• Title, Summary, Keyword: Per Rectal Palpation

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Ultrasonographic Measurements in Comparison with the Rectal Palpation and Echotexture of Reproductive Organs of Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle

  • Honparkhe, M.;Gandotra, V.K.;Nanda, A.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.919-923
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    • 2004
  • Ultrasonographic study was undertaken to establish the echogenecity and size of reproductive organs of 18 cycling buffaloes of different parities and compared with the sizes measured by palpation per rectum at estrus (day 0), met estrus (day 2), mid diestrus (day 10) and late diestrus (day 16). The overall mean size of cervix, uterine body, right horn, left horn, right ovary and left ovary measured by palpation per rectum were 2.70$\pm$0.43, 2.36$\pm$0.36, 2.17$\pm$0.37, 2.12$\pm$0.38, 2.63$\pm$0.41 and 2.72$\pm$0.37 cm, respectively. The corresponding ultrasonographic observations were 2.10$\pm$0.40, 1.85$\pm$0.30, 1.73$\pm$0.36, 1.64$\pm$0.37, 2.16$\pm$0.36 and 2.29$\pm$0.38 cm respectively. Variations in the size of genitalia due to stages of estrous cycle were non-significant. The size of genitalia measured by palpation per rectum was significantly higher (p<0.05) than by ultrasonography. However, there was linear positive correlation (r=+0.87) in the measurements by the two techniques. The ultrasonographic characteristics of tubular genitalia revealed different echogenic gray shades around the nonechogenic (black) central area of lumen depending upon the stage of cycle. The ovarian stroma appeared as hyperechoic (white) area with nonechogenic (black) follicle. The corpus luteum (CL) exhibited different echogenic texture viz. grayish black, grayish granular and grayish white at met estrus, mid diestrus and late diestrus, respectively. Therefore, ltrasonography can be effectively employed to record the exact size and echotexture of the buffalo genitalia during different stages of estrous cycle.

Study of Factors Leading to Seasonality of Reproduction in Dairy Buffaloes. II. Non-Nutritional Factors

  • Qureshi, M.S.;Habib, G.;Samad, H.A.;Lodhi, L.A.;Usmani, R.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.7
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    • pp.1025-1030
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    • 1999
  • Fifth one Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes in their last two months of gestation, were selected in NWFP Pakistan. Rectal palpation was carried out fortnightly, until the occurrence of first estrus. Ovulation was confirmed per rectum and milk progesterone levels (MPL). Body condition score (BCS)was recorded weekly. Milk samples were collected weekly for MPL and blood samples fortnightly for metabolites analysis. Milk yield was recorded and samples were collected for milk fat. The buffaloes calving during the normal breeding season (NBS, August to January)had short (p<0.01) postpartum estrus interval of $55.95{\pm}4.90$ days versus $91.15{\pm}11.61 $ days in the buffaloes calving during the low breeding season (LBS, February to July). MPL in the LBS calvers remained lower than NBS calves (p<0.01). The incidence of silent ovulation was higher during LBS as compared to NBS (70.6% versus 29.4%). MPL showed a pattern opposite to atmospheric temperature. In NBS calvers serum glucose levels were higher (p<0.01) and magnesium levels were lower (p<0.01) than LBS calvers. Higher serum urea was found in summer and spring than that autumn and winter (p<0.05). The reproductive performance in buffaloes calving in the LBS coincided with a low BCS (p<0.01). Fat corrected milk production (FCM) was higher in NBS than LBS (p<0.01) calvers.

Effects of Days Open on the Subsequent Reproductive Performance Following to CIDR-Based Estrus Synchronization in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Kang, Hyun-Gu;Kim, Ill-Hwa
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of days open on subsequent reproductive performance following to estrus synchronization in the 114 lactating dairy cows. The animals were divided into two groups according to the time of estrus synchronization; viz, ${\leq}$ 85 days, and > 85 days postpartum, respectively. The estrus synchronization protocol consisted of insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device containing 1.9 g progesterone with an injection of 250 ${\mu}g$ gonadorelin (Day 0), an injection of $PGF_2{\alpha}$ and removal of the device on Day 7, an injection of 250 ${\mu}g$ GnRH on Day 9, and TAI 17 h later. Pregnancy diagnosis was determined at 30 to 60 days after TAI using both ultrasonography and rectal palpation. The body condition score (BCS) gradually increased over the postpartum period. In estrus synchronized cows until 85 days, conception rate on first service, number of service per conception, interval from estrus synchronization to conception, and interval from calving to conception were not significantly different among two farms (P>0.05). In estrus synchronized cows after 85 days postpartum, conception rate on first service, number of service per conception and interval from calving to conception were significantly different ($P{\leq}0.05$) between herds A and B (26.8 vs 50.0%; $2.1{\pm}1.35$ vs $1.37{\pm}0.54$ times, $237.3{\pm}97.8$ vs $164.7{\pm}69.3$ days, respectively). In estrus synchronized cows after 85 days postpartum interval from estrus synchronization to conception was greater (P<0.01) in herd B than in herd A ($63.6{\pm}57.4$ vs $26.1{\pm}24.9$). These results indicate that the time of estrus synchronization for maximized the reproductive performance is before 85 days postpartum and feeding and management is important factor for high reproductive performance.