• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pd contents

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Influence of Pd Contents and Substrate Temperature on the Magnetic Property in Co1-xPdx Films (Co1-xPdx 합금의 Pd함량과 스퍼터 기판온도에 따른 자기적 특성 변화)

  • 이기영;송오성
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.744-751
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    • 2003
  • Co-Pd alloy thin films prepared by a DC-sputter that have self-organized nano structure(SONS), are promising for high-density information storage media in information era. We prepared the samples by varying Pd contents of 0~8.1 wt% at the substrate temperatures of room temperature (RT) and 200 $^{\circ}C$, respectively Microstructure and Pd contents of the Co$_{1-x}$ Pd$_{x}$ films are probed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). We also investigated the saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence and coercivity of the Co$_{1-x}$ Pd$_{x}$ films. Surface roughness are measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). We revealed that self-organized nano size Co-enriched phase and Pd-enriched phase existed with Pd contents at the substrate temperatures of RT and 20$0^{\circ}C$ through microstructure characterization. SONS helped to keep the saturation magnetization and enhance the perpendicular anisotropy with Pd contents. Out result implies that we may tune the perpendicular magnetic properties with keeping the saturation magnetization by varying substrate temperatures and Pd contents for high density magnetic recording.rding.

Influence of Pd Concentration and Substrate Temperatures on the Magnetic Property in Permalloy Films (Pd 첨가와 기판온도 변화에 따른 퍼말로이 합금박막의 자기특성변화)

  • 이기영;송오성;윤종승;김경각
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.818-821
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    • 2002
  • We investigated the evolution of magnetic property with varying palladium (Pd) contents and elevating substrate temperatures up to 200 $^{\circ}C$ during dc-sputtering. We observed that saturation magnetization (Ms), remanence and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) ratio decrease with Pd contents in the case of keeping the substrate temperature at 3$0^{\circ}C$. However they increase by adding 2 %Pd, then decrease above 3 %Pd when we keep the substrate temperature at 20$0^{\circ}C$. Coercivity does not change with Pd contents. Our results imply that we may tune the Ms and AMR with Pd contents and substrate temperature in permalloy films.

Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene by bimetallic catalysts on hematite in the presence of hydrogen gas

  • Choi, Kyunghoon;Lee, Nara;Lee, Woojin
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.151-162
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    • 2014
  • Among the combination of 4 different second metals and 3 different noble metals, Ni 10%-Pd 1%/hematite (Ni(10)-Pd(1)/H) showed best tetrachloroethylene (PCE) removal (75.8%) and production of non-toxic products (39.8%) in closed batch reactors under an anaerobic condition. The effect of environmental factors (pH, contents of Ni and Pd in catalyst, and hydrogen gas concentration) on the reductive dechlorination of PCE by Pd-Ni/hematite catalysts was investigated. PCE was degraded less at the condition of Ni(5)/H (13.7%) than at the same condition with Ni(10)/H (20.6%). Removals of PCE were rarely influenced by the experimental condition of different Pd amounts (Pd(1)/H and Pd(3)/H). Acidic to neutral pH conditions were favorable to the degradation of PCE, compared to the alkaline condition (pH 10). Increasing Ni contents from 1 to 10% increased the PCE removal to 89.8% in 6 hr. However, the removal decreased to 74.2% at Ni content of 20%. Meanwhile, increasing Pd contents to 6% showed no difference in PCE removal at Pd content of more than 1%. Increasing H2 concentration increased the removal of PCE until 4% H2 which was maximumly applied in this study. Chlorinated products such as trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride were not observed while PCE was transformed to acetylene (24%), ethylene (5%), and ethane (11%) by Ni(10)-Pd(1)/H catalyst in 6hr.

Synthesis and In Vitro Properties of Prednisolone 21-Sulfate Sodium as a Colon-Specific Prodrug of Prednisolone

  • Doh, Min-Ju;Jung, Yun-Jin;Kim, In-ho;Kong, Hye-Sik;Kim, Young-Mi
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.258-263
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    • 2003
  • Colon-specific delivery of glucocorticoids is highly desirable for the efficient treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. We synthesized prednisolone 21-sulfate sodium (PDS) as a colon-specific prodrug of prednisolone (PD) and investigated its properties using rats as test animals. We expected that introduction of sulfate ester as a sodium salt might increase the hydrophilicity and restrict the absorption in the GI tract. If PDS is stable and nonabsorbable in the upper intestine, it will be delivered to the colon as an intact form, where it hydrolyze by the sulfatase to release PD. Compared with PD, the solubility of PDS increased and the apparent partition coefficient decreased greatly. PDS was stable on incubation with pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffer solutions and with the contents of the stomach and small intestine. On incubation with the cecal contents, PDS decreased to 9.6% of the dose in 10 h producing PD. The amount of PD increased to give a maximum 54% of the dose and decreased. As a control, when PD was incubated with the cecal contents, it decreased to 29% of the dose in 8 h, which implied that reduction of PD proceeded under such conditions. These results suggested that hydrolysis of PDS took place to produce and accumulate PD, which decreased by reduction as the incubation period extended. Our results suggested that PDS can be a promising colon-specific prodrug of PD, and sulfate ester group might serve as a potential colon-specific promoiety, especially for the drugs which are resistant to reduction in the colon.

Components of Korean Broadcasting Production System-Based on Analysis of 'Broadcasting Culture' & 'PD Journal' (한국의 방송 제작체계 구성요소 <방송문화>, 내용분석을 바탕으로)

  • Hong, Kyung-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2013
  • In this study I selected the keyword analysis method to infer what's the components of production system. Magazine , were chosen, because they are most close media to production reality. After content analysis of , key words of main reports were programming production, institution policy, industry, technology. As for , institution policy, organization, programming production, collective action were frequently found. Even though there are some differences between two media, institution policy, industry, technology, organization keywords are very salient components regarding programming production.

Synthesis of Stigmastanol as a Serum Cholesterol-lowering substance Using Pd Catalyst (Pd 촉매를 이용한 혈청 콜레스테롤 저하제 Stigmastanol의 합성)

  • 김의용
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.76-81
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    • 2001
  • Stigmastanol, a functional agent of cholesterol-lowering in humans, was synthesized from stigmasterol. To investigate the usability as a raw material, the contents of sterol in vegetable oils and extract of soybean chaff were analyzed. The total sterol contents showed high values of 213.7 and 209.8 mg/100g in corn and soybean oils respectively. The extract of soybean chaff has played a good role as a raw material with high sterol contents. The kinetics of hydrogenation of stigmasterol was studied using a 5% Pd/AC catalyst in the temperature range of 30~$60^{\circ}$C. Increasing temperature showed a prominent decrease in conversion. The optimum temperature was $40^{\circ}$C for high yield of stigmastanol. The effects of $H_2$ pressure, agitation speed, catalyst loading, and stigmasterol concentration on reaction rate profile were also examined. From the power law model analysis using the initial rates of reaction, the reaction order was calculated as 0.705 for stigmasterol concentration and 0.147 for hydrogen pressure.

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An evaluation of the effects of VDT tasks on multiple resources processing in working menory using MD, PD method (MD, PD법을 이용한 VDT 직무의 단기기억 다중자원처리에의 영향평가)

  • 윤철호;노병옥
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.85-96
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    • 1997
  • This article reviews the effects of VDT tasks on multiple resources for processing and storage in short-term working memory. MD and PD method were introduced toevaluate the modalities (auditory-visual) in the multiple resources model. The subjects conducted 2 sessions of 50 minites VDT tasks. Before, between and after VDT tasks, MD, PD task performance scores and CFF(critical flicker frequency0 values were measured. The review suggested that the modalities of human information processing in working memory were affected by VDT tasks with different task contents.

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Collaborative mentoring in professional development program for mathematics teachers: A case of "PD program of multi-tiered teacher community" (수학교사 연수에서 협력적 멘토링의 실제 -'함께 만들어가는 수학교사 연수'의 사례를 중심으로-)

  • Cho, Hyungmi;Kwon, Oh Nam;Lee, Jiyeon;Yoon, Jeong Eun
    • The Mathematical Education
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    • v.54 no.3
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    • pp.283-298
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    • 2015
  • This research is the case study of collaborative mentoring in the professional development of multi-tiered mathematics teacher community. We observed the procedures of mentoring, and contents of mentoring in PD program. For this purpose, we implemented PD program with participant unit composed of 3 or 4 teachers in the same school and total 25 teachers from 4 elementary schools and 4 high schools. Also there were 1 mentor and 1 sub-mentor to support each school. Observed mentoring processes were all recorded and the participants not only were interviewed several times but also wrote reflection notes after meetings. While mentoring PD program was implemented, mentor and mentee had joint responsibility about lessons implemented by mentee. Furthermore It showed possibility of change of teacher learning culture, learning culture of community. It means that teacher would improve their professionalism more effectively within teacher community instead of individual. 4 reflection contents was founded in collaborative mentring; 1)purpose of mathematics education, 2)motivation and connection between previous lecture and present lecture 3)lack of mathematical contents in lesson 4)discourse between teacher and students.

Quality Characteristics of Salad Dressing added with Prunella vulgaris L. Extract (하고초 추출물을 첨가한 샐러드드레싱의 품질 특성)

  • Ryu, Ji-Hye;Hwang, Young;Park, Young-Hee;Kim, Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.202-211
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to develop a salad dressing using Prunella vulgaris L. (PV) extracts. In addition, the study was also aimed at evaluating the quality characteristics of the salad dressing containing various amounts of PV extracts. Salad dressing was prepared by adding 0% (PD-0), 9.4% (PD-20), 18.8% (PD-40), 28.2% (PD-60), 37.6% (PD-80), 47.0% (PD-100) of PV extract. The quality characteristics (sugar contents, salinity, color value, total phenol contents, total flavonoid contents, DPPH, ABTS+ radical scavenging activities, and sensory acceptability) of the dressing were analyzed. According to the results of the study, the sugar contents and salinity of salad dressing increased according to the added amount of PV extract (p<0.001). The color values of lightness and yellowness of salad dressing increased according to the added amount of PV extract, whereas color value of redness decreased (p<0.001). Antioxidant activities were improved depending on the amount of PV extracts (p<0.001). The sensory acceptability (flavor, medicinal flavor, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and viscosity) were significantly higher in the dressing added with 18.8% PV extracts than in the other samples. Based on this result, a storage experiment was conducted by comparing PD-40 and PD-C. After 4 weeks of storage at $4^{\circ}C$ and $24^{\circ}C$, the quality characteristics were observed and the pH was increased in the later stages of storage (p<0.05). The depicted that, viscosity increased with storage time at $4^{\circ}C$ (p<0.001). General bacteria and coliform were not detected during storage. These results indicated that salad dressing with the addition of 18.8% PV extracts has the best quality.