• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pancreas

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The Use of Analgesics in the Last 24 hours of Life of Patients with Advanced Cancer : A Comparison of Medical Physicians and Surgeons (말기 암 환자의 마지막 24시간 동안 진통제 사용의 분석 : 내과의사와 외과의사의 비교)

  • Choi, Youn-Seon;Kim, Jong-Min;Lee, Young-Mee;Lim, Jong-Kuk;Lee, Tai-Ho;Hong, Myung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 1998
  • Background : It is almost important therapy modality to control pain for the terminal cancer patients for the last 24 hours because those terminally illed patient deserved to have pain free and peaceful time before death. Physician who is deal with terminal cancer patients for their last 24 hours does not need to worry about drug addiction or other untoward side reactions of pain medications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if terminally illed cancer patient was given pain medication properly and sufficiently and if there was any different behavior to control pain of terminal cancer patients between medical physicians and surgeons in terms of type, amount and administration route and frequency. Methods : A retrospective chart audit of analgesic type, amount and administration route was performed on the medical recorders of 160 hospitalized terminal cancer patients who had died in the Korea University Medical Center Anam Hospital during the period of July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Patients were classified into 103 patients were cared for by medical physicians and 57 patients were cared for by surgeons. After then, we analysed the difference of pain control pattern between them. Different types and amount of analgesics were converted to a common standard, an oral morphine equivalents(OME) relative to 1mg of oral morphine. Results : 1) The total number of patients was 160, male 102 cases(63.8%), and the female was 58 cases(36.2%) respectively. 2) The mean age was 56.4(${\pm}14.62$) years old and mean admission period was 27.8 days(${\pm}34.85$). 3) The frequent cancer site was stomach 42 cases(26.315), lung and liver 29 cases(18.1%) each, pancreas 10 cases(6.2%) in order 4) 125 out of 160 subjects (78.13%) complained pain, and 66 out of 103(64.08%) and 31 out of 57(54.39%) were treated with analgesics to relieve pain. 50 out of 97(51.55%) were able to continue on oral medication. 5) 86 cases(53.75%) were well oriented 24 hours prior to death. 6) The frequent analgesics for regular basis were long acting form of oral morphine 34 cases(Medical phsicians 24, Surgeons 10), intravenous morphine 26 cases(Medical physicians 20, Surgeons 6) in order, and the most common p.r.n.(pro re nata) analgesics used was intravenous morphine. 7) The mean amount of analgesics on regular basis was 115.41 OME by medical physicians and 52.7 OME by surseons(P<0.05). The mean amount of p.r.n. analgesics was significantly larger in patients are for by surgeons(66.64 OME) than medical physicians 23.49 OME(P<0.01). 8) The mean frequency of administrated number of p.r.n. analgesics was 0.62 times/day on medical part and 1.88 times/day on surgical part (P<0.001). Conclusion : Of the 97 patients with advanced cancer, 51.55% were able to take oral medications in the last day of life. The parenteral analgesics were more frequently used in the patients cared for by surgeons than medical physicians. Over the half of terminal cancer patients were well oriented in the last day of life. Doctor's knowledge and attitude towards pain is very important to mange the pain, effectively.

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The Palliative Radiation Therapy in Malignant Extra-Hepatic Biliary Obstruction (간외 폐쇄성 황달 환자에서 고식적 방사선치료의 결과)

  • Kay Chul-Seoung;Jang Hong-Suk;Kim Sung-hwan;Ryu Mi-Ryeong;Kim Yeon-Shil;Chung Su-Mi;Yoon Sei-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effectiveness of external radiation therapy and the prognostic factors, we retrospectively analyzed therapeutic results of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO). Methods and Materials : We analyzed the results of the external radiation therapy in 59 patients of inoperable malignant EHBO who had been treated with more than 10 Gy of external radiation therapy from April 1984 to December 1990. There were 21 stomach cancer ($35.6\%$), 12 pancreas cancer ($20.3\%$), 15 extrahepatic biliary cancer ($18.0\%$) and 11 another cancer ($18.0\%$). Their pathologies were confirmed in 31 patients ($52.5\%$). They divided into 27 adenocarcinoma and 4 nonadenocarcinoma. Their chief complaints were jaundice in 47 patients ($79.7\%$) and abdominal pain in 15 patients ($49.2\%$). Twelve patients had slightly increased bilirubin level in liver function test without jaundice. We treated twenty four patients ($40.6\%$) with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and 32 patients ($54\%$) with systemic chemotherapy (CT). We performed external radiation therapy (ERT) upto $10.8\~55.8$ Gy (median 37.8 Gy) with palliative aim. Results : Overall median survival duration was $7.80\pm1.15$ months. The response rates of jaundice were $81.8\%$ in PTBO group and $66.7\%$ in non-PTBD group without statistical significance. The improving rate of jaundice was not significantly different in decreased ratio of total bilirubin level. But abdominal pain was more decreased in CT group than non-CT group (p<0.05). The significant prognostic factors were high performance status (Karnofski Performance Status >70), total radiation dose more than 35 Gy and good response of pain after therapy. There were increased in bacterial cholagitis in PTBD group and gastrointestinal complications in CT group. Conclusion : External radiotheapy could improve jaundice and abdominal pain in malignant EHBO patients, Overall survival duration was prolonged in patients with higher performance status and patients who had been treated with more than 35 Gy of total radiation dose. In the future, we expect not only better palliative role but also the prolongation of survival of using the ERT combined with other treatment method. But to achieve certain conclusion, we need luther study consisted with many kinds of treatment methods including new technologies in RT.

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