• Title, Summary, Keyword: Papanicolaou smear

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A Comparative Study of Cytology & Cervicography for Cervical Cancer Screening (자궁경부 세포진검사 및 자궁경부 확대촬영술의 비교연구)

  • Ha, Jung-Gyu;Yun, Dal-Sik;Lee, Jun-Gi;Choe, Chang-Geun;U, Yang-Rye;Lee, Jin-Su;Lee, Yun-Hui;Park, Jae-Yeong;Lee, Yeong-Im
    • Journal of Korea Association of Health Promotion
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 2004
  • Background 'For many years, the Papanicolaou smear has been used to detect pre-malignant and malignant disease of the cervix. Although cervical cytology screening programmes have result in the reduction of cervical cancer incidence and mortality, Pap smear have been subjected to intense scrutiny and criticism in recent years. So cervicography is introduced. Cervicography is an adjunct method of cervical cancer screening intended to complement Papanicolaou smear. Cervicography involve obtaining and evaluating a photographic image of the cervix. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of Papanicolaou smear and cervicography in cervical cancer screening. Materials & Methods : This study population was of 74 women, who visited department of obstetrics & Gynecology, Korea association of Health Promotion Chung-nam branch from January, 20O2 to October, 2003. All patients were taken Pap smear before cervicography, and then two cervicography was obtained with applying5% acetic acid. Those women in whom abnormalities were detected by either test subsequently obtained histologic specimen. Results : 1. The sensitivity and the specificity of Papanicolaou smear was 92.1% and 72.7%respectively.2. The sensitivity and the specificity of cervicography was 88.9% and 54.5% respectively. The false negative rate, and false positive rate of Papanicolaou smear were 7.9%, 27.2% respectively. The false negative rate, and false positive rate of cervicography were 11.1%,45.5% respectively. Conclusions . Papanicolaou smear is a useful method and an important tool for detecting cervical cancer. However when Papanicolaou smear and Cervicograpy is used together, the sensitivity is higher than for Papanicolaou smear used alone.

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Significance of Cytologic Detection of Endometrial Carcinoma in Papanicolaou Smear: The Relevance of Histologic Type, Grade and Stage (Papanicolaou smear에서 자궁내막암의 세포학적 진단의 의의 : 조직유형, 분화도 및 병기와의 관련성)

  • Hong, Sung-Ran;Kim, Hy-Sook;Park, Jong-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1993
  • The cytologic detection of endometrial carcinoma in Papanicolaou(Pap) smear according to histologic type, grade and stage was studied in 49 patients. The smears of patients who had histologically confirmed were retrospectively evaluated by the Bethesda System. The cytologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was made in 61% (39/49) of patients, atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGCUS) in 16% (8/49) and within normal limits in 23% (11/49). The positive rate for AGCUS and carcinoma was correlated to the histologic type, grade and stage. The cytologic grade revealed a good correlation with histologic grade, too. In conclusion, the presence of cancer cells in Pap smear suggests the tumor in high grade and high stage. Additionally, cytologic detection of AGCUS or carcinoma needs a further diagnostic evaluation. The Pap smear is a valuable method to screen for endometrial carcinoma.

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Women's Cancer Screening According to Body Mass Index in a Cohort of Rural Korean Women (강원지역 농촌코호트 여성의 체질량 지수에 따른 여성암 검진행위)

  • Kim, Bo-Hwan;Koh, Sang-Baek;Hur, Hea-Kung;Park, Jong-Ku;Park, So-Mi
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.641-650
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: This study was done to examine the difference in cancer screening with mammography and Papanicolaou smear according to Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods: The participants in this study were 5,912 women ages 40 to 69 yr, selected from the Korean Genomic Regional Cohort in Kangwon province. Mammography and Papanicolaou smear were assessed by questionnaire and body weight (kg) and height (m) measured to calculate BMI. Results: The distribution of BMI was as follows: low weight (1.5%), normal weight (31.1%), over weight (24.6%), mildly obese (36.4%) and severely obese (6.3%). After adjusting for age, education and monthly income, compared with normal weight women, overweight women (odds ratio [OR]=1.283, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.089-1.513) and mildly obese women (OR=1.214, 95% CI=1.048-1.406) were less likely to have had mammography. In contrast to mammography, cancer screening with Papanicolaou smear was not significantly different by BMI. Conclusion: Obese women in rural areas are less likely to screen for breast cancer by using mammography than non obese women. To ensure regular screening for breast cancer, health care providers need to give scrupulous care to obese women and remove barriers originated from obesity. Also, educational and clinical implications are considered to increase the Papanicolaou smear rate.

Prevalence and Risk Assessment of Cervical Cancer Screening by Papanicolaou Smear and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid for Pregnant Women at a Thai Provincial Hospital

  • Lertcharernrit, Jiraporn;Sananpanichkul, Panya;Suknikhom, Wineeya;Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn;Suwannarurk, Komsun;Leaungsomnapa, Yosapon
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.4163-4167
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common in Thailand, but the mortality rate may be rising yearly. It is a cancer that can be prevented by early screening for precancerous lesions, several methods being available. Objective: To identify the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and lesions with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in pregnant women and assess risk factors for this group. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed at Prapokklao Hospital, Thailand during April-July 2016. All pregnant women of gestational age between 12-36 weeks who attended an antenatal clinic were recruited. All participants were screened for cervical cancer by Pap smear and VIA. If results of one or both were abnormal, colposcopic examination was evaluated by gynecologic oncologist. Results: A total of 414 pregnant women were recruited. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA were 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. The most common abnormal Pap smear was low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, 44%). Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear in pregnant women were low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer. In pregnancy, Pap smear had higher sensitivity and specificity than VIA for detection of precancerous cervical lesion. Patients with young coitarche or more than 25 years of active sexual activity were high risk groups. Conclusions: Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA in pregnant women was 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear were coitarche, years of sexual activity, low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer.

Colposcopy Requirement of Papanicolaou Smear after Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) by Follow-up Protocol in an Urban Gynaecology Clinic, a Retrospective Study in Thailand

  • Perksanusak, Thitichaya;Sananpanichkul, Panya;Chirdchim, Watcharin;Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn;Suwannarurk, Komsun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4977-4980
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    • 2015
  • Background: ASC-US cases are managed according to the current American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guideline in which a human papillomavirus (HPV) test and repeat Pap smear are performed in the next 1 year. Colposcopy in cases of positive high risk HPV and persistent ASC-US or more in subsequent Pap smear is recommended. The HPV test is more expensive and still not currently a routine practice in Thailand. Objective: To identify the risk factors of persisted abnormal Pap smear and the colposcopic requirement rate in women with ASC-US. Materials and Methods: During 2008-2013, this study was conducted in Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi, Thailand. Participants were women who attended gynaecology clinic for cervical cancer screening. Women who had cytological reports with ASC-US were recruited. During the study period, 503 cases were enrolled. Colposcopic requirement was defined as those who were detected with an ASC-US or more in subsequent Pap smears up to 1 year follow-up. Results: The colposcopic referral rate was 23.2 (85/365) percent at 12 months. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 was 3.3 (12/365) percent. Loss follow-up rate of subsequent Pap smear and colposcopic appointment were 27.4 (138/503) and 48.2 (41/85) percent, respectively. There was no invasive cancer. High risk factors for persisted abnormal Pap smears in subsequent test were premenopausal status, HIV infected patients and non-oral contraceptive pills (COC) users. Conclusions: Referral rate for colposcopy in women with ASC-US reports was rather high. Loss to follow-up rate was the major limitation. Immediate colposcopy should be offered for women who had high risk for silent CIN.

Incidental Finding of Abnormal Cervical Pathology in Hysterectomy Specimens after Normal Preoperative Papanicolaou Smears in Thammasat University Hospital

  • Chundarat, Pong-Anan;Suwannarurk, Komsun;Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn;Pattaraarchachai, Junya;Thaweekul, Yuthadej;Mairaing, Karicha;Poomtavorn, Yenrudee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5811-5814
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate abnormal cervical histopathology (ACH) from hysterectomy specimens with normal preoperative Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Materials and Methods: Medical records from May 2009 to April 2012 were retrospectively reviewed of subjects from whom hysterectomy specimens were taken in Thammasat University Hospital. All had normal preoperative Pap smears. ACH was the primary outcome. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. A total of 483 subjects with an average age of 50.5 years were recruited. Benign cases of enlarged uterus and pelvic mass were present in 94% (430/483). Endometrial and ovarian cancer were found at 6.2 and 4.7%, respectively. In hysterectomy specimens there were 19 (4%) cases of ACH. Silent ACH with benign disease, endometrial and ovarian cancers were 1.2% (5/430), 33.3% (10/30) and 17.4% (4/23), respectively. The negative predictive value (NPV) and false negative rate of Pap smears were 96 and 4%, respectively. ACH in malignant cases were 27.9% (12/43) and 20% (2/10) in adequate (APS) and inadequate (IPS) Pap collection groups, respectively. ACH in benign condition were 0.68% (2/292) and 2.2% (3/138) in APS and IPS, respectively. ACH was more often found in hysterectomy specimens with indication of malignancy than benign conditions with statistical significance. One third of preoperative stage I endometrial cancer cases had cervical involvement. Conclusions: Silent ACH in normal preoperative Pap smear was 4 %. Inadequate Pap smear collection is still the major problem in this study. Reducing inadequate Pap smear collection could reduce the false negative rate.

Cytologic Features of Papanicolaou Smears of Malignant Melanoma Arising in Vagina - A Case Report - (질에서 발생한 악성 흑색종의 Papanicolaou 도말의 세포학적 소견 - 1례 보고 -)

  • Kang, Myung-Suk;Kim, Bohng-Hee;Park, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Youn-Wha;Park, Yong-Koo;Lee, Ju-Hie;Yang, Moon-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.209-213
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    • 1995
  • Primary malignant melanoma of vagina is a rare tumor which is easily misinterpretated in routine cytologic examination. We lately experienced a case of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina with direct cervical extension diagnosed by Pap smear. The cervicovaginal smear showed variable sized clusters of epithelial cells or singly scattered abnormal epithelial cells. Most of the tumor cells had round hyperchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli and brownish pigments in cytoplasm. The cytologic findings are compared with histologic features of resected specimen.

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Reliability of Colposcopy in Turkey: Correlation with Pap Smear and 1-year Follow Up

  • Mesci-Haftaci, Simender;Ankarali, Handan;Caglar, Mete;Yavuzcan, Ali
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7317-7320
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    • 2014
  • Background: A cytologic reading of a Papanicolaou (pap) smear followed, if the result is positive, by a colposcopic search for abnormal cells is the most common screening method for cervical cancer used worldwide. We aimed to present the correlation of smear and colposcopic findings with 6- to 12-month follow-up results and related factors in women who underwent colposcopy in Turkey. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of women who attended the gynecology department and were referred for colposcopic evaluation in 2011-2012. A total of 232 women between ages 17 and 68 years were included. Colposcopy indications were ASCUS and higher lesions at cervical smear, macroscopic suspicious lesions, post-coital bleeding history with suspicious smear, and repeated cervical inflammation. All patients were recalled for 6- to 12-month follow-ups. Results: The most common colposcopy indication was ASCUS, and the most common biopsy result was inflammation. Nearly half of the patients returned for the control 6-month follow-up, and almost 20% of patients for a 1-year follow up. Conclusions: Colposcopic biopsy is an effective method in indicated patients but is not sufficient in itself if awareness of the subject is not raised in the population. One of the most important aims of cancer screening programs should be enabling patients in developing countries to take responsibility. Patients must be encouraged to apply to the hospital for better disease control.

Prevalence of Abnormal Papanicolaou Test Results and Related Factors among Women Living in Zanjan, Iran

  • Maleki, Azam;Ahmadnia, Elahe;Avazeh, Azar;Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh;Molaei, Behnaz;Jalilvand, Ahmad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6935-6939
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    • 2015
  • Background: Currently, a comprehensive program for screening and early detection of cervical cancer does not exist in Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and some related factors among women living in Zanjan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Zanjan on 4274 married women aged 20-65 years. The study participants were selected through two-stage cluster sampling. After obtaining written consent, demographic and fertility questionnaires were completed. Samples from cervix were obtained through a standard method using the Rover Cervex- Brush. Evaluation and interpretation of the samples were reported using the Bethesda 2001 method. Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression models. Results: Most inflammatory changes in the samples were mild (37.4%). Abnormal atypical changes in the epithelial cells were found in 4.04%. The highest percentage of abnormal changes in the epithelial cells was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (1.9%). Abnormal results of Pap smear was significantly and independently associated with age, papillomavirus infection, and lack of awareness about Pap smear tests. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of inflammatory and precancerous changes in this study, compared to other studies in Iran and other Muslim countries, and the effect of demographic variables and individual factors on abnormal results, increasing the awareness of women and their families regarding the risk factors for cervical cancer, preventive measures such as screening, and timely treatment seem necessary.

Comparison of Unsatisfactory Rates and Detection of Abnormal Cervical Cytology Between Conventional Papanicolaou Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology (Sure Path®)

  • Kituncharoen, Saroot;Tantbirojn, Patou;Niruthisard, Somchai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8491-8494
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To compare unsatisfactory rates and detection of abnormal cervical cytology between conventional cytology or Papanicolaou smear (CC) and liquid-based cytology (LBC). Materials and Methods: A total of 23,030 cases of cervical cytology performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital during 2012-2013 were reviewed. The percentage unsatisfactory and detection rates of abnormal cytology were compared between CC and LBC methods. Results: There was no difference in unsatisfactory rates between CC and LBC methods (0.1% vs. 0.1%, p = 0.84). The detection rate for squamous cell abnormalities was significantly higher with the LBC method (7.7% vs. 11.5%, p < 0.001), but those for overall abnormal glandular epithelium were similar (0.4% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.13). Low grade squamous lesion (ASC-US and LSIL) were more frequently detected by the LBC method (6.1% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001). However, there was no difference in high gradd squamous lesions (1.1% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.95). When comparing between types of glandular abnormality, there was no significant difference the groups. Conclusions: There was no difference in unsatisfactory rates between the conventional smear and LBC. However, LBC could detect low grade squamous cell abnormalities more than CC, while there were similar rates of detection of high grade squamous cell lesions and glandular cell abnormalities.