• Title, Summary, Keyword: Peak Skin Dose

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Skin Radioprotector (Diethone) Modifying Dermal Response of Radiation on Rats (방사선 보호제(Diethone)의 랫드 피부반응에 대한 수식작용)

  • Hong, Seong-Eon;Urahashi, Shingo;Kamata, Rikisaburo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 1989
  • Investigations were carried out into the time-and dose-related changes in acute skin reaction following graded single dose (20,30 and 40 Gy) of x-ray irradiation in Wistar rats, in order to evaluate the radioprotective effect of Diethon on skin. For the duration of skin response over 1. 5 score in dose of 40 Gy, the Diethone group of 24.7 days was significantly different (p<0.02) from that of control (29.8 days) and vaseline (29.2 days) groups, it was $17.1\%$ diminution of skin response period compared with that of control group. By the averaging daily scores for 10 days during peak skin reaction the mean scores were obtained. Mean score of Diethone group $(2.43\pm0.22)$ was significantly different (p<0.01) from that of control $(2.91\pm0.23)$ and vaseline $(2.81\pm0.18)$ groups of 40Gy dose. By iso-effect dose obtained at level of 2.5 score the dose reduction factor (DRF) was 1.41 which reduced radiation dose of $41\%$ by radioprotective effect of Diethone. From this experimental data, it may be possible to give higer radiation dose to large and/or radioresistant tumor mass rather than conventional treatment doses for improving therapeutic ratio by using topical application of skin radioprotector.

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Skin Irritation Test of Clonidine Patch (Clonidine Patch에 피부자극성 시험)

  • 이영순;박우일;고광호
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.202-204
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    • 1996
  • Clonidine, an antihypertensive drug, stimulates postsynaptic $\alpha_2$adrenergic receptors in the CNS and lowers arterial pressure by erects on both cardiac output and peripheral resistance. However, many patients experience that sedation and xerostomia occured upon oral administration of clonidine. These side effects are due to high plasma peak concentration and can be avoided when clonidine is given transdermally. In this study, we performed the skin irritation test for transdermal administration of clonidine patch on New Zealand white rabbits. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups according to the dose levels, respectively. After transdermal administration of clonidine patch with two doses, clinical manifestations, body weight loss and postmortem findings were observed. We could not find any significant evidence of skin irritation by transdermal administration of clonidine patch.

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A Study of Radiation Doses to the Patient and Medical Team at Embolization Procedures

  • Castilho, Alvaro Vilas Boas;Szjenfeld, Denis;Nalli, Darcio;Fornazari, Vinicius;Moreira, Antonio Carlos;Medeiros, Regina Bitelli
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.110-117
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    • 2019
  • Background: This study aimed to estimate occupational doses and patient peak skin doses (PSDs) during interventional radiology procedures. Materials and Methods: We examined data from brain embolization (n = 30), hepatic chemoembolization (n = 50), and uterine embolization (n = 12). The PSDs were measured using radiochromic film around the patient's head (group 1) or abdominal/pelvic region (group 2). Acquisition technical data and kerma-area products (KAP) were also recorded. Occupational doses were measured using $Instadose^{TM}$ dosimeters near the left eye region (LER), chest, and left ankle. Results and Discussion: The third quartile (median) KAP values were $408.1(235.3)Gy{\cdot}cm^2$ for group 1 and $584.4(449.4)Gy{\cdot}cm^2$ for group 2. The average PSDs were greatest during vascular procedures, reaching 1,004.4 (786.4) mGy, and the highest PSD was 2,352.6 mGy (during hepatic chemoembolization). The third quartile (median) occupational doses were 0.35 (0.21) mSv at the LER, 0.25 (0.15) mSv at the chest, and 1.47 (0.64) mSv at the left ankle. Occupational doses at the LER were higher than at the chest, which highlights the importance of protective glasses and suspended shields. The occupational doses at the ankle region were also high, which highlights the importance of using a lead-lined curtain attached to the table. Conclusion: The results indicate that physicians can reach, for eye region, the weekly occupational dose limit after around 15 procedures, even when using proper protection. The average PSD values were below the threshold for tissue reactions, although the complexity of these procedures emphasises the importance of considering related risks.

Induction of Mouse Epidermal ODC by TPA and Inhibition by Plant Flavonoids, in Skin Tumor Promotion (다단계 발암과정 중 Promotion 단계에서의 TPA에 의한 Mouse Epidermal ODC의 유도 및 약물에 의한 차단효과)

  • 김미경;장일식;정문호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.64-73
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    • 1993
  • The study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of tumor promotion as the time courses and the doses of promoter, and the effect of plant fiavonoids on the TPA-induced ODC responses. The results are summarized as follows: 1. A single, toppical application of 17 nmole of the potent tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, resulted in an induction of mouse epidermal Ornithine Decarboxylase with a peak at 5 hours after treatment and maximized 5.1 times as large as ODC activities of control. 2. Dose-response curve indicated that the tumor promotion increases proportionally between 1.7 and 170 nmole of TPA. This dose dependency relationship indicated that the ability of TPA to stimulate ODC is linked its ability to promote tumors. 3. Naturally occurring plant fiavonoids with anticarcinogenic and antipromotional activities were tested for their abilities to inhibit ODC response induced by skin tumor promoter TPA. Intra peritoneal administration of fiavonoids compounds (rutin, naphthofiavone, baicalein, quercitrin) and herbal drugs (sophorae rios, crataegi fructus, armeniacae semen) inhibited 17 nmole TPA-induced ODC activities in mouse epidermis in vivo.

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Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of Flurbiprofen Gel Using Rats (흰쥐를 이용한 플루르비프로펜 겔의 약물동력학적 특성평가)

  • Gil, Hyung-Jun;Lee, Woo-Young;Chi, Sang-Cheol
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.483-487
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    • 1994
  • The pharmacokinetic characteristics of an 1% flurbiprofen gel were evaluated using rats in reference to IV bolus and oral administration of the drug using rats. Following the transdermal application of the gel at the dose of 2 mg/kg as flurbiprofen, the $C_{max}$ and $T_{max}$ of the drug were $2.14\;{\mu}g/ml$ and 2 hr, respectively, whereas those after the oral administration of the drug as a suspension were $9.90\;{\mu}g/ml$ and 0.25 hr, respectively. These results indicate that, by the transdermal administration fo flubiprofen as the gel, the absorption of the drug was much slowed down and the lower $C_{max}$ compared to the oral administration may reduce the systemic side effects of the drug. The relative bioavailability of the flurbiprofen gel in reference to the oral dose was 48.5%. Tissue levels of flurbiprofen following the application of 50 mg of the 1% flurbiprofen gel onto ventral skin of rats showed that the maximum drug concentrations in the skin $(8.52\;{\mu}g/g)$ and the muscle $(2.06\;{\mu}g/g)$ occurred at 2 hrs postdose. The drug concentration in the both tissues remained relatively constant over the next 6 hrs following the peak concentration.

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Pharmacokinetic Study of CKD-602, A New Camptothecin Derivative: Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (신규 캄토테신계 항암제 CKD-602의 약물동태: 분포, 대사 및 배설)

  • Lee, Ju-Mong;Lee, Jun-Hee;Kim, Joon-Kyum;Shin, Hee-Jong;Lee, Hyung-Ki;Lee, Sang-Joon;Hong, Chung-Il
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.437-446
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    • 1998
  • The distribution, metabolism and excretion of CKD-602{20(S)-7-[2-(N-Isopropylamino)ethyl]camptothecin HCI), a new camptothecin derivative, were investigated in rats after a sing le administration of CKD-602. 1. The tissue levels of CKD-602 given to mice by the intravenous route at a dose of 20mg/kg were the highest in intestine, followed in descending order by kidney, liver, stomach,lung, heart, spleen and plasma. The concentrations of CKD-602 after 24hrs decreased to less than 2% of the peak level in most tissues except the skin. The urinary and fecal excretion of CKD-602 were 47.6% and 44.4% of the administered dose, respectively, with 0.7% remaining in the rinse. 2. After administration of CKD-602 at 10mg/kg in rats, metabolism of this compound was examined in plasma, urine, and feces. The plasma samples were collected for 24hr, urinary and fecal samples for 72hr. While any peak of CKD-602 in HPLC chromatograms was not detected from plasma and urine it was detected in feces (peaks, 9.8 min). However, additional peak area was about 0.5% of the peak area of parent CKD-602. Therefore, CKD-602 may be eliminated with the parent form and rarely metabolized in the body. 4. After I.v. administration of CKD-602 at 10mg/kg in rats, urinary and fecal excretions were examined for 72hrs post dose period. 87% of total urinary excretion of CKD-602 was excreted within 8hr after administration, 53%, and 32% of total fecal excreted amounts were determined in 0-24 hr and 24-48hr periods, respectively. The total excretion amounts of CKD-602 into urine and feces were 94% of the administered dose.

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Pharmacokinetic Study of Florfenicol in Healthy and Vibriosis-infected Pseudosciaena crocea after Oral Administration

  • Wang, Li;Han, Yan-nan;Jin, Shan;Ma, Yin;Wang, Guo-liang;Zhao, Qing-song;Chen, Yin-er
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2015
  • The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol were studied in healthy and vibriosis-infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) following administration of a single oral dose of $20mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ at $25{\pm}2^{\circ}C$. After oral administration, florfenicol levels in tissues (liver, kidney, muscle, serum, and skin) were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. A two-compartment open model was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol following oral administration. Compared to the healthy group, the absorption rate of vibriosis-infected fish significantly decreased, peak-time ($T_{max}$) delayed, maximum concentration ($C_{max}$) declined, total body clearance decreased, the elimination half-life ($T_{1/2{\beta}}$) was extended, and the area under the curve increased. These results indicate that a $20mg{\cdot}kg^{-1}$ oral dose of florfenicol administered once daily continuously for 4 or 5 days can be used for the treatment of Vibrio alginolyticus infection in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and α-tocopherol on full-thickness skin grafts in rats (쥐(rats)의 full-thickness skin grafts에 대한 hyperbaric oxygen과 α-tocopherol의 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-shu;Kim, Chung-hul;Kim, Gon-sup;Hah, Dae-sik;Park, Sun-gun;Kim, Yang-mi
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.497-504
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    • 2000
  • To document that effects of hyperbaric oxygen(HBO) and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ on full-thickness skin grafts in rat, we performed full-thickness skin grafts bilaterally on each rats. The HBO-treated rats were received HBO twice daily for 90 minutes at 2 ATA. Surgical control rats were not treated with HBO. ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ treated rats were received the agent via oral gastric tube daily for 3 days preoperative and a fourth dose 1 to 2 hours postoperative. HBO plus ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ treated rats were received HBO and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ as mentioned above. Biopsy specimens were taken from each rat at the time of grafting and on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28, then were processed for tissue-concentration of total glutathione(GSHt), oxidized/reduced glutathione level, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance(TBARS) levels. The percentage of viable graft on day 10 ranged from 67 to 93%, and was not significantly different among the each other groups. The percentage of viable graft were, however, higher in HBO plus ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ treated rats(78.6%) than in HBO alone treated rats(59.1%), ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ alone treated rats(66.7%) and surgical control rats(58.2%). TBARS concentration had a significant increase from preoperative concentration at day 2, and peak concentration at day 4(p<0.01). Concentration then decreased to preoperative concentration at day 28. GSHt concentration of free skin graft had a similar patteren of change in four groups and decreased significantly from preoperative concentration at day 2, returning to preoperative concentration by day 7(surgical control, HBO-treated, and ${\alpha}-tocopherol-treated$, alone) and 28(HBO plus ${\alpha}-tocopherol-treated$). Percentage of the concentration of reduced glutathione decreased in surgical control, HBO-treated and, ${\alpha}-tocopherol-treated$(p<0.05), and HBO plus ${\alpha}-tocopherol-treared$(p<0.01) on day 7 after surgery, whereas the concentration of oxidized increased significantly in HBO-treated(p<0.05), ${\alpha}-tocopherol-treated$(p<0.05), and HBO plus ${\alpha}-tocopherol-treated$(p<0.01).

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Time Course Variation of Vitamin $C_3$ Content in Leg Skin of Broiler Chicks Exposed to Different Dose of UVB Light (자외선의 상이한 선양을 조사한 브로일러 병아리의 다리 피부중 비타민 $C_3$ 함양의 경시적 변화)

  • 장윤환;김강수;여영수;강훈석;조인호;배은경
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.93-105
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of previtamin D$_3$(PreD$_3$), lumisterol$_3$(L3), tachystero1$_3$(73), vitamin D$_3$(VD$_3$) and provitamin D$_3$(ProD$_3$) in leg skins of broiler chicks exposed to UVB lights (maximum intensity at 297 nm) with dose of 0.204 or 0.409 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$(30 or 60 min irradiation) . The broiler Hubbard line day old chicks(2 dose $\times$9 elapsed time $\times$4 replica+10 control=82) were fed VD-deficient diet for 31 days in a windowless subdued light room. The skin was collected at 0, 6, 12, 18, 30, 42, 66, 90 or 138 hr after UVB irradiation. The skin lipid was extracted by 9% ethyl acetate/n-hexane, and the fraction of VD$_3$ and its analogues was purified by Sep-Pak silica cartridge. The straight phase HPLC was utilized to analyze ProD$_3$ and its products. The mole %(absolute level expressed in ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) of PreD$_3$ in leg skin (epidermis+dermis) was 4.67%(44 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) or 3.97%(37 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) right after UVB irradiation by 0.204 or 0.409 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$(30 or 60 min) at 15 cm distance, respectively. It content in leg skin at 0 hr after exposure was 7.24%(12 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) or 0.92%(9 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$), respectively. The increase in irradiation dose did not affect proportionally the If synthesis.73 concentration in leg skin was 0.58%(S ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) or 0.57%(6 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$), respectively 0 hr after irradiation. The VD$_3$ in leg skin of birds exposed to UVB light with dose of 0.204 or 0.409 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ was 2.13% (21 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) or 0.97% (16ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$), respectively at 0 hr after exposure, 2.72%(26ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) or 3.84%(37ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$), respectively at 6 hr, and 4.30% ((33ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$) or 6.40%(76ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$), respectively at 12 hr. The peak concentration of VD$_3$ was presented at 18 or 30 hr when 0.204 or 0.409 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$) was treated, respectively. It was shown that 18~30 hr were necessary for the thermal conversion of PreD$_3$ into VD$_3$ in the leg skin of broiler chicks. The ProD$_3$ contents in leg skins of negative control, 0.204 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ and 0.409 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$ treated birds were 966, 948 and 815 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$, respectively at right before and after UVB exposure. It was estimated that 18 or 151 ng/$\textrm{cm}^2$ of ProD$_3$ was isomerized to PreD$_3$, L$_3$, T$_3$ and VD$_3$ when exposed to 0.204 or 0.409 mJ/$\textrm{cm}^2$, respective)y. Consequently it was shown that when double dose of UVB light was applied to irradiate the chick body, more but not double synthesis of VD$_3$ and its analogues was occured in leg skin of brolier chicks.

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Effect of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract on lipid accumulation by modulating specific adipogenic gene transcription factors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

  • Lee, Hyun Jeong;Lim, Jonghak;Peak, Junoh;Ki, Mun-sang;Lee, Sang-bong;Choe, Gayong;Jung, Jaeyun;Jung, Hansang;Jeon, Suwon;Park, Tae-Sik;Shim, Soon-Mi
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.63 no.2
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2020
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a hypodermic injectable solution comprised of an LPM LB meso solution containing Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract (LPM) on the lipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 cells line. The lipid accumulation measured by oil red o staining in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with LPM, which was reduced in a dose dependent manner and showed 91.7 to 62.9% compared to control group. Its effectiveness with a 50% solution was significantly higher than the hydroxycitric acid (positive control) treatment without showing cell cytotoxicity. In a quantitative real-time PCR, it was demonstrated that the LPM treatment appeared to upregulate the mRNA expression of the adipogenesis-related genes, which included the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (50% concentration) while down-regulating the CCAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha (50% concentration) and the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (10, 25, and 50% concentrations). The results from the current study suggest that the LPM could be useful biomaterials that can inhibit obesity in the 3T3-L1 cells, which could possibly be by regulating the specific adipogenic gene transcription factors.