• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pd-Ru

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Separation of Palladium(II) and Ruthenium(IV) from Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Solvent Extraction (염산용액에서 용매추출에 의한 팔라듐(II)과 루테늄(IV)의 분리)

  • Lee, Man-seung;Ahn, Jong-Gwan
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.349-355
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    • 2009
  • In the solvent extraction of Ru(IV) with Alamine336, it was found that Ru took part in the reaction as $RuCl_{6}_^{2-}$ in the HCl concentration range of 1 to 5 M. Interaction parameter between hydrogen ion and $RuCl_{6}_^{2-}$ was estimated by applying Bromley equation to the extraction data. From the mixed solutions of Pd(II) and Ru(IV), the distribution coefficients of Pd were found to be higher than those of Ru in the experimental ranges. Separation factor between Pd and Ru rapidly increased with the decrease of Alamine336 concentration. About 60% of the Ru from the mixed solutions was extracted by TBP at 8.3 M HCl, while Pd was not extracted in the HCl concentration range of 1.6 to 8.3 M.

Electronic Structure and Magnetism of (3d, 4d)-Pd Alloyed c(2×2) Monolayers (3d 및 4d 전이금속과 Pd가 c(2×2) 합금을 이룬 단층의 자성에 대한 제일원리 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Chul;Choi, Chang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of the (3d, 4d)-Pd alloyed c($2{\times}2$) monolayer systems, by use of the FLAPW band method. For comparison, pure 3d- and 4d-transition metal monolayers are also considered. We found that the antiferromagnetic configuration of pure V monolayers is sustained in the V-Pd alloy system, while the Ti-Pd alloy system is changed to antiferromagnetic configuration from the ferromagnetic state in pure Ti monolayer. The 4d TM (Mo, Ru, Rh)-Pd monolayers are found to be stable in ferromagnetic configurations. The magnetic moments of Ru and Rh atoms in Ru-Pd and Rh-Pd systems are almost same with those of pure Ru and Rh monolayers, while the magnetic moment of Mo atom is increased to $2.98\;{\mu}_B$ in Mo-Pd alloyed system from the value of Mo monolayer, $0.02\;{\mu}_B$.

Synthesis and Characterization of PtPd and PtRuPd Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

  • Horvath G.;Park K. W.;Sung Y. E.
    • 한국전기화학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2002
  • In this study, Pt/Pd (1.1), PtPd (2:1) and PtPd (3:1) binary catalysts and Pt/Ru/Pd (5:4:1) ternary catalyst were designed. The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method using $NaBH_4$ as a reducing agent. A good catalyst for methanol oxidation requires low on-set potential, stable durability and low activation energy. In order to investigate the catalytic activity for the methanol oxidation, electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were peformed in sulfuric acid with/without methanol solution. In order to calculate the activation energy of the reaction, electrochemical measurements were also tested at different temperatures. For investigation of the structural analysis such as particle size and alloying, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis were used. In order to identify the role of the Pd and to determine the composition of the surface of the Pt/Pd nanoparticles, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis was investigated. The XPS spectra of Pd showed that Pd appears only as a metallic state in the binary catalysts. The chemical states of Pt in PtPd catalysts are both metallic and oxidative. Polarization curves and power density data were obtained by testing the DMFC unit cell performance of PtPd and PtRuPd catalysts. These data showed that Pt/Pd (2:1) and Pt/Ru/Pd (5:4:1) have better performance than Pt and Pt/Ru, respectively.

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A Effect of H2O-H2 Pretreatment on VOCs Oxidation over Noble Catalysts on Titania (티타니아에 담지된 귀금속촉매의 H2O-H2 전처리에 따른 휘발성유기화합물 산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Moon-Chan;Ko, Sun-Hwan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.552-556
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    • 2007
  • In this study, noble metals (Pd, Ru, Ir) were supported to $TiO_2$ catalyst. In order to distribute metals uniformly, $H_2O-H_2$ pretreatment technique was used. Xylene, toluene, and MEK were used as reactants. The monometallic or bimetallic catalysts were prepared by the excess wetness impregnation method and were characterized by XRD, and XPS analysis. Pd-Ru, Pd-Ir bimetallic catalysts had multipoint active sites which improved the range of Pd metal state. Bimetallic catalysts had a higher conversion of VOCs than that of monometallic one. The effect of $H_2O-H_2$ pretreatment technique was the enhancement of uniform distribution of Pd particles and promotion of catalytic efficiency. In this study, addition of Ru and Ir metals to Pd promoted oxidation conversion of VOCs. In addition, $H_2O-H_2$ pretreatment promoted removal efficiency of VOCs on the $TiO_2$ support.

Hydropurification of Crude Terephthalic Acid over PdRu/Carbon Composite Catalyst (PdRu/Carbon Composite 촉매를 이용한 테레프탈산의 수소화 정제)

  • Jhung, Sung-Hwa;Park, Youn-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2002
  • The hydropurification reaction of CTA (crude terephthalic acid) was carried out with hydrogen over PdRu/CCM (carbon-carbonaceous composite material) catalyst in a batch reactor at high temperature. The first order kinetics of hydropurification is confirmed with the linear dependence of ln(4-CBA; 4-carboxybenzaldehyde) with reaction time. The reaction condition studied is thought to represent the hydropurification well because of the linear dependence of catalytic activity on the catalyst weight. The p-toluic acid (p-tol) in solid and liquid increases with the conversion of reaction or the decrease of 4-CBA. However, the benzoic acid (BA) concentration does not depend much on the conversion. The AT (alkali transmittance) does not depend on the 4-CBA when the concentration is higher than about 0.2% which shows the 4-CBA, in itself, does not cause the coloring effect. The AT of PTA depends inversely with the concentration of 4-CBA when the 4-CBA is less than about 0.15%. This may show the coloring materials are removed in parallel with the hydrogenation of 4-CBA. The (0.3%Pd-0.2%Ru)/CCM shows larger residual catalytic activity than a commercial catalyst, 0.5%Pd/C, after using in a commercial reactor even though the former has smaller fresh activity than the latter. The palladium and ruthenium in PdRu/CCM show the synergetic effect in activity when the ruthenium concentration is about $0.2{\sim}0.35$ wt%. It may be supposed that the PdRu/CCM catalyst can be a promising candidate to replace the commercial Pd/C catalyst.

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Calf Thymus DNA from a Long-Lifetime Metal-Ligand Complex to Nile Blue

  • Kang, Jung-Sook;Lakowicz, Josepb R.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.551-558
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    • 2001
  • We extended the measurable time scale of DNA dynamics to submicrosecond using a long-lifetime metal-ligand complex, $[Ru(phen)_2(dppz)]^{2+}$ (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) (RuPD), which displays a mean lifetime near 350 ns. We partially characterized the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in calf thymus DNA from RuPD to nile blue (NB) using frequency-domain fluorometry with a high-intensity, blue light-emitting diode (LED) as the modulated light source. There was a significant overlap of the emission spectrum of the donor RuPD with the absorption spectrum of the acceptor NB. The F$\ddot{o}$rster distance ($R_0$) that was calculated from the spectral overlap was $33.4\;{\AA}$. We observed dramatic decreases in the steady-state fluorescence intensities of RuPD when the NB concentration was increased. The intensity decays of RuPD were matched the closest by a triple exponential decay. The mean decay time of RuPD in the absence of the acceptor NB was 350.7 ns. In a concentration-dependent manner, RuPD showed rapid intensity decay times upon adding NB. The mean decay time decreased to 184.6 ns at $100\;{\mu}M$ NB. The FRET efficiency values that are calculated from the mean decay times increased from 0.107 at $20\;{\mu}M$ NB to 0.474 at $100\;{\mu}M$ NB concentration. The use of FRET with a long-lifetime metal-ligand complex donor is expected to offer the opportunity to increase the information about the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids.

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Preparation of Ag, Pd, and Pt50-Ru50 colloids prepared by γ-irradiation and electron beam and electrochemical immobilization on gold surface

  • Kim, Kyung-Hee;Seo, Kang-Deuk;Oh, Seong-Dae;Choi, Seong-Ho;Oh, Sang-Hyub;Woo, Jin-Chun;Gopalan, A.;Lee, Kwang-Pill
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.333-341
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    • 2006
  • PVP-protected Ag, Pd and $Pt_{50}-Ru_{50}$ colloids were prepared independently by using ${\gamma}$-irradiation and electron beam (EB) at ambient temperature. UV-visible spectra of these colloids show the characteristic bands of surface resonance and give evidence for the formation of nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments were used to know the morphology of nanoparticles prepared by ${\gamma}$-irradiation and EB. The size of Ag, Pd, and $Pt_{50}-Ru_{50}$ nanoparticles prepared by ${\gamma}$-irradiation was ca. 13, 2-3, 15 nm, respectively. While, the size of Ag, Pd, and $Pt_{50}-Ru_{50}$ nanoparticles prepared by EB was ca. 10, 6, and 1-3 nm, respectively. Cyclic voltamograms (CV) were recorded for the Au electrodes immobilized with these nanoparticles. CVs indicated the modifications in the surface as a result of immobilization.

A First-principles Calculation of Surface Magnetism of Half-monolayer Ru on Pd(001)

  • Kim, Dong-Chul;Lee, J.I;Jang, Y.R
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.107-110
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    • 1999
  • In order to investigate the magnetism of Ru submonolayer on Pb(001), we have performed first-principles calculations for half-layer of Ru on Pd(001) using the full-potential linearzed augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. We have found that the magnetic moment of Ru for 0.5 layer is 2.21 B. It is found that substrate Pd layers are polarized by the 0.5 Ru overlayer to have significant magnetic moments. Our results are compared with those obtained by the anomalous Hall effect. The calculated electronic structures, i,e., the spin densities and density of states are presented and discussed in relation with magnetic properties.

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