• Title, Summary, Keyword: Passive Immunization

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An epidemiologic study on the seropositive rate of hepatitis A virus among a selected group of children and adults in Busan (부산지역 소아 및 성인의 A형 간염 바이러스 항체 양성률에 대한 역학적 조사)

  • Kwon, Young Ok;Choi, Im Jeong;Jung, Jin Wha;Park, Ji Hyun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.262-267
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : The prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a certain community reflects that community's living standards and hygienic conditions. And the pattern of HAV infection differs over time and geography. Recently, a shift in prevalence has been observed in cases from chilhood to adulthood. We studied the HAV antibody prevalence in the general population in Busan. Methods : From October 2004 to March 2005, total 472 subjects were tested for HAV antibodies. All samples were collected from patients in Maryknol Hospital. Results : The overall seropositive rate was 22.8% (108/472). The seropositive rates were 1.7% in subjects aged 2-5 years, 1.7% in 6-10 years, 0% in 11-20 years, 40.5% in 21-30 years, 82.1% in 31-40 years, 94.7% in 41-50 years, and 100% in subjects aged over 50 years. There was no significant gap between gender groups. Conclusion : As the socioeconomic conditions in Korea have improved, the HAV seropositive rate in school-aged children has dramatically decreased in the last 20 years. But, the seropositive rate of HAV didn't differ according to gender. The seropositive rate of HAV in the pediatric group was very low, which suggests the increasing possibility of clinical HAV infection in adults in the near future. Therefore, we should actively prevent the spread of hepatits A virus. In order to do that, we need to reorganize our lifestyle and personel hygiene and carry out active and passive immunization to high risk groups.

Positive Rate of HBsAg in School Children in Incheon Area (인천 지역 초, 중, 고등학생의 B형 간염 바이러스 표면항원 양성률에 대한 조사 연구)

  • Chang, Ji Yeon;Jeong, Su Jin;Kim, Soon Ki;Son, Byong Kwan;Hong, Young Jin;Hong, Kwang Sun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : The incidence of hepatitis B virus infection has gradually decreased since 1983 when hepatitis B vaccine was firstly produced. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of hepatitis B immunization. Methods : The elementary, middle and high school children in Incheon area were enrolled in this study in 1997 and 1998. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen(HBsAg) was measured using reversed passive hemagglutination(RPHA). Results : The results were as follows The positive rates of HBsAg in elementary, middle and high school children were 0.7%(337/46,861), 2.5%(381/15,026) and 3.1%(681/21,938) respectively in 1997 and 0.6%(257/41,946), 2.7%(379/13,652) and 2.4%(628/25,277) respectively in 1998. The positive rates of HBsAg in children under 19 years of age in 1985, 1990 and 1995 were 6.1, 5.2 and 3.5% respectively. Conclusion : The positive rates of HBsAg in elementary school children in 1997 and 1998 has decreased compared with those of the previous studies. The majority of elementary school children were given hepatitis B vaccination. These results suggest that hepatitis B vaccines used in Korea were effective for prevention of hepatitis B infection in school children.

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Persistency of Neutralizing Antibody to Inactivated Mouse Brain Derived Nakayama Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine and Current Observations of Booster Vaccination and Adverse Events (일본뇌염 사백신 중화항체 지속률과 부작용에 대한 연구)

  • Sohn, Young Mo;Park, Ji Ho;Lee, Jin Soo;Roh, Hye Ok;Ki, Moran;Choi, Bo Yul;Kim, Young Ho
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.150-159
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : We need to reconsider booster vaccination schedule of Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To do that we evaluate the long-term immunogenicity and the incidence of adverse events with inactivated mouse brain derived Nakayama Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Methods : We tested neutalizing antibody for 311 elementary school students by plaque reduction neutralizing test(PRNT) at USAMC-AFRIMS(United States Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Science/Department of Virology). We evaluated vaccine related adverse events by spontaneous reporting prospectively among 15,487 vaccinees who were vaccinated at public health center and 2,277 elementary school students who were immunized previously by a questionnaire and school health record. Results : According to the time interval from the last booster injection of 311 children, PRNT antibody titers gradually decreased as the interval increased; 239 mIU/mL, 188 mIU/mL, 134 mIU/mL, 49 mIU/mL each at 6, 18, 30, 42 months after the last booster injection. The seropositivity rates were 98%, 99%, 95.6%, 71.4% each at 6, 18, 30, 42 months after the last booster injection. There were 21(0.13%) cases with systemic reactions among 15,487 vaccinees who had visited the hospital by prospective passive reporting system at public health center. According to the questionnaires and school health records in elementary school students, local induration and pain were 17.4% and 14.8%, respectively. Systemic reactions including fever, vomiting, rash were reported in few cases. Conclusion : Biannual booster vaccination that has been recommended so far should not be necessary. Surveillance for adverse events with inactivated mouse brain derived Nakayama vaccine should be strengthened to better assess the number of cases and reactions associated with immunization.

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Development of Polyclonal Antibodies to Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipocyte for Producing Fat-reduced High Quality Pork (저지방 고품질 돈육 생산을 위한 돼지 복강 및 피하지방 항체 개발)

  • Choi, Chang-Weon;Baek, Kyung-Hoon;Choi, Chang-Bon;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Hong, Seong-Koo
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2010
  • The aim of the present study was to develop polyclonal antibodies to regional inedible adipocytes of pigs and investigate the effect of these antibodies on adipocytes in vitro. As antigens, abdominal and subcutaneous adipocyte PMPs from pigs were injected into sheep 3 times per 3 wk intervals for passive immunization, and non-immunized serum, antisera against abodominal (AAb) or subcutaneous adipocyte PMPs (SAb) were collected before and after the injections. Titers of the antisera obtained from sheep and their cross-reactivities with the heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen of pig were determined by ELISA. Isolation and culture of abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes from pigs were performed to analyze LDH concentration. At a 1:1,000 dilution, little antibody reactivity was observed for non-immunized serum whereas both AAb and SAb had relatively strong reactivity up to a dilution of 1:16,000. These findings may indicate that strong antibodies against adipocyte PMPs can be developed using an immunological approach. Extremely low reactivity of AAb and SAb was detected with the PMPs of the organs. Both antisera most strongly reacted with each adipocyte PMPs and showed statistically (p<0.05) higher cross-reactivities compared with the non-immunized serum. In conclusion, these results may indicate that the present polyclonal antibodies against regional inedible adipocyte PMPs are well developed and are safe against cross-reactivities with the organs of pigs. Further studies on the in vivo nutritional safety and fat reduction of these antibodies in pigs will be required fat-reduced high quality pork production.

Development of Polyclonal Antibodies to Abdominal and Subcutaneous Adipocytes for Fat-Reduced Hanwoo Beef Production (한우 체지방 감소 쇠고기 생산을 위한 복강 및 피하지방 항체 개발)

  • Choi, Chang-Weon;Kim, Yu-Hyun;Kim, Sang-Jin;Song, Man-Kang;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Oh, Young-Kyoon;Hong, Seong-Koo;Choi, Seong-Ho;Baek, Kyung-Hoon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.651-659
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    • 2008
  • This study aimed to develop polyclonal antibodies to regional inedible adipocytes of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and investigate cross-reactivity of the antibodies. Patterns in plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) from abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes of Hanwoo isolated by collagenase digestion were investigated using SDS-PAGE. As antigens, abdominal and subcutaneous adipocyte PMPs of Hanwoo were injected to sheep 3 times at 3 wk intervals for passive immunization, and non-immunized serum and antisera were collected before and after the injections. Titers of the antisera obtained from sheep and their cross-reactivities with heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and spleen of Hanwoo were determined by ELISA. Isolation and culture of abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes of Hanwoo were performed for analysing LDH concentration. Based on the SDS-PAGE analysis, specific proteins of PMPs in abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes appeared despite rather similar patterns between both adipocytes. At the level of 1:1,000 dilution, little antibody reactivity appeared in non-immunized serum whereas the antisera had relatively strong reactivity up to the level of 1:128,000 and 1:64,000 dilution. These findings may indicate that strong antibodies against adipocyte PMPs can be developed using an immunological approach. Extremely low reactivities of abdominal and subcutaneous adipocyte antisera were detected with PMPs of the organs. Both antisera strongly reacted with each adipocyte PMPs and showed statistically (p<0.01) higher cross-reactivities compared with non-immunized serum. In conclusion, these results may indicate that the present polyclonal antibodies against regional inedible adipocyte PMPs are well developed and have safety in cross-reactivities with body organs. Further studies on in vivo cross-reactivity and fat reduction of the antibodies against abdominal and subcutaneous adipocytes PMPs of Hanwoo should be required for inedible fat-reduced high quality beef production.