• Title, Summary, Keyword: Palm Oil

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Visualization of Phytophthora palmivora Infection in Oil Palm Leaflets with Fluorescent Proteins and Cell Viability Markers

  • Ochoa, Juan C.;Herrera, Mariana;Navia, Monica;Romero, Hernan Mauricio
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.19-31
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    • 2019
  • Bud rot (BR) is the most devastating disease affecting oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) crops in Colombia. Its causal agent, Phytophthora palmivora, initiates the infection in immature oil palm leaflets producing necrotic lesions, followed by colonization of opportunistic necrotrophs, which increases disease damage. To improve the characterization of the disease, we transformed P. palmivora using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to include the fluorescent proteins CFP-SKL (peroxisomal localization), eGFP and mRFP1 (cytoplasmic localization). The stability of some transformants was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and single zoospore cultures; additionally, virulence and in vitro growth were compared to the wild-type isolate to select transformants with the greatest resemblance to the WT isolate. GFP-tagged P. palmivora was useful to identify all of the infective structures that are commonly formed by hemibiotrophic oomycetes, including apoplastic colonization and haustorium formation. Finally, we detected cell death responses associated with immature oil palm tissues that showed reduced susceptibility to P. palmivora infection, indicating that these tissues could exhibit age-related resistance. The aim of this research is to improve the characterization of the initial disease stages and generate cell biology tools that may be useful for developing methodologies for early identification of oil palm materials resistant or susceptible to BR.

Functional Properties of Cholesterol-removed Compound Whipping Cream by Palm Oil

  • Shim, S.Y.;Ahn, J.;Kwak, H.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.857-862
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    • 2004
  • The present study was carried out to examine the changes in functional properties of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream made by $\beta$-CD treated cream and palm oil. Six different ratios of cream to palm oil (10:0 as control, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, and 5:5, v/v) were tested. The overrun percentage increased with an increased amount of palm oil. When the ratio of cream to palm oil was 10:0 (control), the overrun was 130%, which was significantly lower than other ratios reached to 150%. Foam instability was measured as 3.1 ml defoamed cream in control, however, the value of foam instability decreased with an increase of palm oil addition. The TBA value of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream increased from 0.08 to 0.13 with no addition of palm oil during 4 wk storage. When the ratio of cream to palm oil was 5:5, TBA value increased dramatically at 3 wk and thereafter. Among sensory characteristics, texture value increased with higher amount of palm oil, however, flavor and overall preferences were opposite. Above results indicated that partial substitution of palm oil in manufacture of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream resulted in a stable foam development with little adverse effect on flavor and lipid oxidation during storage. The present study showed a possible application in manufacture of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream, which may be effective in other foods.

Characterization of palm oil and its utilization in food industry (팜기름의 특성 및 식품산업에의 이용)

  • Yoon, Suk Hoo
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.70-92
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    • 2017
  • Crude palm oil (CPO) is obtained from the fruit of oil palm tree, and is rich in palmitic acid, ${\beta}$-carotene and vitamin E. CPO containing a balanced range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is fractionated mainly into liquid palm olein and solid palm. Palm oil is highly stable during frying due to its fatty acid composition, and the synergistic antioxidant activity of ${\beta}$-carotene and tocotrienol. Blending and interesterification of palm oil and other oils are the main processes used to offer functional, nutritional, and technical advantages to produce oils suitable for margarine, shortening, vanaspati, and frying oils etc. The advantages of using palm oil products include cheap raw materials, good availability, and low cost of processing, since hydrogenation is not necessary. Future research should lead to the production of oils with a higher oleic acid content and a higher content of vitamins E, carotenoids, and tocotrienols.

Blending Effect of Palm Oil on Physicochemical Properties of Rice Bran Oil

  • Yoon, Suk-Hoo;Kim, Sun-Ki;Teah, Yau-Kun;Kim, Kil-Hwan;Kwon, Tai-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.329-333
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    • 1986
  • Rice bran ell was blended with double fractionated palm olein (DF palm olein) to examine the cooking performance of blended oil. A blended oil made with 80% or higher rice bran oil and 20% or less DF palm olein passed the cold test, and had a cloud point of $-3^{\circ}C$. Blending of DF palm olein to rice bran oil lowered the smoke point, refractive index, and absorbancies at 232 and 268 nm of rice bran oil. Dielectric constant of oils was not affected by blending during heating. Blending of DF palm olein , however, increased the acids formation in rice bran oil, whereas it retarded polymer formation. The results of the analytical methods used in this study except dielectric constant measurement showed significant difference among the blended oils depending on the blending ratios.

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Effects of Consuming Diets Incorporating Soybean Oil , Canola Oil , and Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Fecal Fat Excretion in Humans

  • Jin, Young-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1073-1083
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    • 1997
  • This project was to compare the effects of consuming diets incorporating soybean oil , canola oil, ad palm oil on blood serum lipid patterns and fecal fat excretion in healthy human adults. The project was composed of three studies that were run concurrently . Each study was composed of a 4-day pre-trial period and two , 14-day experimental periods arranged according to a cross-over design. During the pre trial period, subjects were allowed to eat self-selected diets. During the experimental period , subjects were asked to eat constant, laboratory controlled diets in which sources of dietary fat varied . Thirty healthy , young adult subjects were fed a laboratory controlled diet incorporating soybean oil, canola oil, and palm oil. Test oils provided approximately 20% of the total dietary calories form all sources. Total dietary fat from all sources was approximately 30% of consumed calories. The highest serum total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol , and triglyceride values occurred when pam oil diets were eaten. However, feeding on palm oil diets resulted in the same HDL cholesterol content as with soybean oil or canola oil diets. Soybean oil diets produced numerically lower blood serum total cholesterol , LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and numerically higher HDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol than did those with canola oil. Fecal fat excretion was numerically lower with soybean oil diets than with canola diets. The highest fecal fat excretion occurred when palm oil diets were eaten.

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EFFECTS OF PALM OIL SUPPLEMENTATION IN BROILER DIETS

  • Panja, P.;Kassim, H.;Jalaludin, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.369-373
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    • 1995
  • A study was conducted to determine the effects of varying palm oil levels (0 to 8%) in the diets on the performance of broilers under the warm humid tropical environment. Increasing palm oil levels resulted in corresponding rise in the dietary energy concentrations, and broilers fed on higher energy diets improved feed and energy consumption, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Total carcass fat content was found to increase at higher levels of palm oil inclusions.

A study of palm oil mill processing and environmental assessment of palm oil mill effluent treatment

  • Akhbari, Azam;Kutty, Prashad Kumaran;Chuen, Onn Chiu;Ibrahim, Shaliza
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.212-221
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    • 2020
  • This work discusses the palm oil mill processing carried out at Jugra Palm Oil Mill Sdn Bhd, situated at Selangor, Malaysia with the capacity of 45-t fresh fruit bunch (FFB)/h. Typically, oil palm residues and palm oil mill effluent (POME) from FFB are generated while processing. Prior to discharge, POME should be treated to remove pollutants in the effluent. As such, the performances of anaerobic and aerobic ponds were assessed in this study to determine temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), sludge volume index (SVI), and dissolved oxygen (DO). From the experiments, mesophilic temperature due to better process stability was applied in anaerobic ponds. The pH results displayed a fluctuating trend between lower control limit and upper control limit, and, the pH value increased from one pond to another. The final discharge BOD and SVI appeared to be lower than 100 mg/L and 10 mL/L indicating low degree of pollution and good settling ability for biomass/solid. DO was close to normal, mostly below 2 mg/L. The experimental outcomes revealed the effective treatability of POME in adherence to the standard regulation, which is the priority for environmental sustainability within this industry domain.

EFFECTS OF PALM OIL AND SOYBEAN OIL AS FAT SOURCES IN ISONITROGENOUS AND ISOCALORIC DIETS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS

  • Panja, P.;Kassim, H.;Jalaludin, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 1995
  • The effects of palm oil and soybean oil as a high energy source diet on the performance of broilers under the warm humid environment were studied. Palm oil and soybean oil, either singly or mixed, were incorporated in the experimental diets to a total of 6% of the diet. The performance of the chicken improved (though not significant) with increasing unsaturated fatty acid content in the diets, but the responses to treatments were not consistent. The carcass fat content was generally higher in all the treated groups compared to the control but the differences were not statistically significant. The results also failed to show any effect of combining two sources of oils. Fatty acid composition in the body was found to be influenced greatly by dietary fat. When soybean oil was used instead of palm oil, the amount of linoleic and linolenic acids in the carcass were increased proportionately.

Traditional oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq.) and its medicinal uses: A review

  • Owoyele, Bamidele Victor;Owolabi, Gbenga Opeyemi
    • CELLMED
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.16.1-16.8
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    • 2014
  • The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been reported to originate along the gulf of the guinea in West Africa. The various parts of the tree have been used locally and traditionally for various medicinal purposes. Some of these uses have been proved by scientific experiments. Palm oil is extracted from the mesocarp of the fruit and is used traditionally for the treatment of headaches, pains, rheumatism, cardiovascular diseases, arterial thrombosis and an atherosclerosis due to its rich phytonutrients. The leaves are also used for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, kidney diseases and wound healing. The sap also has been found to be rich in phytonutrients that can be used to treat various diseases. This review therefore seeks to explore many of the uses of the oil palm using the various parts of the oil palm.

Effects of Seven Dietary Oils on Blood Serum Lipid Patterns in Rats

  • Jin, Young-Hee
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effects of seven dietary oils on the serum lipid patterns of rats. Seventy weanling Wistar Kyoto rats were divided into seven groups of ten rats each. Walnut oil (rich in PUFA), wheat germ oil (rich in PUFA), corn oil (rich in PUFA), canola oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids), fish oil (rich in PUFA), primrose oil (rich in PUFA), and palm oil (rich in saturated fatty acids) were employed for 21 days. Serum total cholesterol concentrations for rats fed palm oil, walnut oil, and wheat germ oil were significantly higher than were concentrations for rats receiving corn oil. fish oil, and primrose oil. The mean serum LDL cholesterol values for rats fed fish oil, primrose oil, and corn oil were significantly lower than those for rats fed walnut oil, wheat germ oil, canola oil, and palm oil. HDL cholesterol concentrations were the highest when wheat germ oil was fed and the lowest when fish oil was fed. The feeding of wheat germ oil and palm oil to rats resulted in considerably higher serum triglyceride levels than did all other treatments. The feeding of wheat germ oil to rats resulted in considerably higher serum phospholipid levels. Serum phospholipid concentrations were significantly lower in rats fed the canola oil, fish oil, ,and primrose oil diets, when compared to concentrations achieved with the feeding of walnut oil, wheat germ oil, corn oil, and palm oil. Palm oil, which has a high ratio of saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulted in the highest serum total cholesterol and highest LDL cholesterol levels, while fish oil, primrose oil, and corn oil produced the lowest total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Wheat germ oil produced the highest values for HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In general, feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids produced more favorable responses than feeding oils containing large amounts of monounsaturated or saturated fatty acids.