• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pakistan

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Financial Decline of Pakistan Railways and Prospective Turnaround

  • Ch., Kashif Farooq
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 2013
  • We have studied the financial performance of Pakistan Railways and found that the financial indicator (net earnings ratio) of Pakistan Railways is consistently decreasing over the years, causing severe financial and operational crises. The implication of our study indicates that the '3Rs' Strategy (retrenchment, repositioning and reorganizing) should be put into practice and furthermore, favorable changes in environmental factors can also contribute towards organizational turnaround. This study would help the Government of Pakistan to think and plan more clearly about turnaround strategies that could improve the performance and growth of Pakistan Railways.

Multi-Dimensional Index of Quality of Life: The Pakistan Case

  • Gilani, Bilal Ijaz;Salman, Rohail
    • Asian Journal for Public Opinion Research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.32-51
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    • 2014
  • Quality of Life in Pakistan is an understudied and rather unexplored domain. With various definitions and challenges to explaining quality of life, a public opinion poll and scientific surveys have been conducted in order to find out more about the quality of life in Pakistan. Using a nationally representative sample, this paper seeks to identify quality of life measures, find results, and analyze them to see what they mean, specifically in the context of Pakistan.

Overview of Alternate Dispute Resolution with Special Reference to Arbitration Laws in Pakistan

  • Won, Sung-Kwon
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.149-167
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    • 2013
  • Arbitration is one of the prominent and widely practiced forms of Alternate Dispute Resolution. Different countries are strengthening their alternate dispute resolution mechanism, and focusing on arbitrations is a very important edge. Pakistan is in the phase of developing effective laws and policies to strengthen the process of arbitration. The Pakistan Arbitration Act of 1940 is very important to discuss and along with domestic laws the applicability of the international conventions must be discussed. This paper analyzed the situation of arbitration laws in Pakistan with respect to both the domestic laws and international laws applicable in the country.

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Train Scheduling and Rescheduling In Pakistan

  • Abid, Malik Muneeb;Khan, Muhammad Babar
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2013
  • This paper provides an overview of Pakistan Railways scheduling and rescheduling. First of all, Pakistan Railways is introduced with its brief history and importance in this country. Assets of this network with passengers and freight using this are given. Current hope less situation is leading to privatization of this system as well as promoting short distance traveler to use road and Government efforts to retain is also presented. Train scheduling in Pakistan is being done manually, based on manual time distance graph preparation and resolution of conflicts based on manager's experience and ability. In Real-time management of this traffic Lahore head office is connected with six control stations in the Pakistan, decision for resolution of any disturbance is coordinated among them. It is recommended that computer aided tools must be developed for this system to help traffic managers and it is needed to invest on the segments to increase their speed limits which might attract passengers to use this mode of transportation with high priority.

Quantitative Review of Oral Cancer Research Output from Pakistan

  • Khan, Zohaib;Muller, Steffen;Ahmed, Shahzad;Tonnies, Justus;Nadir, Faryal;Samkange-Zeeb, Florence
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4733-4739
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    • 2015
  • Background: Oral cancer is the most common cancer among men and second only to breast cancer among women in Pakistan. For the effective control and prevention of oral cancer, Pakistan needs to recognize the importance of research and generation of the evidence-base which can inform policy making and planning and implementation of intervention programs. The objective of this review was to quantify oral cancer research output in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A systematic electronic search in "Medline", "ISI-Web of Science" and "Pakmedinet", supplemented by a Google search, was carried out in January and February, 2014, to identify literature from Pakistan relevant to oral cancer. The selection of publications for the review was carried out according to preset criteria. Data were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: A total of 166 publications comprising 62 case series, 36 cross sectional, 31 case control, 10 basic laboratory research, eleven reviews and two trials, were included in this review. Some 35 % of the publications focused on risk factors for oral cancer. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was the institution with the highest contribution. Conclusions: There is a lack of research in the field of oral cancer research in Pakistan. Focused efforts should be put in place to improve both quality and quantity of oral cancer research in the country.

Do Firm Characteristics Determine Capital Structure of Pakistan Listed Firms? A Quantile Regression Approach

  • KHAN, Karamat;QU, Jing;SHAH, Muhammad Haroon;BAH, Kebba;KHAN, Irfan Ullah
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.61-72
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of the capital structure of firms operating in a developing economy, Pakistan. The quantile regression method is applied on a sample of 183 non-financial companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange during the period of 2008-2017. Specifically, the empirical analysis focuses on changes in the coefficients of the determinants according to the leverage ratio quantiles of the examined listed firms. The findings show that the capital structure of Pakistan listed firms differs between firms in different quantiles of leverage. These differences are significant with the sign of explanatory variables changes with the level of leverage. The research result found tangibility, profitability and age to be positively related to leverage among listed firms in Pakistan. However, size, liquidity and non-debt tax shield (NDTS) are negatively related to leverage. A firm's growth and risk are found to be insignificant predictors of capital structure in Pakistan listed firms. Moreover, the study also found a significant impact of industry characteristic on leverage. The findings of this study indicate that an individual firm's finance policy needs to be responsive to the firm's characteristics and should match with the different borrowing requirements of listed firms.

The Analysis of the Formation Mechanism of Pakistan's Strategic Culture

  • Nie, Jiao;Tu, Huazhong;Qin, Ruijing;Ma, Xiang
    • Korea and Global Affairs
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.131-154
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    • 2019
  • The state behavior has a strong consequence with the national strategic culture. However, different scholars hold different views on the classification of the national strategic culture. As one of the most significant land neighbors in West China, Pakistan is China's all-weather strategic cooperative partner. Understanding Pakistan's strategic culture will not only help understand Pakistan's national policies and state behavior, but also help deepen China-Pakistan cooperation. Cutting in from the perspectives of geography, social economy, culture, history and military, the author believes that the formation mechanism of Pakistan's strategic culture is mainly affected by the following four factors: geopolitical environment, production mode and lifestyle, cultural tradition, historical experience and diplomatic relations. The analysis has found that Pakistan's strategic culture has been shaped by Islam and can be classified as an outward-oriented strategic culture, the state behavior also shows a strong Islamic identity.

Prevalence, Risk Factors and Disease Knowledge of Breast Cancer in Pakistan

  • Asif, Hafiz Muhammad;Sultana, Sabira;Akhtar, Naveed;Rehman, Jalil Ur.;Rehman, Riaz Ur.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4411-4416
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    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females all over the world with approximately one million new cases each year as well as one of second leading causes of death among females. In Pakistan, the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females is also breast cancer, accounting for nearly one in nine female patients. Its incidence in Pakistan is 2.5 times higher than that in neighboring countries like Iran and India. The risk factors associated with breast cancer are age, family history, early menarche, intake of combined estrogen and progestin menopausal hormones, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, low socioeconomic status and lack of awareness regarding the disease. This mini-review article aims to provide awareness about breast cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors and disease knowledge of breast cancer in Pakistan.

How Does Financial Development Impact Economic Growth in Pakistan?: New Evidence from Threshold Model

  • TARIQ, Rameez;KHAN, Muhammad Arshad;RAHMAN, Abdul
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2020
  • This study examines the nonlinear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan using the threshold regression model for the period 1980-2017. We also employed quantile regression with 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 quantiles of conditional distribution. The quantile regression is based on minimizing of sum of squared residuals. The result indicates that economic growth responds positively to financial development when the level of financial development surpasses the threshold value of 0.151. However, when financial development lies below the threshold value (that is, 0.151), its impact on economic growth is negative. Thus, when financial development of Pakistan surpasses the threshold level, it contributes more towards economic growth since greater level of financial development contributes more to boosts economic growth. This finding reveals that economic growth reacts differently to financial development, and the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped in Pakistan. Among the other variables, physical capital, labor force, and government expenditure exert a positive effect on economic growth. Furthermore, inflation rate and trade openness have an insignificant impact on economic growth. The results of quantile regression also confirm the non-linear relationship between financial development and economic growth in Pakistan. The finding of this study suggests revamping of financial sector policies in Pakistan.

Logistics Capability, Logistics Outsourcing and Firm Performance in Manufacturing Companies in Pakistan

  • AZIZ, Abdul;MEMON, Javed Ahmed;ALI, Shuaib
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.7 no.8
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    • pp.435-444
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    • 2020
  • This study investigates the role of logistics capability and logistics outsourcing on the performance of manufacturing companies in Pakistan. It examines how logistics capability affects firm's performance, why outsourcing is essential and how firms benefited if they outsource the service rather than establishing their own logistics capability. This research is based on a survey using structured a questionnaire to collect the primary data. The target population is logistics specialists of manufacturing companies in Pakistan with head offices based on Karachi, that have their own logistics or outsource their logistics. The questionnaire has been distributed to 500 respondents in 113 manufacturing companies in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis has been used as statistical techniques to check the factor loading of the components, and SEM (Structural Equation Model) is used to check the impact of logistics capability on firm's performance as well as the role of logistics outsourcing as a mediator. The findings of the research suggest logistics capability has positive impact on the performance of the manufacturing companies in Pakistan, and logistics capability has also an impact on logistics outsourcing. On the other hand, the study found that logistics outsourcing has no significant impact on the manufacturing companies in Pakistan.