• Title, Summary, Keyword: Permeation enhancer

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Enhanced Transmucosal Permeation of Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone (치로트로핀 유리 호르몬의 점막 투과 증진)

  • 전인구;신동원
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 1999
  • The in vitro permeation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) through rabbit nasal, rectal and duodenal mucosae was studied in the absence and presence of an enzyme inhibitor and permeation enhancer. TRH in the donor and receptor solutions was assayed by HPLC. When thimerosal (TM, 0.5 mM) was added to the donor cell as an inhibitor, the permeation rate of TRH (200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) increased linearly as a function of time. Fluxes of TRH through the nasal, rectal and duodenal mucosae were found to be 33.3$\pm$5.9, 11.8$\pm$1.9 and 9.6$\pm$0.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$\textrm{Cm}^2$/hr, respectively. The addition of sodium glycocholate, glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt, sodium taurodihydrofusidate or L-$\alpha$-lysophosphatidylcholine to the donor solution containing TM did not result in the significant increase of permeation flux except for the duodenal mucosa, comparing with that in the presence of TM alone. Consequently, it was suggested that the nasal route was advantageous for systemic delivery of TRH, and the addition of TM and/or an enhancer was necessary to maximize the transmucosal permeation of TRH.

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Transdermal Permeation of Riboflavin in Ointment Bases Using Gums & Enhancers (Gum류의 연고제제와 흡수촉진제가 Riboflavin의 경피흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • 오세영;황성규;김판기
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2000
  • We investigated characters of transdermal therapeutic system(TTS) and the skin permeability of that with applying drug delivery system(DDS). Natural gums were selected as material of TTS. The permeation of natural gums ointment containing drug in rat skin using diffusion cell model. Permeation properties of materials were investigated for water soluble drug such as riboflavin in vitro. We used glycerin, PEG 600 and oleic acid as enhancers. Since dermis has more hydration than the stratum corneum, skin permeation rate at steady state was highly influenced when glycerin was used in riboflavin. The permeation rate of content enhancer and drug was found to be faster than that of content riboflavin only. These results showed that skin permeation rate of drug across the composite was mainly dependent on the property of ointment base and drug. All the gum ointment tested showed good safety. Proper selection of the materials which resemble and enhance properties of the delivering drug was found to be important in controlling the skin permeation rate.

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Development of Clotrimazole Gels for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery

  • Cho, Hwa-Young;Kim, Dal-Keun;Park, ung-Chan;Kang, Chung;Oh, In-Joon;Kim, Seong-Jin;Shin, Sang-Chu
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.437-443
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    • 2009
  • To develop a topical bioadhesive formulation of clotrimazole for enhanced transdermal delivery, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose gel containing permeation enhancer was formulated and permeation studies were carried out. The release characteristics of the drug from the gel formulation were examined according to the receptor medium, drug concentration, and temperature. The rate of drug release from the gel increased with increasing drug concentration and temperature. The activation energy (Ea) of drug permeation, which was calculated from the slope of log P versus 1/T plots, was 14.41kcal/mol for a 1%(w/w) loading dose. The enhancer, such as saturated, unsaturated fatty acids, pyrrolidones, propylene glycol derivatives, glycerides, and non-ionic surfactants, were incorporated onto the gels to increase the amount of drug permeation into the skin. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether showed the highest level of enhancement. These results show that clotrimazole gels containing polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether could be used for the enhanced transdermal delivery of clotrimazole.

Enhanced Ex Vivo Buccal Transport of Propranolol: Evaluation of Phospholipids as Permeation Enhancers

  • Lee, Jae-Hwi;Choi, Young-Wook
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.421-425
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    • 2003
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two phospholipid permeation enhancers, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and didecanoylphosphatidylcholine (DDPC), along with a fusidic acid derivative, sodium taurodihydrofusidate (STDHF) and ethanol (EtOH) on the buccal transport of propranolol hydrochloride (PPL) using an ex vivo buccal diffusion model. The permeation rate of [$^3 H$]PPL as measured by steady-state fluxes increased with increasing EtOH concentration. A significant flux enhancement (P<0.05) was achieved by EtOH at 20 and 30 %v/v concentrations. At a 0.5 %w/v permeation enhancer concentration, the buccal permeation of [$^3 H$]PPL was significantly enhanced by all the enhancers studied (i.e., LPC, DDPC and STDHF) compared to the control (phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.4, PBS). LPC and DDPC displayed a greater degree of permeation enhancement compared with STDHF and EtOH-PBS mixtures with an enhancement ratio of 3.2 and 2.9 for LPC and DDPC, respectively compared with 2.0 and 1.5 for STDHF and EtOH:PBS 30:70 %v/v mixture, respectively. There was no significant difference between LPC and DDPC for the flux values and apparent permeability coefficients of [$^3$H]PPL. These results suggest that phospholipids are suitable as permeation enhancers for the buccal delivery of drugs.

Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Furosemide from the EVA Matrix through the Rat Skin

  • Chang, Ik-Hyeon;Cho, Hwa-Young;Noh, Jin-Hyung;Park, Jung-Chan;Park, Yong-Sun;Kim, Seong-Jin;Shin, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.19-21
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to examine the possibility of increasing the level of furosemide permeation from the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) matrix through the skin by incorporating various enhancers in the EVA matrix. The effects of the enhancers on the level of furosemide permeation through the skin were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells with intact excised rat skins. The enhancers examined were the fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated), the pyrrolidones, the propylene glycol derivatives, the glycerides and the non-ionic surfactants. Among the enhancers used, polyoxyethylene-2-oleyl ether (a non-ionic surfactant) showed the best enhancement. The polyoxyethylene 2-oleyl ether as a permeation enhancer could be used for development of furosemide-EVA transdermal matrix system.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ketoprofen Soft Hydrogel (케토푸로펜 소프트 히드로겔의 항염증효과)

  • Lee, Eun-Kyung;Shin, Young-Hee;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.137-143
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    • 1999
  • Ketoprofen together with various permeation enhancers was incorporated into a novel soft hydrogel which is semi-solid in a container and to form a thin film within a few minutes after applying on the skin. The effect of various enhancers on the skin permeation of ketoprofen from a soft hydrogel was investigated using in vitro and in vivo method. In vitro rat skin permeation of ketoprofen from soft hydrogel was conducted using modified Keshary-Chien diffusion cells. In vivo ketoprofen absorption was also investigated in rats, and the results were compared with that of commercial products. Anti-inflammatory activities were determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema method and adjuvant-induced arthritis method in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of ketoprofen soft hydrogel formulation with that of commercial products were compared. In vitro as well as in vivo studies showed that $HPE-101^{\circledR}$ was the most effective skin permeation enhancer among those used in this study. Addition of an adhesive (polyisobutylene) in the soft hydrogel decreased skin permeation of ketoprofen. Paw edema and anti-arthritis tests showed that soft hydrogel containing $HPE-101^{\circledR}$ was more effective than the commercial products, which was consistent with the in vivo absorption experiment results.

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Increase of Permanent Wave Efficacy and Decrease of Hair Damage by using Enhancer of Permanent Wave Lotion (흡수촉진제를 이용한 펌제의 웨이브 효율 증가 및 모발손상 억제)

  • Song Hee-Ra;Park Myung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.124-133
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    • 2006
  • Human hair could be damaged by various physicochemical conditions and treatment. Permanent and decoloring treatment were the most serious factor on hair damage. The new permanent wave lotion containing Permeation enhancers such as Cremophor EL, Transcutol and propylene glycol based on cysteine permanent wave lotion were prepared. Efficiency of permanent wave and hair damage following pH of permanent wave lotion and addition of permeation enhancer were investigated. PH of solution, wave efficiency, loss of protein from hair, morphology of hair by SEM and solubility of alkaline solution were evaluated. The addition of Cremophor EL and Transcutol with ethanol increased permanent wave efficacy and decreased hair damage effectively. They diminished permanent wave lotion's pH and augmented permanent wave lotion's penetration compare to cysteine permanent wave lotion. new permanent wave lotion containing permeation enhancers such as Cremophor EL could be a good candidate for a new permanent wave lotion.

Formulation Design and Evaluation of Ketorolac Tromethamine Hydrogel for Transdermal Delivery System (경피흡수를 위한 케토롤락 하이드로겔의 제제설계 및 평가)

  • Cho, In-Sook;Lee, Gye-Won;Lee, Jong-Hwa;Jee, Ung-Kil
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2003
  • Ketorolac tromethamine(KT) is a nonsteroidal agent with potent analgesic and moderate anti-inflammatory activity. The lipid-water partition coefficient of KT was evaluated and KT gel was formulated as a gel containing different pH, different concentrations of polymer (poloxamer 407, carbopol 941), propylene glycol, ethanol and various enhancers. The resulting KT gels were evaluated with respect to their viscosity, in vitro drug permeation rate through hairless mouse skin and stability. In n-octanol and chloroform, the lipid-water partition coefficient of KT was the highest at pH 4 phosphate buffer. The apparent viscosity of KT gel increased with an increase in gel pH, polymer and enhancer concentration. But the apparent viscosity of KT gel decreased with an increase in ethanol concentration. The permeation rate of KT through hairless mouse skin from gels different pH was maximum at pH 4 which is close to KT $pK_{a}$ 3.54. The permeation rate decreased with an increase in polymer, propylene glycol concentration. But the permeation rate increased with an increase in ethanol. The increase of drug concentration from 1 to 3% induced linear increase in permeation rate. The best enhancer was the combination of $Labrasol^{\circledR},\;Transcutol^{\circledR}$, oleic acid and l-menthol. In the accelerated stability test(25, 40 and $50{\circ}C$), pH 5 gel was most stable and pH 4 gel was most unstable for 90 days.

Effect of Ethanolamine Salts and Enhancers on the Percutaneous Absorption of Meloxicam from a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Matrix

  • Ki, Han-Moe;Cheong, Hyun-Ah;Choi, Hoo-Kyun
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of salt formation on the percutaneous absorption of meloxicam through hairless mouse skin from a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) matrix. In addition, the influences of enhancers on the permeation of meloxicam or meloxicam-ethanolamine (MX-EA) salts across the hairless mouse skin were evaluated using a flow-through diffusion cell system. The salt formation of meloxicam resulted in lower permeation rate than the parent drug. $Span^{(R)}$ 80 provided the highest enhancing effect for meloxicam and meloxicam monoethanolamine salt. The maximum amount of the drug that can be loaded without retarding permeation rate was different depending on the compound. No relationship was found between the fluxes of meloxicam or MX-EA salts from saturated solutions and those from PSA matrices containing the same enhancer.

In vitro Rat Skin Permeation of Various NSAIDs (다양한 비스테로이드성 소염진통제의 쥐 피부 투과)

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Doh, Hea-Jeong;Cho, Won-Jea;Yong, Chul-Soon;Choi, Han-Gon;Lee, Chi-Ho;Kim, Dae-Duk
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2002
  • Rat skin permeation of various nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was investigated in vitro using Franz diffusion cell at $37^{\circ}C$. The effect of various skin permeation enhancers was also observed as a preliminary study of developing transdermal delivery systems of NSAIDs. Lipophilicity of NSAIDs was determined from thε partition coefficient (log P) in 1-octanol/water and 1-octanol/IPB mutual-saturated solutions. The solubility was determined in water, isotonic phosphate buffer (IPB), and propylene glycol (PG) at $37^{\circ}C$. The rat skin permeation rate of acetaminophen, piroxicam, and aceclofenac was almost negligible, although they were saturated in PG. Addition of 1 % permeation enhancer increased the permeation rate of ketoprofen, ketorolac, and diclofenac. However, the skin permeation rate of ibuprofen did not increase with the addition of various enhancers. Among the permeation enhancers testεd, oleic acid was the most effective for various NSAIDs. Based on the daily dose, lipophilicity, and the skin permeation ratε achieved in this study, ketoprofen and ketorolac seem to be the most promising drug candidates for transdermal delivery systems, especially when formulated with unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid.