIP). POIP consists of two domains: One is an N-terminal unique domain and the other is a C-terminal glycine-rich domain. The C-terminal glycine-rich domain showed sequential homology with those of insect antifungal proteins. Also, the yeast two-hybrid screen in a reverse orientation (using POIP as bait) yielded PO, suggesting that the PO-POIP interaction is specific. By using a 315 bP PCR fragment of the N-terminal unique region of POIP, we cloned the full-length cDNA of POIP from the Tenebruo cDNA library constructed by using E. coli injected larvae. The interaction analysis between PO, and a truncated fragment lacking the N-terminal unique region of POIP, indicated that the N-terminal unique region is necessary for interaction between PO and POIP. The expression level of the POIP mRNA is increased by bacterial injection into T. molitor larvae. This suggests that POIP might be engaged in the humoral defense reaction.

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Localization of phenoloxidases in coprinus congregatus grown on a low-temperature-liquifying medium (저온 액화성 응고제를 사용한 고체배지에서 자란 coprinus congregatus의 phenoloxidase들의 localization)

  • ;Ross, Ian K.
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.274-277
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    • 1990
  • The hyphal tip phenoloxidases of Coprinus congregatus were localized by the protoplast-concanavalin A method. Protoplast were generated from cultures grown on a solid medium which was solidified with a new gelling agent, Pluronid Polyol F127, instead of agar. the enzymes were associated with the cell membrane which might work as a transducer in the light recepter complex.

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Inhibitory Effect of Chlorine Dioxide on Phenoloxidase Activation of the Indianmeal Moth, Plodia interpunctella (화랑곡나방(Plodia interpunctella)의 페놀옥시데이즈 활성화에 대한 이산화염소의 억제 효과)

  • Kim, Minhyun;Kwon, Hyeok;Kim, Wook;Kim, Yonggyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.138-144
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    • 2016
  • Phenoloxidase (PO) is an oxidizing enzyme and plays crucial roles in insect immunity and cuticle sclerotization. High oxidizing activity of chlorine dioxide gives effective control activities against microbes and insect pests. These allowed us to assess any inhibitory activity of chlorine dioxide against PO with respect to insect immunity. PO activities of the Indeanmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was detected in both hemocytes and plasma. Upon bacterial challenge, PO activity was significantly increased especially in plasma. However, the immune challenge coupled with chlorine dioxide treatment did not enhance PO activity. When different chlorine dioxide concentrations were incubated with activated PO by immune challenge, they did not inhibit the activated PO. These results indicate that chlorine dioxide suppresses PO activity by inhibiting PO activation.

Phenoloxidases and Photomorphogenesis in Coprinus congregatus (Coprinus congregatus의 분화와 Phenoloxidase와의 관계)

  • 최형태
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 1987
  • The have been many reports that phenoloxidase are correlated with development in many fungi. C. congregatus, one of nushroom-forming basidiomycetes, which requires light for its development also has phenoloxidases. In C. congragatus, there are two sets of membrane-associated phenoloxidase (PHO I and PHO II) which are differentiated by their isozyme patterns, and each enzyme set consists of two different subtrate specific enzyme protein; o-tolidine reacting enzyme, and DOPA reacting enzyme. PHO I which is localized by a protoplast-concanavalin A technique by using a new solidifying agent, Pluronic Polyol F 127, instead of agar appears in the vegetative hyphae, and PHO II appears at the early primordial stage on agar and at the sclerotial stage of liquid shake cultures. Inhibition of PHO I with the enzyme inhibitors inhibits mushroom formation as well as melanization of the vegetative hyphae at concentrations which do not inhibit the vegetative growth. PHO I deficient mutants do not form mushrooms or melanins, and the mutants show abnormal nuclear migration patterns. PHO II has roles; possibly cementing the adjacent hyphae during the actual three dimensonal structure formation, and melanizing mushrooms and sclerotia. The possible roles of PHO I in the light reception complex and in melanin formation, the function of malanin, and possible roles of postulated post translational modifying enzymes which regulate the phenoloxidases, nuclear migration pattern, and self-nonself recognition mechanism are discussed.

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Endogenous Phenoloxidase Purified from an Earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus (붉은 지렁이(Lumbricus rubellus) 체내로부터 정제한 Phenoloxidase)

  • 백승렬;조은정;유경희;김유삼;서정진;장정순
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.36-46
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    • 1996
  • An endogenous phenoloxidase (EPO) from earthworm, Lumbricus rubellus, has been purified and characterized. The purified EPO using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Blue-2, Phenyl-, and Q-sepharose chromatography steps was revealed in SDS-PAGE as a single protein banri with Mr. of 59 kl)a. A native strudure of the enzyme was examined with an in situ staining of a nondenatudng-PAGE using DL-dopa as a substrate. The result showed that a single band due to the EPO activity was located siighdy above a standard polypeptide with Mr. of 210 kl)a. These fads indicate that the EPO is an oligomeric enzyme. The presence of a monophenolase activity of the purified EPO, which hydroxylates tyrosine to dopa, was confirmed by observing dopachrome accumulation at 475 nm at PH 8.0 with a typical lag phase during 60 mm. of meausrement. A series of inhibition study has been performed for the enzyme with several divalent cation chelators such as phenyithiourea (Flu), 1, lO-phenanthroline, EDTA, and EGTA. Among them, only V'flj inhibited the enzyme with 1C0.5 of 65 MM, which indicated that copper was critical for the catalysis of EPO. The enzyme was maximally active at 35'C and pH 8.0 when L-dopa to dopachrome conversion was spectrophotometricaily monitored at 475 nm. The apparent Km values of P0 for L-opa were obtained as 1.86 mM and 13.8 mM at pH 6.5 and 8.0, respectively. The catalytic efficiencies at both pH were almost identical [(kat/Km)pH8.0/(kcat/Km)pH6.5 = O.92] while the Vmax at p11 8.0 was 6.6-fold higher than that at pH 6.5. This fact may indicate that pH affeds the catalysis at substrate and/or enzyme-substrate complex level rather than the enzyme itself. Taken together, the EPO was an oligomeric enzyme which did not require proteolysis for its activation. These results also indicated that the enzyme can exist, at least, in part as a latent form In vivo, which might be distinct from the prophenoloxidase activating system. Therefore, it is pertinent to consider that there must be certain regulatory molecules or phenomena in L. rubellus which make the 1,0 in a latent form in vivo before the foreign invasions.

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