• Title, Summary, Keyword: Penning ionization

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Observation of Penning ionization using the optogalvanic effect

  • Jeong, Kee-Ju;Lee, Jun-Hoi
    • Journal of Korean Vacuum Science & Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.18-22
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    • 2003
  • The optogalvanic effect is proposed and demonstrated as a technique for Penning ionization in a discharge of mixtures of metal vapors and rare gases. The gadolinium and argon mixture is used as a prototype. The lowest metastable of argon, 3P$_2$ (ls$\_$5/ in Paschen notation) at 93144 cm$\^$-1/, is within kT from the excited states of Gd ion. Thus Penning ionization occurs to an excited states of the ion. This process strongly alters the optogalvanic signal and has its own signatures.

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A Study on Penning Effect in Plasma Discharge (플라즈마 방전에서 패닝 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-chan;Lee, Cheong-hak;Park, Dae-hee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.515-517
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, the penning effect was studded to control accelerating of the ionization that means Increasing of cross-sectional collision through penning reactions in the plasma cells of Hg-Ar-Ne (x: 10-x, 60Torr) gas discharge under various concentrations of Ar.

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Observation of Negative Resistance Region in Voltage-current Curve of Hollow Cathode Discharge (속이 빈 원통형음극 방전의 전압-전류 곡선에서 음 저항 영역 관찰)

  • Lee, Jun-Hoi;Lee, Sung-Jik
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.18 no.9
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    • pp.870-875
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    • 2005
  • We measured the optogalvanic signal and discharge voltage-current(V-I) curve under the two different discharge conditions with different buffer gases, Ar, and Ne. When the Gd was used as a cathode material at low discharge current less than 10mA, a significant change was observed in the current-voltage curve. Time resolved optogalvanic signal measurement were measured by the diode laser of which wavelengths correspond to metastable transition line of these gases (Ar, Ne). From these measurements, we found that the characteristics of the V-I curve strongly depend on the Penning ionization process.

A spectroscopic study of the effect of humidity on the atmospheric pressure helium plasma jets

  • Han, Duksun
    • Current Applied Physics
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    • v.18 no.11
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    • pp.1375-1380
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    • 2018
  • Atmospheric-pressure plasma has a great potential in many applications due to its simplicity rather than low pressure plasmas. In material processing, biomedical applications, and many other applications, the input power, gas flow rate, and the geometry of electrode have been mainly considered and studied as important external parameters of atmospheric-pressure plasma control. Besides, since the atmospheric-pressure plasmas are typically generated in an open air, the relative humidity is difficult to control and can change day by day. Therefore, the relative humidity cannot be ignored for plasmas. Thus, in this work, the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet was characterized by changing relative humidity, and it was found that the increase in electron density and OH radicals are due to Penning ionization between helium metastable and water vapors at higher humidity condition.

A Study on Dependence of Penning mixture in Plasma Display (플라즈마 디스플레이에서 패닝 혼합물의 의존성 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Chan;Kim, Yong-Tae;Kim, Hyun-Hoo;Lim, Kee-Joe;Park, Dae-Hee
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1672-1674
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, the penning effect was studied to control accelerating of the ionization that means increasing of cross-sectional collision through penning reactions in the plasma cells of Hg-Ar-Ne (x:10-x, 60Torr) gas discharge under various concentrations of Ar.

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대기압 제트 플라즈마에서 다중 스트리머 발생 및 이해

  • Park, Sang-Hu;Mun, Se-Yeon;Choe, Won-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.523-523
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    • 2013
  • 대기압 제트 플라즈마는 의료산업 및 재료공정, 정수, 기체흐름 제어 등 다양한 분야에 적용을 위한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 뿐만 아니라 구동 조건에 따라 다양한 방전 모드가 존재하며, 이에 따라 발생된 플라즈마의 광학적 및 전기적 특성도 매우 다르게 나타나기 때문에 과학적으로도 새로운 현상들이 속속 발표되고 있다. 대기압 제트 플라즈마에서 중요한 과학적 현상 중 하나인 스트리머(streamer) 혹은 플라즈마 총알(plasma bullet)은 수-수십 kHz의 저주파 전압으로 구동 시 특정 조건에서 발생하는 현상으로, 최근 들어 시간분해능이 높은 ICCD 카메라를 이용하여 스트리머의 발생 및 전파에 대한 새로운 현상의 발견과 다양한 물리적 이해가 시도되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 헬륨 대기압 제트 플라즈마에 포함된 질소 함유량에 따른 다중 스트리머의 발생 및 기작의 이해를 시도하였다. 구동 전압 및 주파수, 헬륨기체의 유량, 전극 구조 및 간격 등 모든 조건이 동일한 상태에서 질소기체의 함유량을 증가시킬수록 특정 영역에서 스트리머의 개수가 증가하는 것을 관찰되었다. 또한 $N_2{^+}$의 방출광 세기가 헬륨 및 산소 원자의 방출광보다 지배적인 것으로 측정되었으며, 이는 헬륨 플라즈마에서 흔히 나타나는 헬륨 metastable에 의한 질소분자의 페닝 이온화(Penning ionization) 때문이다. 본 연구팀은 페닝 이온화($He^*+N_2{\rightarrow}He+N_2{^+}+e$)로 인해 추가적으로 발생하는 전자가 다중 스트리머 발생에 중요한 역할을 하는 것이라 제안한다. 좀 더 심화적인 분석을 하고자 헬륨-질소 플라즈마에서 주된 여러 가지 반응식을 이용하여 페닝 이온화에 의한 이온화율 및 전자의 직접적인 충돌에 의한 질소, 헬륨의 이온화율의 계산을 수행하여 특정 영역에서 헬륨의 이온화율보다 질소 페닝 이온화율이 더 커지는 것을 확인하였다.

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Electric Properties of Mercury-free Xe EEFL (무수은 제논 EEFL의 전기적 특성)

  • Lee, Seong-Jin;Kim, Nam-Goon;Lee, Jong-Chan;Park, Noh-Joon;Park, Dae-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.650-657
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    • 2007
  • This paper had mentioned about CCP light source application for increasing the efficiency of Xe lamp the mercury-free lamp. In order to increase the efficiency of Xe EEFL, we designed and manufactured the lamp used by mixture gas of Xe, Ne and He. Also, we have analyzed the electrical and optical properties with the firing voltage, sustain voltage, paschen's curve, wall charge, and capacitance. As a result, the firing voltage decreased by increasing the ration of mixture gas. and, It is owing to include the gas with high ionization energy. The firing voltage decreased in condition happening the penning effect, Because the ion of metastable state created from penning effect, Which can encourage the ionization phenomena. Also, the wavelength of 467.12 is increase. because of the energy transition in the wavelength of 147 nm. therefore, we can know about the affection of phosphor with UV emission properties. Through an experiment, Xe 100 % and Xe 75 % confirmed same spectrum properties by each mixture gas ratio. In the case of Xe 50 %, spectrum properties appeared Xe discharge and Ne-He discharge. That analyzed an electrical and optical properties. Therefore, confirmed that is excellent because properties of firing voltage, wall charge, capacitance in Xe 50 %, Ne : He = 9 : 1. We offered parameter in inverter manufacture and lamp manufacture by electrical and optical properties.

Trace impurity analysis of Cu films using GDMS: concentration change of impurities by applying negative substrate bias voltage (글로우방전 질량분석법을 이용한 구리 박막내의 미량불순물 분석: 음의 기판 바이어스에 의한 불순물원소의 농도변화)

  • Lim Jae-Won;Isshiki Minoru
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2005
  • Glow discharge mass spectrometry(GDMS) was used to determine the impurity concentrations of the deposited Cu films and the 6N Cu target. Cu films were deposited on Si (100) substrates at zero substrate bias voltage and a substrate bias voltage of -50 V using a non-mass separated ion beam deposition method. Since do GDMS has a little difficulty to apply to thin films because of the accompanying non-conducting substrate, we have used an aluminum foil to cover the edge of the Cu film in order to make an electrical contact of the Cu film deposited on the non-conducting substrate. As a result, the Cu film deposited at the substrate bias voltage of -50 V showed lower impurity contents than the Cu film deposited without the substrate bias voltage although both the Cu films were contaminated during the deposition. It was found that the concentration change of each impurity in the Cu films by applying the negative substrate bias voltage is related to the difference in their ionization potentials. The purification effect by applying the negative substrate bias voltage might result from the following reasons: 1) Penning ionization and an ionization mechanism proposed in the present study, 2) difference in the kinetic energy of accelerated Cu+ ions toward the substrate with/without the negative substrate bias voltage.

Pumping speed of a sputter ion pump with a honeycomb anode cell structure (벌집형 셀 구조를 가지는 스퍼터 이온펌프의 성능 분석)

  • Ha, T.;Ahn, B.;Lee, D.;Kim, J.;Chung, S.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.451-457
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    • 2006
  • We measured pumping speed of a sputter ion pump with a honeycomb anode cell structure and compared the result with that of another sputter ion pump with a typical cylindrical anode cell structure. A cell module with a honeycomb structure has no dead space which is about 10 % of the entire horizontal area of the cell module with a cylindrical structure. This dead space makes a little contribution to the ionization of the gas, so the pumping performance of the pump with dead space is expected to be lowered by the amount. From the experimental data we concluded that the honeycomb cell structure is superior to the cylindrical structure by $5{\sim}10%$ in performance.

Deposition Characteristic of InNx Films by Reactive DC Magnetron Sputtering (반응성 직류 스퍼터법에 의한 질화 인듐 박막의 제막 특성)

  • 송풍근;류봉기;김광호
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.739-745
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    • 2003
  • In $N_{x}$ films were deposited on soda-lime glass without substrate heating by reactive dc magnetron sputtering using indium (In) metal target. Depositions were carried out under various total gas pressures ( $P_{tot}$) of mixture gases (Ar+$N_2$ or He+$N_2$). He gas was introduced to $N_2$ gas in order to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen on film surface by the "penning ionization". Plasma impedance decreased greatly when 20% or more introduced the $N_2$ gas. This is due to the In $N_{x}$ layers formed on target surface because a secondary electron emission rate of InN is small compared with In metal. XRD patterns of the films revealed that <001> preferred oriented polycrystalline In $N_{x}$ films, where the crystallinity of the films was improved with decrease of $P_{tot}$ and with increase of $N_2$ flow ratio. The improvement of the crystallinity and stoichimetry of the In $N_{x}$ films were considered to be caused by an increase in the activated nitrogen radicals and also by an increase in the kinetic energy of sputtered In atoms arriving at growing film surface, which should enhance the chemical reaction and surface migration on the growing film surface, respectively. Furthermore, the films deposited using mixture gases of He+$N_2$ showed higher crystallinity compared with the film deposited by the mixture gases of Ar+$N_2$.$.EX>.