• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pheasant

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An Empirical Study on Pheasant Farm Business Strategies and Marketability of Pheasant Foods (꿩고기 및 그 가공품(加工品)에 대한 시장성(市場性) 및 경영전략(經營戰略))

  • Oh, Hong Rock;Park, Chong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.127-139
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    • 1991
  • 1. The purpose of this study was to recommend ways of more efficient pheasant farm business management and promoting the demand of pheasant foods by reviewing the current pheasant farm business management and the general pattern of consumption of pheasant foods. The study was conducted on the basis of the field survey covering 83 pheasant feeders and 283 consumers. 2. Majority of pheasant feeders, 86.8%(n=72), utilized broiler feed for pheasant rearing because of high price of exclusive pheasant feed. 3. In case of producing 1,000 heads of 5 month-old pheasant, the primary production cost per head was roughly calculated at about 5,530 Won. And 40.3% of primary production cost was consisted of feed cost and 12.9% was depreciation cost for facillities including artificial incubator equipments. 4. 81.1%(n=51) of whole surveyed feeders disposed of 1-4 week-old birds directly to the new feeders and 6%(n=6) sold them to the middlemen who were almost pioneering pheasant feeders. 5. 48.9%(n=138) of the surveyed consumer respondents have taken the pheasant foods once and several times, and the others never once. And 50.6%(n=69) of the respondents who had taken the pheasant foods were satisfied with the tastes. 6. The surveyed consumers were asked whether they knew the nutritional value of pheasant foods and 47.3(n=136) recognized it positively and 37.5%(n=106) negatively. 7. To increase the pheasant farm income and promote the demand of pheasant foods. followings are recommended. - Production cost should be reduced by cooperative utilization of facilities and equipments at farm level, and exclusive pheasant feed of good quility should be developed and supplied to the feeders at a low price. - Pheasant marketing and pricing system should be improved to prevent consumers from price disorder of retail shop including pheasant food reataurants and to popularize the pheasant foods. - Various type of menu of pheasant foods should be developed not only to satisfy consumers in tastes but also to solve the seasonality of pheasant supply. But it is preferable that this action is led by pheasant feeders and their cooperative organization, espectially through vertical intergration system owned by pheasant feeders. - Generic, pioneering advertisement and promotion should be carried out to promote primary demend of pheasant foods. It would be preferable that these primary demend advertising and promoting activities shuld be sponsored by pheasant feeders and government together. And their activities should be supported by institutional regulation.

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The Present and Future of Pheasant Raising in Korea (꿩의 생산기술 현황과 생산전망)

  • 양영훈
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 1996
  • Though pheasants (Korean ring-necked pheasant) have been raised for several decades, their behavior and wild nature are far from domestication. The pheasant is a seasonal breeding species and lays a limited number of eggs in a breeding season. The growth rate and feed efficiency of pheasants are very low as compaired with those of chicken for meat purpose. In addition, the breeder's access to one's herd for care is not easy. From these reasons, pheasants seem to be unsuitable for meat production in a large flock at present. However, pheasant raising is expected to increase slowly in accordance with rising demand for special poultry meat. Therefore, it is necessary to improve techniques about raising, feeding and rnanagement, so that the consumer price of pheasant meat can be lowered down reasonably.

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The Historical Study of Pheasant Cooking in Korea (우리나라 꿩고기 조리법(調理法)의 역사적(歷史的) 고찰(考察))

  • Kim, Tae-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.83-96
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine the various kinds of recipes of pheasant through classical cookbooks written from 1670 to 1943 which are the basic materials to the meat cooking. The recipes of pheasant are found 39 times in the literature, which can be classified into eleven groups. Chronologically, the recipe of mandu (ravioli) was first appeared, and guk, tang (soup), kui (roasted), jang (salted meat), chim (steamed), po (dried meat), whe (raw meat), gijim (boiled in soy sauce), cho (sparkly heated in soy sauce and sugar), jolim (hard boiled in soy sauce), and jungol (meat with vegetable cooked in pan) followed in the records. Kui was the most popular one with the frequency of 43.6%, which proves that kui is the most suitable one for pheasant among all of recipes. Mandu and guk, tang were 10.2%, chim and po were found with the same rate of 7.7% and the next ones were jang, gijim, cho, and jungol with the rate of 2.6%. The recipes of pheasant were recorded much less than those of beef, chicken, pork, lamb, and dog meat. Particularly, in comparison with chicken belonging to fowls, the frequency of pheasant cooking did not reach even to one third of that. The Korean recipes of pheasant have been independently developed with originality, having nothing to do with the Chinese ones. The recipes of pheasant before the late 1800s have based on the strict recipe principles along with the spirit of art and sincerity, but they were deteriorated to simple and easy ones discarding principles. The main ingredient was the flesh of pheasant and the sub-ingredients such as flour, pinenut, buckwheat powder, and mushroom were included in common. In additon, oil, soy sauce, black pepper, and stone leek were frequently used as main seasonings.

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A Comparison of Egg Quality of Pheasant, Chukar, Quail and Guinea Fowl

  • Song, K.T.;Choi, S.H.;Oh, H.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.986-990
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    • 2000
  • The quality characteristics and proximate composition of the eggs of pheasant, chukar, quail, and guinea fowl were compared. Eggs of the 4 species had a similar ovalish conical shape with blunt and pointed ends, showing the shape indices of 77.30-79.63 with no statistical difference. Egg weight was heaviest in guinea fowl (46.65 g), followed by pheasant (25.79 g), chukar (19.16 g) and quail (10.34 g). Proportion of yolk to the total egg weight was highest in pheasant (35.7%), followed by chukar (33.9%), quail (31.4%) and guinea fowl (30.6%). Albumen content was highest in quail showing 61.2%, while pheasant, chukar and guinea fowl were in the range of 55.6~57.4%. The ratio of yolk to albumen (Y/A) was highest in pheasant (0.65), followed by chukar (0.60), guinea fowl (0.55) and quail (0.52). The portion of shell to the total egg weight was highest in guinea fowl (13.5%) and lowest in quail (7.3%). The shell thickness of the eggs was thickest in guinea fowl ($462.8{{\mu}m}$), followed by pheasant ($241.5{{\mu}m}$), chukar ($231.8{{\mu}m}$) and quail ($174.8{{\mu}m}$). The contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash of whole egg were in the ranges of 74.26-74.50%, 11.98-12.77%, 10.83-11.91% and 1.02-1.10%, respectively, with no statistical difference (p>0.05) among the species. Albumen was high in moisture (87.46-87.99%) and very low in crude fat (0.09-0.13%), which was quite different from yolk. Yolk showed relatively low level of moisture (49.71-50.42%) and high levels of fat (31.48-32.32%), crude protein (15.12-15.99%) and crude ash (1.53-1.86%). No species difference in the proximate compositions of albumen and yolk was found except in crude ash content of albumen.

Effect of Pheasant and Soybean Extracts on The Characteristics of Quality of Baechu Kimchi (꿩육수와 콩즙을 첨가한 배추김치의 품질특성)

  • Park, Eo-Jin;Park, Geum-Soon;An, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.587-597
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    • 2004
  • Application of pheasant and soybean extracts to improve the quality of baechu kimchi was attempted. Pheasant and soybean extracts at various combinatory concentrations were added into baechu kimchi and fermented for 24 days at $10^{\circ}C$. Assay was performed on salinity, acidity, bacterial growth, sensory evaluations, and physical properties. The pH decreased, and acidity increased by fermentation time. The optimum pH 4.2 was reached within $12{\sim}15\;days$, and optimum acidity was reached within $6{\sim}9\;days$. The number of lactic acid bacteria was increased by fermentation time. Score of intensity characteristics in color. crispness carbonated taste, and overall quality were higher for the pheasant and soybean extracts added baechu kimchi(B) than for the control product(S). The result of L and a value of baechu kimchi were Higher in treatment than in control as fermentation time increased. The hardness of baechu kimchi with pheasant and soybean extracts(B) were higher than those of control(S).

Cholesterol Contents and Fatty Acid Composition of Chukar, Pheasant, Guinea Fowl and Quail Egg Yolk

  • Choi, S.H.;Song, K.T.;Oh, H.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.831-836
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    • 2001
  • Little information on the cholesterol content and the fatty acid composition of avian species other than chicken is available. This study was conducted to compare the yolk cholesterol content and the fatty acid profiles of some wild birds maintained in captivity on commercial grain-based chicken diets. The concentration of cholesterol/g of yolk as well as the total yolk cholesterol per egg varied among species. Yolk cholesterol concentration, expressed as mg/g of yolk, was highest in chukar, followed by pheasant, guinea fowl and quail, while total yolk cholesterol in an egg was highest in guinea fowl, followed by pheasant, chuckar and quail. An inverse relationship between yolk cholesterol concentration and egg weight was observed among species with an exception of quail. Although major fatty acids of egg yolk were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid in all birds, the composition varied among species. Chukar and quail showed higher oleic acid content than pheasant and guinea fowl, while showing lower linoleic acid. Fatty acids of chukar and guinea fowl eggs were more saturated than those of pheasant and quail. Chukar and especially quail had higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than pheasant and guinea fowl; in quail egg 51.6% of total fatty acids were MUFA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), essential fatty acids (EFA) and the ratio of PUFA to saturated fatty acid (P/S ratio) were higher in pheasant and guinea fowl than in chukar and quail. Differences in fatty acid profile of triglyceride (TG) among birds were largely similar to those of total lipid. In comparison to TG, phosphatidyl choline (PC) was low in MUFA while high in saturated fatty acids (SFA), PUFA, P/S ratio and EFA. PC was most saturated in guinea fowl egg yolk, followed by chukar, quail and pheasant. PUFA, P/S ratio and EFA in PC were highest in pheasant followed by chukar, guinea fowl and quail. PE was distinguished from PC by its high contents of stearic acid, eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexenoic acid (DHA) while low in palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. In egg yolk of all birds MUFA was significantly lower in PE than in PC except in quail. Compared to other species, quail had a considerably higher content of MUFA in PE at the expense of SFA and PUFA.

Morphometric Study of Seminiferous Tubules in Pigeon, Pheasant, and Chicken (비둘기, 꿩 및 닭의 곱슬정세관에 관한 형태계측학적 연구)

  • 김인식;김지현;이영훈;정옥봉;양홍현
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2000
  • The testis is an extremely heterogeneous organ, containing numerous compartments types. Morphometric studies were performed of 3 avian species (pigeon, pheasant and chicken) to determine volume density absolute volume, numerical density, total number of serminiferous tubule components, and sperm production, especially those related to the Sertoli cell, and to make comparisons among the species. Volume density of seminiferous tubule components per testis was determined by point counting method. Testis volume and sperm production were measured by routine techniques. Numerical density (the number of cells per unit volume of testis) of seminiferous tubule components per testis was determined by morphometry (Floderus method). The volume density of seminiferous tubules per testis was 91.58, 92.18 and 94.21% in pigeon, pheasant, and chicken, respectively. The volume density of spermatogonium, spermatocyte, spermatid, spermatozoon, and Sertoli cell did not produce significant changes in the three species. The absolute volume of spermatogonium, spermatocyte, spermatid, and Sertoli cell showed significant changes in the three species (p<0.05). The average volume of Sertoli cell ranged from 758.34(pheasant) to 1,212.9 ㎛$^3$(chicken) and was not significantoy different in the three species(p>0.05). The number of Sertoli cells per testis showed significant differences in the three species : 34.52 $\times$10(sup)6, 186.82$\times$10(sup)6, 810.62$\times$10(sup)6 in pigeon, pheasant, and chicken, respectively(p<0.05). The sperm production was significantly different in the three species : 3,018$\times$10(sup)6, 993.9$\times$10(sup)6, and 8.9$\times$10(sup)6 in chicken, pheasant, and pigeon, respectively(p<0.05). These results suggest that number of Sertoli cells may be more important than Sertoli cell size in explaining the difference in sperm production among the three species.

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A Literature Review on the Recipes for Pheasant - Focus on Recipe Books from 1800's to 1990's - (꿩고기 조리법의 문헌적 고찰 - 1800년 대 말~1990년대까지의 조리서들을 중심으로 -)

  • Kook, Kyung-Duk;Kwon, Yong-Suk;Chung, Hea-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.455-467
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    • 2011
  • The main purpose of this study was to survey the various kinds of recipes for pheasant found in seventeen Korean cookbooks published from the 1800's to the 1990's. There were 95 pheasant recipes found in the literature which could be classified into three major groups: cooking with moist heat, cooking with dry heat, and other. The three major groups were then broken down into thirteen smaller groups. A detailed look at the frequency of terms in each recipe shows that Gui Sanjeok (grilled Korean shish kebabs) appears 24 times, Guk Tang and Jeongol (soup and stew) 23 times, Kimchi (fermented cabbage) 11 times, Po (jerky) 9 times, Jorim (boiled in soy sauce) 7 times, Jjim (steamed) 6 times, Bokeum (stir-fried) 5 times, Twigim (deep-fried) 3 times, Buchim (fried) 2 times, Jigae jijim (stewed) 2 times, and Jang (paste), Myeon (noodles), Gooum (boiled) and Yeot (Korean hard taffy) 1 time each. The main ingredient is always the pheasant. We investigated the use of the whole pheasant cooked, how to slice and tenderize pheasant meat, use the meat only, or use only certain parts. Depending on the characteristics of cooking recipes, pheasants with thin, soft bones and organs were investigated for cooking. Substituted materials were used for a few of the vegetables, meat, and seafood in the recipes, and seem to go well together. Garnishes used included pine nut powder and fried eggs. Seasoned salt, soy sauce, pepper, sesame, sesame oil, chopped onion, garlic, and ginger were also reported to have been used.

Meat Quality, Textural and Sensory Properties of Farm-Grown Pheasant Meat and Processed Products (농장 사육 꿩고기의 육질 및 가공제품의 물성과 관능특성)

  • 오홍록;유익종;최성희
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2004
  • Functional properties of farm-grown pheasant meat with different sex, age and cutting portion were investigated, and the textural and sensory characteristics of processed products were also evaluated. Chemical composition of pheasant meat was characterized to be high in protein and low in fat, and breast muscle showed more protein and less moisture than thigh muscle. Moisture/protein ratio of the pheasant meat was relatively low in a range of 2.82∼3.40, indicating the pheasant meat would be a good source of processed meat, and it had high water holding capacity and myofibrillar protein extractability with some variations depending on age and portion cut(p<0.05). Thigh muscle showed higher value of L* and b* and lower value of a* than breast muscle. However, no difference was observed in color of meat with different age and sex. The meat from the 6 months and the breast cut had lower shear force than those of respective 17 months and the thigh regardless of sex. The pressed ham and sausage manufactured with the pheasant meat had better score than the commercial products manufactured with pork or chicken in sensory and textural parameters.

Studies on the Preparation of Pheasant Meat Extracts by Protease (효소에 의한 꿩고기 가수분해물의 제조)

  • Jeong, Jae-Hong;Kim, Ki-Jun;Lee, Gyu-Hee;Lee, Seuk-Keun;Oh, Man-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 1998
  • Ths studies was carried out to investigate the processing possibility of pheasant meat extracts treated with proteases. The crude protein, aminonitrogen, degree of hydrolysis, yield and amino acid composition of pheasant meat extracts when it was treated with proteases at various temperature and reaction time were analyzed. The crude protein contents of pheasant meat extracts processed in $130^{\circ}C$ were more than when it was done in $100^{\circ}C$, but the contents of aminonitrogen were not quite different between two processing temperature. The content of crude protein and aminonitrogen when pheasant meat was hydrolyzed with protease NP and prozyme A. The yields of pheasant meat extracts, when pheasant meat were treated at $100^{\circ}C$ and $130^{\circ}C$, were from 2.24 to 7.10% and from 5.51 to 10.45%, respectively. And the yield of extraction depended on extraction temperature, kinds of enzyme, amount of enzyme, extraction time. The content of aminonitrogen in pheasant meat extracts treated with enzyme was much higher than any other treatments. And it depended on amount of enzyme, extraction time and temperature. The amount of the amino acids in pheasant meat extracts treated by protease NP were eminently higher than by heat at $100^{\circ}C$ or $130^{\circ}C$.

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