• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pfiesteria piscicida

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Visualization of Thecal Plates of Lightly Armored Dinoflagellates Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi and Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) (유각 와편모조류 Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae)의 형태분석)

  • Park, Tae-Gyu;Bae, Heon-Meen;Kang, Yang-Soon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 2009
  • Early studies claimed that heterotrophic dinoflagellates Pfiesteria piscicida and related genera may produce a putative water-soluble toxin that causes death of fish and other marine animals. Several methods were tested to visualize plate morphology of Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi and Pfiesteria piscicida. Cellulose plates of cells were exposed and visualized- by a membrane stripping method using Triton X-100. While calcofluor M2R white stain could readily bind to the thecal plates, details of the plate tabulation were difficult to observe. Fixation with osmium tetroxide $(OsO_4)$ produced well preserved cells with little morphological distortion, but thecal plates could not be visualized. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation using the membrane stripping method showed distinctive plate tabulations between C. brodyi and P. piscicida suggesting that this method is a useful tool for morphological identification of lightly armored dinoflagellates.

Survival Rates of Larval Abalone by Direct Attack of Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like Species (피스테리아와 피스테리아 유사종의 전복 유생 섭식 특성과 생존을 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Seong;Lee, Chang-Won;Lee, Hee-Mahn;Jeong, Hae-Jin
    • The Sea
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.189-194
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    • 2009
  • To investigate the difference in the ecological niches between Pfiesteria piscicida and Pfiesteria-like species (Cryptoperidininopsis brodyi and Stoeckeria algicida), we have observed the feeding behavior of three potential predators on abalone larvae and measured the survival rates of abalone larvae as a function of initial predator concentration. When the predators were mixed with abalone larvae, P. piscicida and C. brodyi became active and exhibited attacking behavior on abalone larvae within a few seconds. They could ingest whole soft body of abalone larvae using a peduncle. In contrast, feeding and attacking behavior were not observed from S. algicida. Survival rates in abalone larvae decreased with an increase of the initial concentration of P. piscicida and C. brodyi. These results indicate that Pfiesteria and Pfiesteria-like species displaying the very same shape and size have different ecological niche in the marine food webs, which implies that identification to species level is definitely important to understand and discriminate the ecological roles of them.

Detection of Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) in Surface Water Samples Using Real-time PCR

  • Park, Tae-Gyu;Kang, Yang-Soon;Seo, Mi-Kyung;Park, Young-Tae
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.209-211
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    • 2008
  • Heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae) has been claimed to produce potent ichthyotoxins that cause disorientation and eventually death of fish and other marine animals. A real-time PCR probe targeting for SSU rRNA gene was used for detection of P. piscicida in Chinhae Bay, Korea. PCR inhibitors were successfully removed by dilution of template DNA. Positive detections were shown from surface water samples indicating the presence of P. piscicida in Chinhae Bay.

Development of EvaGreen Based Real-time PCR Assay for Detection and Quantification Toxic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria Piscicida and Field Applications (유독 와편모조류 Pfiesteria Piscicida 탐지 및 정량 분석을 위한 EvaGreen 기반 Real-time PCR기법 개발과 현장 적용)

  • PARK, BUM SOO;JOO, JAE-HYOUNG;KIM, MYO-KYUNG;KIM, JOO-HWAN;KIM, JIN HO;BAEK, SEUNG HO;HAN, MYUNG-SOO
    • The Sea
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.31-44
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    • 2017
  • Pfiesteria piscicida is one of heterotrophic dinoflagellate having toxic metaboliges, and it is difficult to detect and quantify this dinoflagellate via light microscope due to small size and morphological similarity with Pfiesteria-like dinoflagellate (PLD) species. Alternatively, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assay based on EvaGreen and determined field accessibility throughout the investigation of distribution in the entire Korean coastal waters and population dynamics in Shihwa Lake. The P. piscicida-specific primers based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1) were designed and the specificity of primers was confirmed by PCR with other genomic DNAs which have genetic similarity with target species. Through real-time PCR assay, a standard curve which had a significant linear correlation between log cell number and $C_T$ value ($r^2{\geq}0.999$) and one informative melting peak ($88^{\circ}C$) were obtained. These results implies that developed real-time PCR can accurately detect and quantify P. piscicida. Throughout the field applications of real-time PCR assay, P. piscicida was distributed in western (Mokpo and Kimje) and easthern (Gangneng) Korean coastal water even though light microscopy failed to identify P. piscicida. In the investigation of population dynamics in Shihwa Lake, the density of P. piscicida was peaked in June, July and August 2007 at St. 1 where salinity (${\leq}15psu$) was lower than the other 2 sites. In this study, we successed to develop EvaGreen bassed real-time PCR for detection and quantification of P. piscicida in fields, so this developed assay will be useful for various ecological studies in the future.

Life Cycle of Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi (Dinophyceae) (Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi (Dinophyceae)의 생활사)

  • Park, Tae-Gyu;Park, Young-Tae;Bae, Heon-Meen
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2009
  • Pfiesteriaand Pfiesteria-like organisms were reported to be linked to major fish kills(involving well over a billion fish) in North Carolina and Maryland estuaries on the U.S. east coast during the 1990s. Occurrences of these species have been recently reported from Korean waters including Chinhae Bay and the coast of Yeosu. In this study, the life cycle of Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi and Pfiesteria piscicida were examined using DAPI staining. Their excystment and growth were stimulated directly by the addition of prey cells such as Rhodiminas salina. Amoeboid stages in C. brodyi and P. piscicida were never observed in culture, even after addition of filter-sterile fish mucus and tissue. The dominant life cycle stages consisted of motile flagellated zoospores and cysts. A typical dinoflagellate life cycle was demonstrated by direct observation and DAPI staining.

Interactions between the voracious heterotrophic nanoflagellate Katablepharis japonica and common heterotrophic protists

  • Kim, So Jin;Jeong, Hae Jin;Jang, Se Hyeon;Lee, Sung Yeon;Park, Tae Gyu
    • ALGAE
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.309-324
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Katablepharis japonica has been reported to feed on diverse red-tide species and contribute to the decline of red tides. However, if there are effective predators feeding on K. japonica, its effect on red tide dynamics may be reduced. To investigate potential effective protist predators of K. japonica, feeding by the engulfment-feeding heterotrophic dinoflagellates (HTDs) Oxyrrhis marina, Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Polykrikos kofoidii, and Noctiluca scintillans, the peduncle-feeding HTDs Luciella masanensis and Pfiesteria piscicida, the pallium-feeding HTD Oblea rotunda, and the naked ciliates Strombidium sp. (approximately $20{\mu}m$ in cell length), Pelagostrobilidium sp., and Miamiensis sp. on K. japonica was explored. We found that none of these heterotrophic protists fed on actively swimming cells of K. japonica. However, O. marina, G. dominans, L. masanensis, and P. piscicida were able to feed on heat-killed K. japonica. Thus, actively swimming behavior of K. japonica may affect feeding by these heterotrophic protists on K. japonica. To the contrary, K. japonica was able to feed on O. marina, P. kofoidii, O. rotunda, Miamiensis sp., Pelagostrobilidium sp., and Strombidium sp. However, the specific growth rates of O. marina did not differ significantly among nine different K. japonica concentrations. Thus, K. japonica may not affect growth of O. marina. Our findings suggest that the effect of predation by heterotrophic protists on K. japonica might be negligible, and thus, the effect of grazing by K. japonica on populations of red-tide species may not be reduced by mortality due to predation by protists.

Feeding by common heterotrophic protists on the phototrophic dinoflagellate Biecheleriopsis adriatica (Suessiaceae) compared to that of other suessioid dinoflagellates

  • Kang, Hee Chang;Jeong, Hae Jin;Jang, Se Hyeon;Lee, Kyung Ha
    • ALGAE
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.127-140
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    • 2019
  • The species in the dinoflagellate order Suessiales have 5-24 latitudinal paraplate series and include many fossil and extant species. There have been a few studies on the ecophysiology of the phototrophic species Biecheleriopsis adriatica, and no study on its predators. Thus, we explored the feeding occurrence by common heterotrophic protists on B. adriatica and the growth and ingestion rates of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on B. adriatica BATY06 as a function of prey concentration. The common heterotrophic dinoflagellates Aduncodinium glandula, O. marina, Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Luciella masanensis, Pfiesteria piscicida, and Oblea rotunda and two naked ciliates Strombidinopsis sp. and Pelagostrobilidium sp. were able to feed on B. adriatica, but the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Polykrikos kofoidii was not. However, B. adriatica supported the positive growth of O. marina, but did not support that of G. dominans and O. rotunda. With increasing prey concentrations, the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina on B. adriatica increased and became saturated. The maximum growth rate of O. marina on B. adriatica was $0.162d^{-1}$. Furthermore, the maximum ingestion rate of O. marina on B. adriatica was $0.2ng\;C\;predator^{-1}\;d^{-1}$ ($2.0cells\;predator^{-1}\;d^{-1}$). In the order Suessiales, the feeding occurrence by common heterotrophic protists on B. adriatica is similar to that on Effrenium voratum and Biecheleria cincta, but different from that on Yihiella yeosuensis. However, the growth and ingestion rates of O. marina on B. adriatica are considerably lower than those on E. voratum and B. cincta, but higher than those on Y. yeosuensis. Therefore, B. adriatica may be less preferred prey for O. marina than E. voratum and B. cincta, but more preferred prey than Y. yeosuensis.

Feeding by common heterotrophic dinoflagellates and a ciliate on the red-tide ciliate Mesodinium rubrum

  • Lee, Kyung Ha;Jeong, Hae Jin;Yoon, Eun Young;Jang, Se Hyeon;Kim, Hyung Seop;Yih, Wonho
    • ALGAE
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.153-163
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    • 2014
  • Mesodinium rubrum is a cosmopolitan ciliate that often causes red tides. Predation by heterotrophic protists is a critical factor that affects the population dynamics of red tide species. However, there have been few studies on protistan predators feeding on M. rubrum. To investigate heterotrophic protists grazing on M. rubrum, we tested whether the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense, Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium spirale, Luciella masanensis, Oblea rotunda, Oxyrrhis marina, Pfiesteria piscicida, Polykrikos kofoidii, Protoperidinium bipes, and Stoeckeria algicida, and the ciliate Strombidium sp. preyed on M. rubrum. G. dominans, L. masanensis, O. rotunda, P. kofoidii, and Strombidium sp. preyed on M. rubrum. However, only G. dominans had a positive growth feeding on M. rubrum. The growth and ingestion rates of G. dominans on M. rubrum increased rapidly with increasing mean prey concentration < $321ngCmL^{-1}$, but became saturated or slowly at higher concentrations. The maximum growth rate of G. dominans on M. rubrum was $0.48d^{-1}$, while the maximum ingestion rate was 0.55 ng C $predator^{-1}d^{-1}$. The grazing coefficients by G. dominans on populations of M. rubrum were up to $0.236h^{-1}$. Thus, G. dominans may sometimes have a considerable grazing impact on populations of M. rubrum.