• Title, Summary, Keyword: Pain

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A Study on Back Pain, Pain Disability, and Labour Pain of Postpartum Women (산후여성의 임신중 요통, 요통장애와 분만중 통증에 관한 연구)

  • Shim, Mi-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to look into back pain, pain disability, labour pain, and related areas of pain experienced by postpartum women. Method: A survey about pain including a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry pain disability, and pain drawing was used in a descriptive research method on 98 women 2-3 days after delivery. Result: 57.1% of those surveyed reported experiencing back pain before pregnancy. 75.5% reported experiencing back pain during pregnancy. The average starting time of back pain for pregnant women was 2.9 months into pregnancy. 48.8% reported the most severe back pain in the last trimester of pregnancy, while most women complained of left and right pubic pain and lumbar area pain during pregnancy. Statistical relations were calculated and menstrual symptoms (F=5.938, p=0.004), back pain prior to pregnancy (F=4.714, p=0.000), back pain during pregnancy (F=-3.429, p=0.001), and back pain disability prior to pregnancy (F=-1.994). Conclusion: There is a relation in postpartum women's back pain between back pain prior to pregnancy and back pain during pregnancy. Pelvic examinations early in pregnancy can determine if back pain will change for the worse or relapse. Therefore, the application of a pain relieving nursing intervention is needed.

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Assessment of pain and adequacy of pain management in hospitalized cancer patients

  • Shin, Yeonghee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.1113-1122
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    • 1999
  • The author investigated pain experiences of 90 cancer patients and the adequacy of pain treatment they have received during their stay at a large medical center in T city between October 1994 and August 1995. Pain was assessed by the Shortened BPQ and results are summarized as follows: As for ratings of “worst pain” during the 24 hour period, 70% of the patients reported they had “severe” pain. As for ratings on “pain now,” 43% of the cancer patients reported “moderate to severe” pain. Over 46% of the patients reported a pain relief score of 0(not at all) or 1(somewhat) even after receiving pain medication. Adequacy of analgesic treatment was evaluated by comparing the patient's reported level of pain and the analgesic use, namely, the pain management index(PMI). The PMI indicated that 58% of the patients were undertreated for the pain control. In review of nurse's notes. systematic pain assessment was scarcely recorded, although pain documentation appeared in 70% of the notes; and the contents were mostly simple description. In conclusion, the results of patient's pain ratings, the PMI and poor pain documentation in the nurse's notes implied poor pain assessment and management.

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A Study on Chronic Pain, Pain Beliefs, Pain Coping, and Fatigue in the Elderly (노인의 만성통증과 통증신념, 통증대처 및 피로에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Hae Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.377-385
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study were to examine the relationship among chronic pain, pain beliefs, pain coping, and fatigue and to define the main factors influencing chronic pain in the elderly. Method: Data were collected by self-reported questionnaires from 276 Korean elderly. Data analysis was done with SPSS 10.1 for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Stepwise multiple regression. Results: Chronic pain score was 5.45, which was slightly higher than the average. There were significant differences in chronic pain according to age, marital state, economic state, and duration of pain. There was a significant positive correlation between chronic pain and pain beliefs, passive pain coping, physical fatigue and mental fatigue. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between chronic pain and active pain coping. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that 44% of the variance in chronic pain was significantly accounted for by passive pain coping(31%), pain beliefs(8%), physical fatigue(4%), and active pain coping(1%). Conclusion: These results suggested that pain beliefs, pain coping, and fatigue can be influencing factors on chronic pain for the elderly. Also, the findings can provide a basis for nursing intervention development to effectively manage chronic pain for the elderly.

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Relationships among the Pain Belief, Pain Coping, and Pain Disability of Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain (근골격계 만성통증 환자의 통증신념과 통증정도, 대처양상 및 통증생활방해정도와의 관계)

  • Choi, Sung-Nam;Kim, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.30-38
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand the degree of pain belief in musculoskeletal patients, and to identify the correlation with chronic pain, pain coping and pain disability. Methods: A total of 203 inpatients or outpatients with chronic pain in orthopedics agreed voluntarily to participate in this study and answer a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS/WIN 17.0 program with descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and simple linear regression. Results: The degree of pain belief in this study showed statistically significant differences depending on their age, education, job, health status, and pain duration. Among the variables correlating with pain belief in this study, there were positive correlations between pain and pain disability, pain and passive coping, pain belief and passive coping, pain belief and pain, pain belief and pain disability. The strongest correlation was passive coping and pain disability. Conclusion: From the results of this study, we concluded that it is necessary to develop the nursing intervention which can help reducing negative pain belief in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Also we need to enhance the ways of coping to active or chronic pains for controlling them effectively.

A Study for Development of Ratio Beale Measuring Pain Using Korean Pain Tersm (통증어휘를 이용한 통증비율척도의 개발연구)

  • 이은옥;윤순녕;송미순
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.93-111
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    • 1984
  • The main purpose of this study is to develop a ratio scale measuring level of pain using Korean pain terms. The specific purposes of this study are to identify the degree of pain of each pain term in each subclass: to classify each subclass in terms of dimensions of pain; and to analyze factors of the Korean pain ratio scale clustering together. One hundred an4 fifty eight pain terms which were originally identified as representative terms and their synonyms were used for data collection. Fifty eight nursing professors ana sixty one medical doctors who have contacted with patients having pain were asked to rate the weight of each pain term on a visual analogue scale. Subclasses in which ranks of pain terms were same f s findings in two previous studies were 1) thermal 3 am 2) cavity pressure, 3) single stimulating pain, 4) radiation pain. and 5) chemical pain. Subclasses in which ranks of pain terms were confused were 1) incisive pressure, and 2) cold pain. Subclasses in which one new pain term was added were 1) inflammatory-repeated pain, 2) punctuate pressure, 3) constrictive pressure, 4) fatigue-related pressure, and 5) suffering-relate4 pain. Subclasses in which two new pain terms were added were 1) traction pressure, 2) peripheral nerve pain, 3) dull pain, 4) pulsation-related pain, 5) digestion-related pain, 6) tract pain, and 7) punishment-related pain. Subclass in which 3 new pain terms were included was fear-related pain. Rating scores of 5 words in 4 subclasses were significantly different between the normal group and the extreme group of subjects in terms of subjective rating. Only one word among 6 words was that newly added to the scale. Rating scores of 12 words in 9 subclasses were significantly different between doctor group and nursing professor group. Among these 12 words, only 3 were those newly added to the scale. In comparison of these 12 words, mean scores of the nursing professors were always 7 to 16 points higher than those of the medical doctors. In the analysis of judgement of subjects in terms of dimensions of pain terms, subclasses of dull pain, cavity pressure, tract pain and cold pain were suggested to be included in the miscellaneous dimension. As a result of factor analysis of the ratings given to 96 pain words using principal components analysis without iteration and with varimax rotation limiting the number of factors to 4, factors of severe pain (factor I) mild-moderate pain (factor II) , causative pain (factor III) and temperature-related pain(factor IV) were extracted with the factor loading above 0.388. When the pain words were re-arranged on the bases of factor loading above 0.368, number of factors decreased to only first two factors. Maximum score of pain word in factor II was 46.17 and the minimum score of the factor I was 45.36. Further studies are needed to identify the validity, reliability, sensitivity and practicability of this ratio scale using patients having various sources of pain.

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Current Status of Pain Clinics in Korea (한국 통증치료실의 현황)

  • Moon, Dong-Eon;Yang, Nae-Yun;Choi, Young-Kook;Ryu, Keon-Hee;Shim, Jae-Yong;Yoon, Keon-Jung;Kim, Wook-Sung;Min, Jin-Hye
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.273-282
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    • 1998
  • Background: Twelve years have passed since the Korean Pain Society was organized. Nowadays, there are so many problems to be solved in pain clinics including health insurance, pain education and public information etc. in Korea. The present study was designed to evaluate the current status of pain clinics in Korea. Methods: Eight hundred twenty regular members of Korean Pain Society were surveyed by questionnaire in October 1997. We compared the general characteristics, contents of diseases in pain clinic, treatment Methods, patients satisfaction, pain educations, problems in pain treatments, requests to Korean Pain Society among the 138 respondents. Results: Thirty seven percents of the respondents worked at university hospitals, 39% at non-university hospitals and 24% at private pain clinics. The most common diseases treated in pain clinics was low back pain(32% in university and non-university hospital and 28% in private pain clinic respectively). However, cancer pain was 10% in university and non-university hospital and 0.7% in private pain clinic. Epidural block was the most frequently used procedure in chronic pain treatments. And 74.6% of the respondents were studied and learned in Korea and Japan. And then, current problems in pain management and requests to Korean Pain Society were medical insurance problems, pain education and public information of pain clinics. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Korean Pain Society should make an effort to solve these current problems in order to activate pain medicine and increase the quality of life for those suffering from pain.

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A Study of Pain, Depression and Self-Efficacy According to the Classifications of Pain among Chronic Pain Patients (만성통증환자의 통증분류에 따른 통증, 우울 및 자기효능감 정도)

  • Yang, Jin-Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: this study was to examine the differences of the level of pain, depression and self-efficacy according to the classifications of pain among chronic pain patients. Method: The data were collected by means of self-reported questionnaire from 164 patients with chronic pain visited in one university hospital and one local pain clinic in Busan, from October 7 to November 16, 2002. Analysis was done by ANOVA, and Scheffe test using SPSS program. Result: The subjects were divided into five classifications of chronic pain : 26.2% low back and extremity pain, 23.2% neck, shoulder and upper extremity pain, 19.5% postherpetic neuralgia, 15.9% complex regional pain syndrome and 15.2% peripheral neuralgia. There were significant differences in pain (p=.000), depression (p=.000) and self-efficacy (p=.003) according to the 5 kinds of chronic pain. With the results of the Scheffe test, the patients with peripheral neuralgia experienced pain and depression higher than those with the other kinds of chronic pain. The patients with neck, shoulder and upper extremity pain experienced self-efficacy higher than those with peripheral neuralgia. Conclusion: Chronic pain patients should be provided effective individualized intervention depending on the classifications of chronic pain. Therefore the development of interventions for pain management according to the classifications of pain in chronic pain patients is needed.

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Neuroticism and pain catastrophizing aggravate response to pain in healthy adults: an experimental study

  • Banozic, Adriana;Miljkovic, Ana;Bras, Marijana;Puljak, Livia;Kolcic, Ivana;Hayward, Caroline;Polasek, Ozren
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between neuroticism, pain catastrophizing, and experimentally induced pain threshold and pain tolerance in a healthy adult sample from two regions of the country of Croatia: the island of Korcula and city of Split. Methods: A total of 1,322 participants were enrolled from the Island of Korcula (n = 824) and the city of Split (n = 498). Participants completed a self-reported personality measure Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and pain catastrophizing questionnaire Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), followed by a mechanical pain pressure threshold and tolerance test. We have explored the mediating role of catastrophizing in the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity. Results: The results showed that pain catastrophizing partially mediated the relationship between neuroticism and pain intensity, suggesting the importance of pain catastrophizing in increasing vulnerability to pain. The results also indicated gender-related differences, marked by the higher pain threshold and tolerance in men. Conclusions: This study adds to the understanding of the complex interplay between personality and pain, by providing a better understanding of such mechanisms in healthy adults.

Daily Functioning in Chronic Pain: Study of Structural Relations with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Pain Intensity, and Pain Avoidance

  • Cho, Sung-Kun;Heiby, Elaine M.;McCracken, Lance M.;Moon, Dong-Eon;Lee, Jang-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2011
  • Background: This study aimed to evaluate processes from the mutual maintenance model in relation to daily functioning in patients with both chronic pain and a history of a traumatic experience. The mechanism illustrated the structural relations for daily functioning among pain intensity, hyperarousal, re-experiencing, trauma avoidance, and pain avoidance. Methods: Archival data (N = 214) was used for this study and data were analyzed for 142 chronic pain patients reporting a traumatic experience and seeking treatment at a tertiary pain clinic in Korea. Results: The results indicated that pain intensity, hyperarousal, and pain avoidance had significant direct effects on daily functioning. Also, pain intensity showed significant indirect effects on daily functioning through hyperarousal and pain avoidance; and hyperarousal through pain avoidance. Conclusions: Results suggest a direct contribution of high levels of pain, hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD, and pain avoidance behaviors to reduced daily functioning. Also, elevated pain as reminders of the trauma may trigger high levels of hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD. Subsequently, avoidant coping strategies may be used to minimize pain so that the trauma would not be re-experienced, thus inhibiting the activation of hyperarousal symptoms of PTSD. However, prolonged use of such strategies may contribute to decline in daily functioning.

Chronic Pain Control of SCI Patients after Cervical Epidural Block -Case report on 2 cases- (경부 경막외 차단에 의한 척수손상 환자의 만성 통증 조절 -2예 보고-)

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Sung, Choon-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 1992
  • With the medical progress that has given spinal cord injured(SCI) individuals greater longevity and better overall health, chronic pain is emerged as major challenge in treating this population. According to past reports, estimates of prevalance of severe/disabling chronic pain in SCI patients have ranged from 18% to 63%. In etiologies of chronic pain in SCI patients, psychic or psychogenic pain categories should be included and more recent data have demonstrated that the persistant pain is directly related to higher levels of psychosocial distress and impairment. Recently, neurophysiological classification of the SCI pain syndrome into three etiologic groups(a; mechanical pain, b; radicular pain, c; deafferentation pain) is more frequently adopted for the classification of chronic SCI pain syndrome. The deafferentation pain is most common of the pain syndromes associated with SCI. After cervical epidural anesthesia for the surgical intervention of decubitus ulcer on the hip of two SCI patients, there were much reduction of existing chronic deafferentation character pain.

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