• Title, Summary, Keyword: Passive Immunization

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Resistance to Naegleria fowleri infection passively acquired from immunized splenocyte, serum or milk (면역시킨 마우스의 비장세포, 혈청 또는 모유를 통해 얻을 수 있는 Naegleria fowleri 감염에 대한 방어 능력)

  • 안명희;민득영
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.79-86
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    • 1989
  • A pathogenic free-living amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis to human and experimental animals. This infection is rare, but the mortality is very high. Nowadays, drug treatment or active immunization of human or mice are being tried with partial effectiveness. This study shows passive immunization effect by transfer of immunized spleen cells, serum, or milk from immunized mother in mouse experimental model. Young BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with $2~3{\times}10^{6}$ trophozoites of N. fowleri, and spleen cells and sera were collected for injection to recipient mice. There were seven transfer groups, i.e., immunized mouse serum, spleen cells, serum and spleen cells, normal mouse serum, spleen cells, serum and spleen cells, and control group. Three days later, BALB/c mice were inoculated with $1{\times}10^{4}$ trophozoites of N. fowleri intranasally. After infection, decreased mortality ana prolonged survival time of mice were noted in immunized Bloops compared with non.immuniBed control group. The groups Injected with immunized spleen cells or normal serum shewed lower moltality than that of controls bult showed no changes of Serum IgG level. The groups injected with immunized serum or normal spleen cells showed increased serum IgG level after immunization but hundred percent mortality was observed. Mother mice were ifnfnunised increperitqneeliy with $2~3{\times}10^{6}$ trephozoites of N. fowleri at the end of pregnancy and weaning Period. Soon after the delivery, Jitters born of non-immunszed mother were matched with immunized mother for feeding immune milk. After three weeks, the litters were infected with $1{\times}10^{4}$ trophozeites of N. fowleri or sacrificed for serum collection to measure the IgG levels. The results show that anti-JV. fowleri IgG from mother was transferred to litter through milk but this IgG did not inauence the mortality or survival time of the infected mice.

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Antigenicity of CFC-101(Pseudomonas vaccine) in Guinea Pigs and Mice (기니픽과 마우스에서 CFC-101(녹농균 백신)의 항원성시험)

  • 백남진;김달현;이동억;선우연;한형미;정승태;김필선;김현수
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.331-335
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    • 1994
  • As a part of the safety evaluation of Pseudomonas vaccine(CFC-101), antigenicity tests were carried out in guinea pigs and mice. In active systemic anaphylaxis(ASA) test, guinea pigs showed no sign or only moderate sign(1/5) when sensitized and challenged with up to 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg. In homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis(PCA) test using guinea pigs, inoculation of CFC-101 alone did not produce CFC-101-specific antibody. When inoculated with 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg plus adjuvant, challenge of 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg produced PCA titer of 32(5/5) but challenge of 20 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg did not produce CFC-101-specific antibody. In heterologous PCA test using mice, CFC-101-specific antibody was not detected when sensitized with CFC-101 alone. Some animals(3/12) showed positive PCA response when inoculated with 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg plus alum. In passive hemagglutination (PHA) test, although no antibody was detected at 20 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg, inoculation of 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg alone or with alum produced positive response in all animals. This result has already been predicted because CFC-101 is a vaccine developed for the purpose of immunization. From the above results, it can be concluded that there is no adverse antigenic potential up to 10 times clinical dose of 200 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg.

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Hens immunized with live attenuated Salmonella strains expressing virulence-associated genes in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli passively transfer maternal antibodies to chicks

  • Won, Gayeon;Lee, John Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2016
  • We investigated whether maternal antibodies (mAbs) elicited by dams immunized with recombinant vaccine candidates against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) can passively confer protective immunity to chicks. In the present study, pBP244 plasmids carrying selected antigens of APEC were transformed into Salmonella Typhimurium JOL912, which was used as a vaccine candidate against APEC. The hens were immunized with the vaccine candidates using prime or booster doses. The levels of IgG and sIgA specific to the selected antigens increased significantly following prime immunization. To evaluate the persistence of passively transferred mAbs, the levels of IgY and IgA were determined in egg yolks and whites, respectively. The eggs from the immunized group showed consistently increased levels of IgY and IgA until week 16 post-laying (PL) and week 8 PL, respectively, relative to the control group. The presence of mAbs was observed in chicks that hatched from the hens, and titers of plasma IgY were consistently raised in those from the immunized hens by day 14 post-hatching. Further, chicks from the immunized hens were protected from challenge with a virulent APEC strain, whereas those from non-immunized hens showed acute mortality.

Passive Immunity by Splenocyte Transfer against Amebic Meningoeneephalitis in Mice (세포에 의한 아메바성 수막뇌염에 대한 피동면역의 전달)

  • 임경일;유재숙
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1988
  • The role of passive cell-mediated transfer of immunity against primary amoebic meningoen- cephalitis(PAME) in mice was studied. Waegleria fowleri, ITMAP 359, were cultured in CGVS medium. The ICR mice used were six week-old males of average weight of 15 g. Immunization was done by three intraperitoneal injections of $1{\times}10^6$ N. fowleri trophozoites at the interval of one week. Splenocytes were obtained from normal and immune mice spleens, and Ix107 cells were administered intraperitoneally into mice 3 days before challenge infection. Mice were infected intranasally with $7{\times}10^4$ N. fowleri trophozoites in a $3{\;}{\mu}l$ suspension under secobarbiturate anesthesia. Transplants of normal or immune splenocytes seem to alter the pattern of the PAME level- opment. The splenocytcs transferred from immune mice reduced the mortality rate in the JV. fowleri infected mice, as compared with the mice transferred with the same number of normal splenocytes or without splenocyte, The blastogenic response of the splenocytes to both lipopoly- saccharide and concanavalin A was elevated on duty 7 after infection the mice transinoculated with immune splenocytes. The serum antibody titers in the mice transferred with immune spleno- cytes were increased gradually from day 7 up to day 20 after infections by mean of ELISA. It is suggested that the transfer of splenocytes from immuniged mice conferred immunity against N. fowleri infection.

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Passive Transfer of Immunity against Clonoychis sinensis by Peritoneal Exudate Cells in Mice (복강삼출세포를 이입받은 마우스에서의 간흡충에 대한 면증응답)

  • Gwon, Tae-Chan;Gang, Jin-Mu;Choe, Dong-Ik
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 1987
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of peritoneal exudate cells in the transfer of immunity against the liver cuke, Clonorchis sinensis in the inbred BALB/c mice. Ten donor mice were divided into 2 groups. One group consisted of 5 mice was infected orally with 20 metacercariae of C. siitensis, and the other group was injected intraperitoneally with 20 excysted larvae. Thirty days after immunization, the peritoneal exudate cells tore obtained from the donor mice. Twenty recipient mice were divided into 4 equal groups for the purpose of primary immunization. The mice of Group I were injected intraperitoneally with $2{\times}10^6$ peritoneal exudate cells of the donor mice infected orally, those of Group II were injected intraperitoneally with $2{\times}10^6$ peritoneal exudate cells of the donor mice injected intraperitoneally. Those of Group III were injected orally with 20 metacercariae of C. sinensis. The group IV mice served as controls. Four days after the primary iMmunization all recipient mice were challenged orally with 20 metacercariae of C. sinensis, and then killed 30 days after the challenging infection. When the peritoneal exudate cells were injected into the recipient mice, pronounced reduction in eggs per gram of the feces was found in the mice o( Group I and Group II, but no reduction in those of Group III. In the worm burdens of C. sinensis, the number of flukes found in the mice of Group II was only significantly less than those in the control group (IV). In addition the number of plaque forming cells per spleen in the mice of Group II was found larger than those in Group I. It is likely that donor peritoneal exudate cells transferred to the recipients might result in the production of relative immunity.

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Effects of Polyclonal Antiserum Against Adipocyte Plasma Membrane Proteins on Body Composition of Passively Immunized Sprague-Dawley Male Rats (지방세포 원형질막 단백질에 대한 다클론 항체의 수동면역이 수컷 흰쥐의 체조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Baek, K.H.;Choi, C.B.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2002
  • The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of administration of antiserum against adipocyte plasma membrane(APM) proteins into rats on body fat mass. Twenty(20) male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into either control or antiserum treatment group(10 rats/treatment) and immunized with physiological saline(control group) and polyclonal antiserum (treatment group), respectively, raised in sheep against rat APM proteins(5times, 2day interval). All animals were killed 4weeks after last injection. Intraperitoneal(i.p.) administration of antiserum significantly(P=0.0054 and P=0.0019, respectively) reduced subcutaneous(21.9%) and perirenal + mesentric + epididymic(36.0%) adipose tissue mass in rats of treatment group. Although body weights of antiserum treated rats were decreased during immunization, the rats recovered their body weight after 1 week of treatment. There were no significant changes in the level of blood glucose and in the contents of muscle protein and fat in antiserum treated animals. Current results indicate that polyclonal antibodies against APM proteins could be used to manipulate body fat mass in meat animals as well as laboratory animals. Further studies, however, are necessary for the practical applications of the current results.

Effects of specific monoclonal antibodies to dense granular proteins on the invasion of Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo

  • Cha, Dong-Yeob;Song, In-Kwan;Lee, Gye-Sung;Hwang, Ok-Sun;Noh, HyungJun;Yeo, Seung-Dong;Shin, Dae-Whan;Lee, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2001
  • Although some reports have been published on the protective effect of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii surface membrane proteins, few address the inhibitory activity of antibodies to dense granular proteins (GRA proteins) . Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to evaluate the inhibitory effects of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to GRA proteins (GRA2, 28 kDa; GRA6, 32 kDa) and surface membrane protein (SAGI, 30 kDa) on the invasion of T. gondii tachyzoites. Passive immunization of mice with one of three mAbs following challenge with a lethal dose of tachyzoites significantly increased survival compared with results for mice treated with control ascites. The survival times of mice challenged with tachyzoties pretreated with anti-GRA6 or anti-SAG 1 mAb were significantly increased. Mice that received tachyzoties pretreated with both mAb and complement had longer survival times than those that received tachyzoites pretreated with mAb alone. Invasion of tachyzoites into fibroblasts and macrophages was significantly inhibited in the anti-GRA2, anti-GRA6 or anti-SAG 1 mAb pretreated group. Pretreatment with mAb and complement inhibited invasion of tachyzoites in both fibroblasts and macrophages. These results suggest that specific antibodies to dense-granule molecules may be useful for controlling infection with T. gondii.

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A Case of Neonatal Chickenpox by an Asymptomatic Infected Mother (불현성 감염 엄마로부터 감염된 신생아 수두 1례)

  • Noh, Chang Soo;Park, Hyung Geun;Hong, Seong Jin;Chung, So Chung;Kim, Kyo Sun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.121-125
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    • 2004
  • Chickenpox is a common childhood infection that generally resolves without complications. But maternal chickenpox near term, or soon after delivery, can cause severe or fatal illness in the newborn. The severity of neonatal chickenpox is closely related to the time of maternal infection and the fatality is reported up to 30%. Although chickenpox is thought to be a mild disease, complications are frequent in neonates and immunocompromised children. The diagnosis of neonatal chickenpox is usually based on the typical clinical feature, the characteristic point in time and the maternal history of chickenpox. Serologic methods have been widely used to confirm clinical diagnosis. To prevent severe neonatal chickenpox, passive immunization is indicated. If varicella occurs, acyclovir treatment has to be done promptly. But the use of acyclovir in symptomatic healthy infant is controversial. We report a case of neonatal chickenpox that was infected by an asymptomatic infected mother and rapid improvement of varicella skin lesions without complications after intravenous acyclovir administration.

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Efficacy of Hepatitis B Immune Globulin for Prevention of De Novo Hepatitis B in Living-related Liver Transplantation (생체 부분 간이식에서 De Novo Hepatitis B에 대한 B형 간염 면역글로불린의 예방적 효과)

  • Kim, Sang-Jong;Hwang, Soo-Jung;Park, Sung-Eun;Choe, Yon-Ho;Lee, Suk-Koo;Joh, Jae-Won;Kim, Sung-Joo;Lee, Kwang-Woong;Seo, Jeong-Meen
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.32-38
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Hepatic allografts from donors with hepatitis B core antibody have been demonstrated to transmit hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to recipients after liver transplantation (LT). The efficacy of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg) to prevent de novo hepatitis B was investigated by comparing active immunization in the early phase to HBIg monotherapy in the late phase of pediatric liver transplants at Samsung Medical Center. Methods: Among pediatric liver transplants, from May, 1996 to June, 2002, 15 recipients who were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (-) received an allograft from a donor with hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) (+). Except two who died from unrelated causes, eleven of 13 recipients were HBsAb (+), and 2 were naive (HBsAb(-), HBcAb(-)). All patients were vaccinated for HBV before LT. In the early phase (January, 1997~November, 1997, 3 patients), HBsAb (+) recipients received booster vaccination after LT. In the late phase (December, 1997~, 10 patients), all recipients were given booster vaccination and received HBIg therapy in order to maintain HBsAb titer greater than 200 IU/L. Lamivudine was given in one case because of severe side effect of HBIg. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of the preventive therapy for de novo hepatitis B through medical records. Results: De novo hepatitis B developed in three of 13 recipients (23.1%). All of 3 patients who received active immunization in the early phase became HBsAg (+) at 7~19 months after transplantation. One of them was naive before LT and the other two were HBsAb (+). All of 10 recipients who were given HBIg in the late phase remained HBsAg (-) at 7~55 months' follow-up. Conclusion: Passive immunization with HBIg was effective for prevention of de novo hepatitis B in HBsAg (-) recipients of hepatic allografts from HBcAb (+) donors.

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Escherichia coli-Derived Outer Membrane Vesicles Deliver Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase and Yield Partial Protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Mice

  • Quan, Keji;Zhu, Zhuang;Cao, Sanjie;Zhang, Fei;Miao, Chang;Wen, Xintian;Huang, Xiaobo;Wen, Yiping;Wu, Rui;Yan, Qigui;Huang, Yong;Ma, Xiaoping;Han, Xinfeng;Zhao, Qin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.2095-2105
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    • 2018
  • In our previous studies, we have identified several in vivo-induced antigens and evaluated their potential as subunit vaccine candidates in a murine model, in which the recombinant protein GalT showed the most potent immunogenicity and immunoprotective efficacy against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. To exploit a more efficient way of delivering GalT proteins, in this study, we employed the widely studied E. coli outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) as a platform to deliver GalT protein and performed the vaccine trial using the recombinant GalT-OMVs in the murine model. Results revealed that GalT-OMVs could elicit a highly-specific, IgG antibody titer that was comparable with the adjuvant GalT group. Significantly higher lymphocyte proliferation and cytokines secretion levels were observed in the GalT-OMVs group. 87.5% and 50% of mice were protected from a lethal dose challenge using A. pleuropneumoniae in active or passive immunization, respectively. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses showed remarkably reduced pathological changes and infiltration of neutrophils in the lungs of mice immunized with GalT-OMVs after the challenge. Taken together, these findings confirm that OMVs can be used as a platform to deliver GalT protein and enhance its immunogenicity to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.