• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pakistan females

Search Result 38, Processing Time 0.031 seconds

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Disease Knowledge of Breast Cancer in Pakistan

  • Asif, Hafiz Muhammad;Sultana, Sabira;Akhtar, Naveed;Rehman, Jalil Ur.;Rehman, Riaz Ur.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.15 no.11
    • /
    • pp.4411-4416
    • /
    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females all over the world with approximately one million new cases each year as well as one of second leading causes of death among females. In Pakistan, the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females is also breast cancer, accounting for nearly one in nine female patients. Its incidence in Pakistan is 2.5 times higher than that in neighboring countries like Iran and India. The risk factors associated with breast cancer are age, family history, early menarche, intake of combined estrogen and progestin menopausal hormones, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, low socioeconomic status and lack of awareness regarding the disease. This mini-review article aims to provide awareness about breast cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors and disease knowledge of breast cancer in Pakistan.

Breast Cancer in Pakistan - a Critical Appraisal of the Situation Regarding Female Health and Where the Nation Stands?

  • Basra, Muhammad Asim R;Saher, Manzoor;Athar, Muhammad Makshoof;Raza, Muhammad Hashim
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.7
    • /
    • pp.3035-3041
    • /
    • 2016
  • Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy of women worldwide. In the past it was considered as disease of older middle aged women, but the incidence of BC in young females is growing in recent years concordant with studies in Pakistan. In this paper, we reviewed the mutant functions of tumor suppressor genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, ATM and PTEN), epigenetic transformation and involvement of estrogen receptors in development of breast cancer. We further reviewed the current situation of BC in Pakistan that depicts a higher incidence in young females. According to SKMCH and RC data, age group 45-49 years is more prone to BC with high rate of incidence 45.42%. A few studies explored the high expression of ER, PR and HER-2/neu in Pakistani females. Moreover, presence of BRCA1 (c.1961dupA) mutation in Pakistani shows concordance with data in different areas of world. But we are unable to find an authentic study that can explore epigenetic based transformation of breast tumors in Pakistan. This area of research needs more attention to explore the complete picture of BC in Pakistan.

Evaluation of Common Risk Factors for Breast Carcinoma in Females: a Hospital Based Study in Karachi, Pakistan

  • Sufian, Saira Naz;Masroor, Imrana;Mirza, Waseem;Butt, Sehrish;Afzal, Shaista;Sajjad, Zafar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.15
    • /
    • pp.6347-6352
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: Breast malignancies are one of the leading causes of deaths in females worldwide. There are a number of risk factors associated with breast cancer but in Karachi Pakistan there are insufficient data available. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted on females in age group between 30-80 years. This study was accomplished by retrospective data collection in Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 108 females with primary malignancy of breast were included along with 108 matched controls. Relationship of various factors with disease was studied using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: A total of 14 variables were analyzed and based on and 7 were found to be risk factors: old age, family history of breast cancer, family history of other carcinomas, personal history of breast carcinoma, early age of menarche, older age of mother at first delivery and lower number of children. Five factors, parity, breast feeding, history of oral contraceptive pills intake, past history of oophorectomy and hysterectomy showed protective associations. One variable, use of hormonal replacement therapy, showed a controversial link and one other, marital status, was not significant in this study. Conclusions: It is concluded that most of the well-known risk factors for breast cancer are also associated with the disease in the female population of Karachi, Pakistan. High risk patients should be the focus with the help of this study so that screening can be more effective for early diagnosis before clinically evident breast malignancy.

Trends and Analysis of Cancer Incidence for Common Male and Female Cancers in the Population of Punjab Province of Pakistan during 1984 to 2014

  • Masood, Khalid;Masood, Andleeb;Zafar, Junaid;Shahid, Abubaker;Kamran, Mujahid;Murad, Sohail;Masood, Misbah;Alluddin, Zafar;Riaz, Masooma;Akhter, Naseem;Ahmad, Munir;Ahmad, Fayyaz;Akhtar, Javaid;Naeem, Muhammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.13
    • /
    • pp.5297-5304
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Cancer Registry (PAECCR) program has made availability of a common cancer incidence database possible in Pakistan. The cancer incidence data from nuclear medicine and oncology institutes were gathered and presented. Materials and Methods: The cancer incidence data for the last 30 years (1984-2014) are included to describe a data set of male and female patients. The data analysis concerning occurrence, trends of common cancers in male and female patients, stage-wise distribution, and mortality/follow-up cases is also incorporated for the last 10 years (2004-2014). Results: The total population of provincial capital Lahore is 9,800,000. The total number of cancer cases was 80,390 (males 32,156, females 48,134). The crude incidence rates in PAECCR areas were 580.8/$10^5$ during 2010 to 885.4/$10^5$ in 2014 (males 354.1/$10^5$, females 530.1/$10^5$). The cancer incidence rates for head and neck (15.70%), brain tumors (10.5%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 9.53%) were found to be the highest in male patients, whereas breast cancer (46.7%), ovary tumors (6.80%), and cervix (6.31%) cancer incidence rates were observed to be the most common in female patients. The age range distribution of diagnosed and treated patients in conjunction with the percentage contribution of cancer patients from 15 different cities of Punjab province treated at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Lahore are also included. Leukemia was found to be the most common cancer for the age group of 1-12 years. It has been identified that the maximum number of diagnosed cases were found in the age range of 51-60 years for males and 41-50 years for female cancer patients. Conclusions: Overall cancer incidence of the thirty years demonstrated that head and neck and breast cancers in males and in females respectively are the most common cancers in Punjab province in Pakistan, at rates almost the highest in Asia, requiring especial attention. The incidence of brain, NHL, and prostate cancers among males and ovarian and cervix cancers among females have increased rapidly. These data from a major population of Punjab province should be helpful for implementation of appropriate planning, prevention and cancer control measures and for determination of risk factors within the country.

Breast Lesions in Adolescents and Young Women in Pakistan - a 5 Year Study of Significance of Early Recognition

  • Khurshid, Amna;Faridi, Naveen;Arif, Afreen M.;Naqvi, Hanna;Tahir, Muhammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.6
    • /
    • pp.3465-3467
    • /
    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease amongst young women. If we review local data in Pakistan then breast cancer represents approximately a third of all cancers in females. The age standardized incidence rate (ASR) world per 100,000 is 53.8 and crude incidence rate is 30.9. We have observed during our surgical pathology practice and it is also reported by other Asian studies that breast carcinoma is amongst the leading malignancies in the region and the patients are at least a decade younger than counterparts in developed nations. Age is an important issue in effective screening, diagnosis and management of breast cancer, especially in this geographical region where late presentation and poor prognosis are a hallmark of the disease. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of malignant breast lesions in symptomatic young females presenting with breast lumps. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the Pathology Department, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi. Descriptive and pathology data of malignant breast tumors 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2009 were reviewed, using the departmental archived data. It included both male and female patients up to the age of 25 years. Results: A total of 714 surgical specimens from/of symptomatic breast lesions were received at the pathology department of Liaquat National Medical, in the five years study period, in young females. There were 575 (80%) benign, 119 (16%) inflammatory and 20 (2.8%) malignant lumps. Conclusions: The obtained data for females only up to 25 years of age suggest a massive burden which requires urgent attention. Early assessment of lesions is essential in order to avoid mortality from malignancies.

Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer in Females Using a Logit Model in Lahore, Pakistan

  • Asif, Faiza;Ahmad, Muhammad Riaz;Majid, Arshia
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.15
    • /
    • pp.6243-6247
    • /
    • 2015
  • Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a more common endocrine malignancy in females and is a major cause of death in developing countries. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore possible risk factors of thyroid cancer in females of Pakistan. Materials and Methods: This study covered 232 females, including 127 (54.7%) cases and 105 (45.2%) controls, from the INMOL Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore. Different risk factors were explored by the descriptive and inferentially statistics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for different risk factors were computed using logistic regression. Results: The results showed six risk factors, marital status, family history of thyroid cancer, iodine in the diet, oxidative stress, fast food and fried food, to demonstrate positive significant links to thyroid cancer (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of :2.152, 1.104-4.198; 2.630, 1.416-4.887; 2.391, 1.282-4.458; 4.115, 2.185-7.750; 3.656, 1.851-7.223; 2.357, 1.268-4.382; and 2.360, 1.199-4.643, respectively). Conclusions: The Oxidative stress, marital status, family history of cancer, fast food, use of iodine diet and fried food are the risk factors of thyroid cancer in females.

Comprehensive Account on Prevalence and Characteristics of Hydatid Cysts in Livestock from Pakistan

  • Mehmood, Naunain;Arshad, Muhammad;Ahmed, Haroon;Simsek, Sami;Muqaddas, Hira
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
    • /
    • v.58 no.2
    • /
    • pp.121-127
    • /
    • 2020
  • Pakistan is at intersection of hyperendemic regions for hydatidosis. Current study aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts and cyst characteristics in different intermediate hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes) across the 4 provinces of Pakistan. A total of 991 sheep, 1,478 goats, 1,602 cattle and 1,343 buffaloes were examined for presence of hydatid cysts during 2 years (January 2016-December 2018). Differences in frequency of hydatidosis were observed with highest overall prevalence in buffaloes (11.9%) and sheep (11.5%). Highest prevalence and burden of infection were observed in older age animals (23.8%, 9.78±0.49) and females (26.5%, 12.53±0.67). Data for seasonal prevalence alluded to year-round presence of disease with non-significant statistical difference. Organ predilection indicated liver as the most preferred site of cyst localization followed mainly by lungs. An over-dispersion pattern was observed in all infected animals as majority of cysts belonged <10 cysts per infected host category. Highest percentage of fertile cysts was observed in liver of sheep. Interestingly, solitary form of cysts had higher fertility rate than multiple form. Amid lack of data and wide gap of knowledge, this study would try to fill up the lacunae regarding this neglected tropical disease. Extensive rearing of livestock, unregulated official slaughter and home slaughtering have played role in adaptability of E. granulosus in Pakistan.

Metastatic Bone Disease as Seen in Our Clinical Practice - Experience at a Tertiary Care Cancer Center in Pakistan

  • Qureshi, Asim;Shams, Usman;Akhter, Azra;Riaz, Sabiha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.13 no.9
    • /
    • pp.4369-4371
    • /
    • 2012
  • Aim: Metastatic tumor of bone is the most common malignancy involving bone and is an important predictor of prognosis in advanced cancers. The prognosis depends upon the primary site of origin and the extent of disease. In current study, we present the pattern and distribution of metastatic bone disease seen in the leading cancer care center of Pakistan, Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital & Research Center (SKMCH & RC), Lahore. Materials & Methods: All cases of bony metastatic disease were included that presented in the Pathology Department, from Jan 2005 to July 2011. Patients of all ages and both sexes were included. Primary bone tumors, lymphomas, sarcomas and other malignancies were excluded. The data were recorded and analyzed with SPSS 16.0. Results: A total of 146 cases of metastatic bone disease were included in the study. Out of the total cases, 79 were male and 67 were female. Age range 25-82 years (median 52). Hip bone was the most frequent bone involved, with femur and vertebrae as second and third in the list. The commonest bone involved in males was vertebrae with 23 cases and in females was hip bone with 22 cases. Regarding primary site, cancers of breast, prostate and gastrointestinal tract were at the top of the list with prostate and breast being the most frequent primary sites of metastasis in males and females respectively. Conclusion: Bone metastasis is an important entity to consider in the differential diagnosis whenever a bony tumor especially carcinoma present in older age. Our data are comparable with international findings and the literature available regarding the site and distribution of skeletal metastatic lesions. A slight deviation noted was more common bony metastatic lesions with ovarian primaries in females and gastrointestinal tract cancers in males in our study.

Gastrointestinal, Liver and Biliary Tract Pathology: A Histopathological and Epidemiological Perspective from Pakistan with a Review of the Literature

  • Ahmad, Zubair;Arshad, Huma;Fatima, Saira;Idrees, Romana;Ud-Din, Nasir;Ahmed, Rashida;Ahmed, Arsalan;Memon, Aisha;Minhas, Khurram;Arif, Muhammad;Fatima, Samia;Haroon, Saroona;Pervez, Shahid;Hasan, Sheema;Kayani, Naila
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.11
    • /
    • pp.6997-7005
    • /
    • 2013
  • Aim: To present an epidemiological and histological perspective of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (including liver and biliary tract) at the Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology, AKUH, Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: All consecutive endoscopic biopsies and resections between October 1 and December 31, 2012 were included. Results: A total of 2,323 cases were included. Carcinoma was overwhelmingly the commonest diagnosis on esophageal biopsies (69.1%); chronic helicobacter gastritis (45.6%) followed by adenocarcinoma (23.5%) were the commonest diagnoses on gastric biopsies; adenocarcinoma (27.3%) followed by ulcerative colitis (13.1%) were the commonest diagnoses on colonic biopsies; acute appendicitis (59.1%) was the commonest diagnosis on appendicectomy specimens; chronic viral hepatitis (44.8%) followed by hepatocellular carcinoma (23.4%) were the commonest diagnoses on liver biopsies; chronic cholecystitis was the commonest diagnosis (over 89%) on cholecystectomy specimens. Conclusions: Squamous cell carcinoma comprised 88.8% of esophageal cancers. About 67% were in the lower third and 56.5% were moderately differentiated; mean ages 49.8 years for females and 55.8 years for males; 66% cases were from South West Pakistan. Over 67% patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were males; mean ages 59 and 44 years in males and females respectively, about 74% gastric carcinomas were poorly differentiated; and 62.2% were located in the antropyloric region. About 63% patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma were males; mean ages 46.1 and 50.5 years for males and females respectively; tumor grade was moderately differentiated in 54%; over 80% were located in the left colon. In 21.2% appendicectomies, no acute inflammation was found. Acute appendicitis was most common in young people. Hepatitis C (66.3%) was more common than hepatitis B (33.7%); about 78% cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in males; females comprised 76.7% patients with chronic cholecystitis; and 77.8% patients with gall bladder carcinoma. All resection specimens showed advanced cancers. Most cancers occurred after the age of 50 years.

Quantitative Analyses of Esophageal Cancer Research in Pakistan

  • Qureshi, Muhammad Asif;Khan, Saeed;Ujjan, Ikram Din;Iqbal, Asif;Khan, Ramsha;Khan, Bilal Ahmed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.17 no.7
    • /
    • pp.3117-3122
    • /
    • 2016
  • Background: Health-care research is a neglected discipline in Pakistan and research related to esophageal cancer (ranks 9th in Pakistani males and 5th in females) is no exception in this regard. Particularly, there are no data available to delineate the overall status of esophageal cancer epidemiological studies in Pakistan. This study describes the first ever effort to make a systematic quantification, in an attempt to provide a road-map to all stakeholders for designing appropriate epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Materials and Methods: International (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) and local (PakMedinet) scientific databases as well as Google search engine were searched using specified keywords to extract relevant publication. Well-defined inclusion criteria were implemented to select publications for final analyses. All data were recorded by at least 3 authors and consensus data were entered into and analyzed for descriptive statistics (such as frequencies, percentages and annual growth rates) using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. Results: A total of 79 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria including 20 publications for which full texts were not available. Of the 79 publications, 59 (74.6%) were original/research publications, 5 (6.3%) were case reports, 4 (5.1%) were research communications, 2 (2.5%) were review articles, 1 was (1.2%) correspondence and 8 (10.1%) were undefined categories. Only 13 (<20%) cities of Pakistan contributed towards the 79 publications. On average, only 1.9 relevant publications/year were published from 1976 (year of first publication) to the present. Alarmingly, a decline in the annual growth at -4.1% was recorded in the last six years. Conclusions: Esophageal cancer research is largely unfathomed in Pakistan. Urgent/dramatic steps are required by all concerned to address this common (and under reported) cancer of Pakistan.