• Title, Summary, Keyword: Panax ginseng

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Characteristics of Flower Organ, Inflorescence and Flowering in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium (인삼의 화기생장과 화서형질 및 개화특성)

  • 안상득;최광태
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 1984
  • This study was carried out to obtain the basic information on the development of flower bud and to clarify the characteristics of flower organ and flowering in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). The formation of flower bud in the dormancy bud of Korean ginseng was initiated about the middle of June and completed late in September. The ovary, style and anther of Panax ginseng, violet-stem and yellow-berry variants, were formed earlier than those of Panax quinquefolium. Panax ginseng, therefore, flowered earlier by one month in comparison with Panax quinquefolium. As for the effect of temperature on the flowering of ginseng, both species, Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, grown at 20 $^{\circ}C$ flowered earlier than those at 15 $^{\circ}C$ and field conditions, but did not flower at 30 $^{\circ}C$. Seed characters were better in Panax ginseng than in Panax quinquefolium and the amount of seeds showed the highly significant positive correlation coefficient with peduncle length in both Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium.

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The Characteristics and Correlation Coefficients of Characters in Panax ginseng, Violet-stem Variant and Yellow. berry Variant, and Panax quinquefolium. (고려인삼과 미국삼의 형질특성 및 형질간 상관관계)

  • 최광태;안상득;박규진;양덕조
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.133-147
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    • 1983
  • This study was carried out to obtain the basic information for the development of new ginseng varieties. The two variants (violet-stem variant and yellow-berry variant) of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) of one to four-year were used for this study. All of the characteristics, such as leaf length, leaf width, petiol length, number of leaves per plant, number of leaflets per plants, stem diameter, stem length, number of stems per plant, root length, primary root length, root diameter, root weight were determined and correlations among them were estimated. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Leaf length, petiol length, number of leaves per plant, and number of leaflets per plant of Panax ginseng, violet-stem variant and yellow-berry variant, were larger than those of Panax quinquefolium at all of the plant ages, while leaf width was wider in Panax quinquefolium. 2. The length of stem of Panax quinquefolium was shorter than that of Panax ginseng, and the frequency of multi-stem plants at 4-year-old ginseng was larger in violet-stem variant than in Panax quinquefolium and yellow-berry variant. 3. In the characteristics of ginseng root, the primary root length of Panax ginseng, violet-stem variant and yellow-berry variant, were less than that of Panax quinquefolium, while root weight, root diameter, and umber of secondary root related to yield were larger in Panax ginseng. 4. The root weight per plant related to the yield had positive and highly significant correlations with stem diameter, leaf length, leaf length, leaf width, number of compound leaves and leaflets in Panax ginseng and Panax quinguefolium. 5. The root weight related to the wield of ginseng had been influenced to stem diameter, leaf length, and leaf width directly, and number of compound leaves and leaflets indirectly. 6. The number, total area and activity of stomate per mm2 of Panax quinquefolium were more, larger and stronger than those of Panax ginseng.

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Comparisons of Acidic Polysaccharide Content in Various Ginseng Species and Parts (인삼 산성다당체의 삼류간 및 부위별 함량비교)

  • 도재호;이형옥
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.145-147
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    • 1993
  • The amounts of ginseng acidic polysaccharide (GAP) in red ginseng (Panax ginseng) were higher than those of wild and cultured Panax quinquefolius, Panax notoginseng as well as white ginseng (Panax ginseng). In white ginseng, there is no difference in the GAP amount among root ages or sizes. Also, the GAP amount of red ginseng body was similar to that of ginseng rhizome, but was higher than that of leaf and epidermis.

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Agronomic Characteristics and Chemical Component of Hybrid between Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L. (고려인삼과 미국삼 종간잡종의 형질 및 성분특성)

  • Chung, Youl-Young;Chung, Chan-Moon;Jo, Jae-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.183-187
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to ascertain the basic information on characteristics of Korean Ginseng(Panax ginseng) and American ginseng(Panax quinquefolius), F$_1$ hybrids. Interspecies hybrids between Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius were examined morphological characteristics, rusty root incidence, and contents of effective ingredients such as ginsenosides. The summarized results are as follows. In Panax ginseng, rusty root incidence tended to increase with age of ginseng, but there was no difference in the incidence among ginseng ages and cultivation years in Panax quinquefolius and F$_1$ hybrid. The interspecies hybrid of panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius flowered later than the Panax ginseng, but earlier than the Panax quinquefolius. As for the characteristics of ginseng root, Panax quinquefolius seedling was better than cv. Panax ginseng, as the former had longer and heavier seedling root than the latter. Ginsenosides of the hybrid F$_1$ showed intermediate value in amounts of Rb$_1$, Rb$_2$, Rc and Rd which were detected as in Panax gineng and Panax quinquefolius. The amount of Re of the hybrid was higher, but that of Rg$_1$ and Rg$_2$ in main and branch roots was lower compared with its parents. Rf was 0.14% and 0.20% in main and branch roots of Panax ginseng, respectively; however, no Rf was detected in Panax quinquefolius and in the hybrid F$_1$. This suggests there may be remarkable difference in Rf content among the ginseng species.

Authentication of Korean Panax ginseng from Chinease Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius by AFLP analysis

  • Kim Bo-Bae;Jeong Jae-Hun;Jung Su-Jin;Yun Doh-Won;Yoon Eui-Soo;Choi Yong-Eui
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.81-86
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    • 2005
  • Panax ginseng is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. The international trade of ginseng is increasing yearly. The disguise of Chinese and American ginseng into Korean ginseng became a problem in recent years in abroad and Korea. An effective method to authenticate the Korean Panax ginseng from others at a DNA level is necessary for the healthy development of the ginseng market. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to develop a method for the identification of Korean ginseng between Chinese ginseng and American ginseng. It is very difficult to detect the different polymorphic bands among Korean field cultivated ginseng, and between field and wild-cultivated ginseng. The genetic distance coefficient by AFLP analysis between field- and wild cultivated Korean ginseng was very low, 0.056. Whereas, polymorphic bands between Korean and Chinese wild-cultivated ginseng was significantly different. The genetic distance coefficient between wild-cultivated Korean and Chinese ginseng was 0.149. The genetic distance coefficients between the P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius were ranging from 0.626 to 0.666. These results support that the AFLP analysis could be applied to authenticate Korean P. ginseng from others Chinese P. ginseng and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius).

Analysis of Aroma Pattern of Panax Species by Potable Handheld Gas Chromatograph (Potable handheld gas chromatograph(PHGC)를 이용한 인삼속(Panax species) 식물들의 향기패턴 분석)

  • Lee, Boo-Yong;Yang, Young-Min;Lee, Oak-Hwan;Kim, Kyung-Im
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.862-866
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to analyze aroma pattern of Panax species (Korean Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Chinese Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Panax quinquefolium L, and Panax notoginseng F.H. Chen) by the PHGC (potable handheld gas chromatograph). Ratios of several peak areas in chromatogram of derivative parrtern were as follows. If ratio of Korean Panax ginseng was 1, Panax notoginseng was $0.030{\sim}0.674$, Chinese Panax ginseng was $0.005{\sim}0.212$ and panax quinquefolium was $0.241{\sim}0.871$. Ratios of peak area at $Rt_{20.02}$ were that if Korean panax ginseng was 1, Chinese Panax ginseng was 0.212, Panax quinquefolium was 0.343 and Panax notoginseng was 0.065. Ratios also of peak area at $Rt_{21.70}\;and\;Rt_{24.90}$ showed clear difference among aroma patterns of Panax specie cultivars. Flavor component at $Rt_{26.15}$ was not detected in Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng but in Korean Panax ginseng and Chinese Panax ginseng. Ratios of peak area at $Rt_{26.15}$ were that if Korean Panax ginseng was 1, Chinese Panax ginseng was 0.185. And so habitat of Panax species cultivars was discriminated. Cultivar and habitat of dried panax species was remarkably distinguised by the chromatogram of frequency pattern, derivative pattern and visual pattern using olfactory images known as Vapor $print^{TM}$.

Comparison of Agronomic Characteristics and Chemical Component of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and Panax quinquefolium L. (고려인삼과 미국삼의 형질특성 및 성분비교)

  • 정열영;정찬문
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to compare the root yields, root characters, saponin and ginsenosides contents of 6-year-old p. ginseng and p. quinquefolium. These two ginseng species showed difference in the diameter and ten비h of mainroot. The main root length or p. quinquefolium was shorter than that of p. ginseng, whereas Jakyung-jong and Hwangsook-jong of P. ginseng showed similar root length. Proximate composition were similar between the two species, however, crude fibercontent was significantly higher in main and lateral root of Jakyung-jong and Hwang sook-jong of P ginseng than P quinquefolium. In regard to mineral contents of root, P ginseng contained more Ca and Mn and less Fe and Al than P. quinquefolium. P. quinquefolium contained more of Rbl and Rd of protopanaxadiol saponin, and less or Re, $Rg_1$ and $Rg_2$ of protopanaxatriol saponin than P ginseng. However, no Rf was detected in the p. quinquefolium. Key words Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, ginseng character, ginsenoside.

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Content and Composition of Saponin Compounds of Panax Species (Panax(인삼)속 식물의 사포닌화합물 함량 및 조성)

  • 고성룡;최강주
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.254-259
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    • 1995
  • The content and composition of saponin compounds of Panax species were analyzed according to their species, region and processing type of red and white ginseng. The species employed were Korean-, Chinese-, Japanese red ginsengs, and Korean white ginseng of Panax ginseng, American- and Canadian ginsengs of Panax quinquefolium, and Panax notoinseng. Twelve main saponin components in the ginseng were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. All three species had remarkably different content and composition. However, within each species they were similar. Twelve major ginsenosides were determined in P. ginseng, eight in p. quinquefolium, and six in P. notoginseng. Of the components of P ginseng Rf, $Rh_1$, $Rh_2$ and Ra were not detected in P quinquefolium, and $Rb_2$, Rc, Rf, $Rh_2$, Ra and Ro not detected in P. notoinseam. Crude saponin content and protopanaxadiol/protopanaxatriol saponin ratio were compared. They were 4.81~5.24% and 1.27~ 1.45 in p. ginsengs, 7.01~7.25% and 2.12~ 2.15 in p. quinquefolium, 9.80% and 0.99 in P. notoineng. The prosapogenin and sapogenin content were different among the Panax species.

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Effect of Heating Condition and Panax Ginseng on Body Temperature, Hematological Changes, and Immune Response in Rat (온열환경과 인삼(Panax Ginseng)이 Rat의 체온, 혈액학적 변화, 면역반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Yi, Seo-Ra;Lee, In-Hee;Kim, Min-Ji;Lew, Jae-Hwan
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : This study was designed to test the effect of heating condition and Panax ginseng on body temperature, hematologicala changes, and immune response. Methods : The extract from Panax ginseng was made by the pharmacy department of Kyung Hee Oriental Medical Hospital. The animals were divided into four groups; control, room temperature Panax ginseng (G), $28^{\circ}C$ heating, and $28^{\circ}C$ heating Panax ginseng (heating G). Each group has 8 Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured body weight & temperature twice a week. After 2 weeks of experiment, serum lipid level, WBC, differential count, lymphocyte proliferation and immune cytokine concentration were measured. Results : 1. Simultaneous application of heating condition and Panax ginseng induced decreased body weight and increased body temperature. 2. Simultaneous application of heating condition and Panax ginseng induced decreased AST, ALT and BUN. 3. Simultaneous application of heating condition and Panax ginseng tended to decrease TNF-${\alpha}$ concentration, while application of room temperature and Panax ginseng tended to increase TNF-${\alpha}$ concentration. Conclusions : Simultaneous application of heating condition and Panax ginseng decreseas body weight, increases, body temperature and has a tendency to decrease TNF-${\alpha}$ concentration.

Comparative studies on the Chemical Components in Ginseng The ginsenosides and the free sugars content of various ginseng plants. (각국삼 성분 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Man-Uk;Lee, Jong-Suk;Choe, Gang-Ju
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 1982
  • The composition and concentration of ginsenosides and the free sugars in panax ginseng(Korea ginseng), panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and panax pseudoginseng var. notoginseng (Sanchi ginseng), were investigated. The major ginsenosides and the order of their amount in panax ginseng are Rbl, Rc Rgl, Re, Rb2 Rd and these are about 90% of total ginsenosides, but major ginsenosides of American and Snachi ginseng art Rbl, Re, Rg1 (about 91% of total) ansi Rgl, Rbl, Re (about 93% of total) respectively. Sanchi ginseng was observed in higher concentration of panaxatriol than panaxadiol unlike panax and American ginseng. Free sugars in white ginseng are fructose, glucose, maltose and sucrose. Whereas, in red ginseng rhamnose and xylose were also detected as free sugar.

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