• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pap smear screening

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A Study on the Relationship between Emotion Related to Pap Smear and Continuous Participation in Pap Smear Screening in Married Korean Women (기혼여성의 Pap 도말검사 경험관련 정서와 검진 참여정도와의 관계연구)

  • Chang, Soon-Bok;Park, So-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.287-298
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between emotion related to Pap smear and continuous participation in Pap smear screening by married women. The subjects for this study were 209 married women who had at least one previous Pap smear. The data were collected using a self reported survey questionnaire which was developed by the researchers. It's Cronbach's alpha score ranged from .8799 to .9118. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics. ANOVA, t-test and Pearson correlation using the SPSS Win program. The results are as follows: 1. The mean for continuous participation in Pap smear screening over the past three years was 1.95. 2. The mean score for negative emotions related to Pap smear screening was 3.2. 3. The mean score for positive emotions related to Pap smear screening was 3.9 4. Positive correlations were found between positive emotion and continuous participation in Pap smear screening (r=.417, p<.05). A weak negative correlation was found between negative emotion and continuous participation in Pap smear screening (r=-.213, p<.05). In conclusion, negative and positive emotions had a significant effect on continuous participation in the Pap smear screening among married women. This suggests that reducing negative emotions and activating messages which relate to positive emotions may be an effective strategy for increasing continuous participation in Pap smear screening.

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Pap Smear Screening Participation Behavior and Related Factors in Married Immigrant Women (결혼이민여성의 자궁경부 세포진 검사 참여행위와 관련요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, So-Young;Choi, So-Young
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.255-265
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study's aim was to investigate participation in Pap smear screening among married immigrant women and their behavior and its related factors. Methods: A survey was conducted among 165 married immigrant women in Gyeongsangnam-do from January 1 to March 20, 2010. Results: Results in this study showed that 51.5% have never participated in Pap Smear screening. Among those who have participated in the Pap Smear screening, 10.9% had regular screening, while 37.6% had irregular screening. Pap smear screening behavior was significantly different according to the experiences in health checkup ($x^2$=34.009, p<.001)', whether or not there was a hospital the woman regularly visited ($x^2$=7.768, p=.021) and perceived barriers (F=3.214, p=.043). Conclusion: For improvement of Pap smear participation, this study proposes to develop various nursing intervention programs which can improve perceived barriers in regards to the related variables. In addition, it is necessary to come up with a strategy to advertise the participation in Pap smear screening in a systematic and continuous manner in order to raise womens' awareness and to make married immigrant women realize the importance of regular Pap smear screenings.

Factors related to Continuous Participation in the Pap Smear Screening among Korean Women: using a Structural Model (한국여성의 Pap 도말검사 지속적 참여행위에 관한 설명모델)

  • 박소미
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.160-170
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to develop an explanatory model to predict factors related to continuous participation in the Pap smear screening among Korean women. A hypothetical model was constructed on the basis of Health Belief Model and extensive review of literature on the Pap smear screening. Exogeneous variables included in this model were knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived severity, negative and positive emotional responses and professional support from physicians and nurses. Endogeneous variables were threat to cervical cancer, perceived benefit of the Pap smear screening, perceived barrier, and the final outcome variable was continuous participation in the Pap smear screening. The hypothetical model was tested with an empirical study. The data was collected from 623 married women whose age range was 24 - 83 using a self-reported survey questionnaire which was developed by the researcher. It's Cronbach's alpha score ranged from .6478 to .9118. Data was collected at different locations in Seoul; a university hospital, a local health center, and apartment complexes. Data analysis was done using SPSS 7.5 WIN Program for descriptive statistics and LISREL 8.12a WIN Program for covariance structural analysis. In conclusion, threat, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, positive emotion and professional support had a significant direct effect on continuous participation in the Pap smear screening among Korean women. The results of this study also showed that perceived barrier had the most significant direct effect on continuous participation in the Pap smear screening while negative emotional response had the most significant direct effect on perceived barrier. It can be suggested that decreasing perceived barrier by reducing negative emotional responses may be the most effective strategies for increasing continuous participation in the Pap smear screening among married Korean women.

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the Pap Smear as a Screening Procedure Among Nurses in a Tertiary Hospital in North Eastern India

  • Thippeveeranna, Chamaraja;Mohan, Surekha Sadhana;Singh, Laiphrakpam Ranjit;Singh, Naorem Nabakishore
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.849-852
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    • 2013
  • Background: Cancer of the uterine cervix is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide. Industrialized countries have dramatically reduced the incidence of mortality from cervical carcinoma in the last 50 years through aggressive screening programs utilizing pelvic examinations and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears but it still remains a major problem in the developing world. Objectives: This study was performed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out with a questionnaire survey covering the socio demographic factors, knowledge, attitude and practices about Pap smear screening among 224 nurses in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur, India during December 2011. Results: Two hundred and twenty one participants (98.6%) had heard about cervical carcinoma but 18.3% lacked adequate knowledge regarding risk factors. Knowledge about the Pap smear was adequate in 88.8% of the respondents. Out of these, only 11.6% had Pap smear at least once previously. The most common reasons for non-participation in screening were lack of any symptoms (58.4%), lack of counselling (42.8%), physician does not request (29.9%) and fear of vaginal examination (20.5%). Conclusion: Although knowledge of Pap smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer is high, practice is still low. The nurses who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. If we can improve the practice of Pap smear screening in such experts, they should be able to readily provide appropriate and accurate information and motivate the general population to join screening programs.

Cervical Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Nursing Staff in a Tertiary Level Teaching Institution of Rural India

  • Shekhar, Shashank;Sharma, Chanderdeep;Thakur, Sita;Raina, Nidhi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3641-3645
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    • 2013
  • Background: Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive, interview-based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. Results: In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurese held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. Conclusions: The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

Comparison of Pap Smear Screening Results between Akha Hill Tribe and Urban Women in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand

  • Kritpetcharat, Onanong;Wutichouy, Wiwat;Sirijaichingkul, Suchat;Kritpetcharat, Panutas
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5501-5504
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    • 2012
  • Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Pap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in <21 years age groups. From the questionnaires, the possible risk factors related to the higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in Akha women were early age at marriage (${\leq}17$ years), high frequency pregnacies and high parity and no/low education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

Cost Effective Analysis of Recall Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening in Selangor - Results from a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Abdul Rashid, Rima Marhayu;Ramli, Sophia;John, Jennifer;Dahlui, Maznah
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.13
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    • pp.5143-5147
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    • 2014
  • Cervical cancer screening in Malaysia is by opportunistic Pap smear which contributes to the low uptake rate. To overcome this, a pilot project called the SIPPS program (translated as information system of Pap smear program) had been introduced whereby women aged 20-65 years old are invited for Pap smear and receive recall to repeat the test. This study aimed at determining which recall method is most cost-effective in getting women to repeat Pap smear. A randomised control trial was conducted where one thousand women were recalled for repeat smear either by registered letter, phone messages, phone call or the usual postal letter. The total cost applied for cost-effectiveness analysis includes the cost of sending letter for first invitation, cost of the recall method and cost of two Pap smears. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) of Pap smear uptake by each recall method was then performed. The uptake of Pap smear by postal letter, registered letters, SMS and phone calls were 18.8%, 20.0%, 21.6% and 34.4%, respectively (p<0.05). The CER for the recall method was lowest by phone call compared to other interventions; RM 69.18 (SD RM 0.14) compared to RM 106.53 (SD RM 0.13), RM 134.02 (SD RM 0.15) and RM 136.38 (SD RM 0.11) for SMS, registered letter and letter, respectively. ICER showed that it is most cost saving if the usual method of recall by postal letter be changed to recall by phone call. The possibility of letter as a recall for repeat Pap smear to reach the women is higher compared to sending SMS or making phone call. However, getting women to do repeat Pap smear is better with phone call which allows direct communication. Despite the high cost of the phone call as a recall method for repeat Pap smear, it is the most cost-effective method compared to others.

Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening in Busan, Korea (부산지역 주민의 자궁경부암 수검과 관련이 있는 요인)

  • Choi, Kui-Son;Lee, Duk-Hee;Jung, Kap-Yeol;Son, Ji-Eun;Jang, Tae-Won;Kim, Yoon-Kyu;Shin, Hai-Rim
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.166-173
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer among women in Busan. The Pap smear test could have a significant effect on detecting cervical cancer, and enhancing their rate of use is an important strategy for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the past use of the Pap smear test in Korean women. Methods : A population-based survey was carried out in Busan between November 1999 and March 2000. 1,673 participants were randomly selected from 2,684 women in Busan, using a 2-stage cluster sampling method, and interviewed in their homes. Their socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, drinking, familial cancer history, Pap smear screening history, reproductive and menstrual factors, sexual habits and use of contraceptive methods data were collected by a trained interviewer using a questionnaire. The use of the screening test was defined by a self-report from the participants on how many times they had had a Pap smear test in their lifetime, and when they had received their latest examination. Results : Of the 1,673 respondents (62.3% response rate), 57.6% had had a Pap smear test during her life (mean number, 2.3). Among the health examination participants(1,064), 961(90.3%) reported having sexual experience and 70.9% of these had had a Pap smear test. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, statistically significant relationships were observed for age groups and the Pap smear test rate (odds ratio, OR for 35-44 years=2.45; OR for 45-54 years=3.41; OR for 55 years=2.60; reference, under 34 years). The married or cohabiting women were more likely to have used the Pap smear test than those separated or widowed (OR=1.73). Among the reproductive behavioral measures, the number of births (OR for 3 births=4.22; OR for 2 births=3.95; OR for 1 births=3.38; reference, 0 births) and husband's extra-marital affairs (OR=1.50) were associated with the rates of use of Pap smear tests. Conclusion : It appears that the most important contributing factors to cervical cancer screening were age, marital status and number of births. A positive association was also observed for the husband's extra-marital affairs. This study enabled us to systematically assess the relationship between Pap smear rates and risk factors for cervical cancer. It is hoped that this study will make a significant contribution to the accumulating scientific evidence on the identification of factors associated with cervical cancer screening in Korea.

Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women

  • Majdfar, Zahra;Khodadost, Mahmoud;Majlesi, Freshteh;Rahimi, Abbas;Shams, Mohsen;Mohammadi, Gohar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.sup3
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2016
  • Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was $33.1{\pm}8.8years$. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (P<0.01). There was also a positive correlation between duration of marriage and husband's education with Pap smear uptake (P<0.01). In univariate analysis, there was a significant association between Pap smear uptake and level of selfefficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates.

Promoting Attendance at Cervical Cancer Screening: Understanding the Relationship with Turkish Womens' Health Beliefs

  • Demirtas, Basak;Acikgoz, Inci
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2013
  • Background: The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between 'Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test' subscale scores and demographic/gyneco-obstetric characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 256 women. Data were obtained using the 'Demographic and Gyneco-Obstetric Identification Form' and the 'Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test. Results: The percentage of women who had heard about the Pap test was 77.7 whereas only 32.4% had actually undergone the test. Some 45.7% of the women stated that they did not know the reason for having a Pap test. Women who had obtained a Pap smear test had statistically significantly fewer perceived barriers than those who had never had (p<0.05). Scores with regard to the subscales including 'Benefits of Pap Smear Tests and Health Motivation', 'Perceived Seriousness of Cervical Cancer', 'Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer' and 'Cervical Cancer Health Motivation' did not differ with demographic/gyneco-obstetric characteristics such as womens' educational level, whether or not young age at first marriage, whether or not having family history of female cancer, and whether or not having had a Pap test (p>0.05). Conclusions: Increasing knowledge about benefits of Pap smear tests, increasing motivation to obtain Pap Smear Test and increasing perceived seriousness of cervical cancer could promote attendance at cervical cancer screening. Different strategies are needed for behavioural change. Implementation of educational programmes by nurses in a busy environment could result in a major clinical change, based on the findings of this study.